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Full text of "Michigan manual of freedmen's progress;"

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Michigan Manual 



of 



Freedmen's Progress 



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Compiled By 

FRANCIS H. WARREN 

^JJi^. Secretary of 

Freedmen's Progress Commission 



Authorized By Act 47. Public Acts 1915. 
DETROIT, MICHIGAN 

1915 






CO))y A. 



0^ 



/ 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 




Si>ldier8' and Sailors' Monument at Campus Martius. Detroit, Showing the Figrure 
of a Negro Woman Crowning the Soldiers and Sailors with Wreaths. Represent- 
ing Gratitude for Emancipation Inspired by Sojourner Truth. 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 



CONTENTS. 

Pages. 

Officers of Freedmen's Progress Commission 6-18 

Biographical sketches of Commission 30-33 

Delegates to Lincoln Jubilee, Chicago 19-20 

Editor's Preface 21-27 

The Negro in Michigan. Historical sketch 34-36 

Alphabetical List of Exhibitors 37-42 

Afro-Americans Engaged in Professional Pursuits 45-83 

Afro-Americans in Politics 85-96 

The Michigan Negro in Business 97-127 

Afro- American Organizations in Michigan 129-145 

Negro Home and Property Owners 147-215 

Honor Roll of Negro Volunteers in Civil War, 1861-1865 217-256 

Resolutions in Honor of Late Thaddeus W. Taylor 258 

Occupations of Afro-Americans 259-314 

Chapter on Mortality 315-358 

Negro Mortality in Detroit 338-340 

Appendix — 

Michigan Day Program 361 

Address of Gov. Woodbridge N. Ferris 362.371 



FREEDMEN'S TROGRESS 




GOV. FERKIS 



6 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Officers of Freedmen's Progress Com- 
mission, Organized April 21, 1915 

Members of Commission. 
Oscar \V. Baker, President, Shearer Bros. Bldg., Bay City. 
Wm. Iv. Roberts, Vice-President. 
Wilmot A. Johnson. 

Mary E. McCoy, Field Agent Eastern Michigan. 
Charles A. Warren. 
L, Margaret Williams. 

Ellsworth L. Curtis, Field Agent Western Michigan. 
S. Henri Browne. 

Francis H. Warren, Secretary, 325 Broadway Market Bldg., 
Detroit, Michigan. 

Executive Committee. 
Wilmot A. Johnson. Chairman, Box 405, Lansing, Mich. 
Wm. K. Roberts, Vice-President. 
L. Margaret Williams. 
Chas. A. Warren. 
S. Henri Browne. 
Oscar W. Baker, President. 
Francis H. Warren, Secretary. 

Honorary Members. 

Woodbridge N. Fei'ris, Governor. 

Edgar A. Planck, Senator. 

Fred B. Wells, Representative. 

James D. Jerome, Chairman House Committee, State Affairs. 

Fred L. Wood worth, Chairman Senate Committee, State 

Affairs. 
Dana H. Hinkley, Chairman House Committee on Ways and 

Means. 

Honorary Vice-Presidents. 

Allen, John W., Lansing. 
Ames, Dr. James W., Detroit. 
Anderson, John B., Detroit. 
Anderson, William H., Detroit. 
Atwood, Frederick S., Saginaw. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 

Baker, James II., Bay City. 
Banks;, Oliver, Detroit. 
Beeler, John, Detroit. 
Bradby, Kev. II. L., Detroit. 
Bell, J. A. F., Laiisiug. 
Blackwell, Mrs. Anna, Kalamazoo. 
Barnes, Kobert C, Detroit. 
Campbell, Charles A., Lansing. 
Carr, Eev. George W., Lansing. 
Chappee, Biruee, Detroit. 
Cleage, Dr. A. B., Kalamazoo, 
Cole, Daniel, Detroit. 
Cole, Mrs. Maggie Porter, Detroit. 
Cole, Mrs. Mary, Detroit. 
Cole, William E., Detroit. 
Collins, Walter G., Lansing. 
Craig, Horace E., Lansing. 
Cross, William, Bay City. 
Dalton, Jerome, Detroit. 
Davis, Gabriel, Detroit. 
Dungey, Andrew W., Lansing. 
Edwards, Rev. W., Kalamazoo. 
Edwoods, Cornelius, Bay City. 
Ernest, F. William, Detroit. 
Evans, Mr. Charles, Kalamazoo. 
Evans, Rev. Joseph M., Detroit. 
Everett, Rev. Peter, Lansing. 
Fairfax, Daniel, Bay City. 

Goodrich, Wallace L., Saginaw. 

Green, Mrs. Annie Glover, Detroit. 

Harris, Emerson, Kalamazoo. 

Harris, James E., Detroit. 

Harrison, Charles, Bay City. 

Henderson, Rev. J. M., Detroit. 

Henry, George, Saginaw. 

Howard, Mrs. Carrie, Detroit. 

Hawkins, Miss E. Fannie, Detroit. 

Jackson, John B., Bay City. 

Jarvis, Joseph W., D.D., Lansing. 



8 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Jeffrey, Komain, Detroit. 
Johnson, Dr. A. H., Detroit. 
Johnson, Dr. H. Peyton, Detroit. 
Johnson, Rev. T. C, Kalamazoo. 
Jones, Preston, Detroit. 
Kemp, William P., Detroit. 
Kersey, John, Bay City. 
Lester, Benj., Detroit. 
Miller, William, Bay City. 
Miller, W. S., Lansing. 
Nelson, Mrs. Sallie B., Detroit. 
Owens, Miss Lucile, Detroit. 
Page, William T., Detroit. 
Parks, Harry, Kalamazoo. 
Parks, Taylor, Bay City. 
Pelham, Benjamin B., Detroit. 
Pelham, Miss Meta, Detroit. 
Phillips, Mr. Joseph, Kalamazoo. 
Pierce, Lewellyn S., Lansing. 
Powell, William A., Bay City. 
Preston, Madame Frances E., Detroit. 
Proctor, Mrs. Mary E., Detroit. 
Richards, Miss Fannie, Detroit. 
Bobbins, Henry B. Wade, Ann Arbor. 
Bobbins, John, Kalamazoo. 
Roman, James F., Bay City. 
Roxborough, Charles A., Detroit. 
Salpaugh, James B., Lansing. 
Shelton, Dr. Wm. P., Detroit. 
Small, Mrs. Eppie, Kalamazoo. 
Smedley, George E., Detroit. 
Smith, Bimey, Detroit. 
Stafford, Wallace, Kalamazoo. 
Stafford, Mrs, Delia, Kalamazoo. 
Stowers, Walter H., Detroit. 
Tate, William, Lansing. 
Taylor, Miss B. Bernice, Detroit. 
Thompson, E., Kalamazoo. 
Thompson, James G., Lansing. 
Thompson, Leonard C, Detroit. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 

Thomit!>(in, ^Yilliam O., Lausiug. 
Tomlinson, William J., Detroit. 
Walker, George C, Bay City. 
Warsaw. T. D.. Dclroii. 
^^"asllin^t<)I^ Fostor. 15;iy ("iiy. 
Webb, Charles R., Detroit. 
White, Charles T., Bay City. 
Williams, Charles E., Detroit. 
Williams, Henry A., Kalamazoo. 
Willis, Elijah, Detroit. 
Willis, Robert J., Detroit. 



10 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




Oscar W. Baker. President. 



FREEDMEN'S I»ROGRESS 



11 




William Ross Roberts, Vice-President. 



12 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




Francis H. Warren, Secretary. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 




Lulu Margaret Williams. 



14 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




Charles A. Warren. 



FREEDMEN'S PUOGRESS 



15 




Mary E. McCoy, Field Agent. 



16 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




Wilmot A. Johnson. Chairman of Executive Committee. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



17 




Elsworth L. Curtis, Field Agent. 



18 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




Harriet V. Dixon, Official Stenographer Freedmen's Progress Commission. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 19 1 

I 

Delegates to Lincoln Jubilee. j 

The followiug- persous were appoiuted Delegates by Gov. " 

Woodbiidge N. Ferris to the National Half Century Anniver- j 

sary of Negio Freedom and Lincoln Jubilee at Chicago, 111., i 

August 22n(l to Sept. 10th, 11)15 : | 

Allen, John W., I'Jl'O W. Allegan, Lansing. j 

Allen, William, Union, K. F. D. j 

Ames, Dr. J. W., 831 Frederick Ave., Detroit. ; 

Archer, Henry L., Cassopolis, K, F. D. 1. | 

Artis, Mathe\Y T., Cassopolis, R. F. D. 3. | 

Baker, Oscar W., 305 Shearer Bros., Bay City. | 
Bagnall, Rev. R. W., 329 St. Antoiue St., Detroit. 

Bradby, Rev. R. L., 103 Mullet St, Detroit. j 

Brown, Charles, 511 East Frank St., Kalamazoo. j 

Browne, Rev. S. Henri, Oil Franklin St. S. E., Grand Rapids. | 

Buckingham, Josie, Cassopolis, R. F. D. 12. ' 

Byrd, Abuer, Cassopolis. • 

Case, Herbert, 412 Webb St., Jackson. j 

Clark, Rev. Frank E., Whittaker. i 
Collier, Charles, 107 Baird St., Benton Harbor. 
Curtis, E. L., 704 Cass St., Niles. 
Decker, Joseph. 

Dickerson, Dr. John H., 307 Washington St., Ypsilanti. , 
Dungill, Rev. J. A., 523 Walbridge St., Kalamazoo. 

Evans, John. i 

Evans, John J., 403 Maple St., Battle Creek. ^ 

Evans, Rev. Jos. M., 100 Napoleon St., Detroit. i 

Ford, J. C, 550 Jefferson Ave, Grand Rapids j 

Foster, Carrie, 271 Fox St., Battle Creek. ] 
Gaskin, Wm. W., Jackson. 
Haley, Paul, 140 Clay St., Battle Creek. 
Harris, W. Q., Cassopolis, R. F. D. 2. 

Hayes, Mrs. Carrie, 221 Harriet St., Ypsilanti. . 

Henderson, Rev. Jas M., 140 Euclid Ave., Detroit. j 
Houston, Mrs. George W., 341 Maple St., Detroit. 
Jefferson, Thos., 1020 Sigsbee St., Grand Rapids. 

Johnson, Wilmot A., Box 405, Lansing. ' 
Kemp, Wm. P., Editor of "The Leader," Detroit. 
Lawson, Cornelius, Cassopolis, R. F. D. 2. 



20 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

McCoy, Mrs. Mary E., 180 Eowena St., Detroit 

Mahony, George, Decatur. 

Morgan, E. Y., Boyne City. 

Morgan, Mrs. Minnie B., 209 S. Chestnut, Lansing. 

Marshall, Mrs. Mayme, 415 Ransom St., Kalamazoo. 

Outland, Samuel, Three Rivers. 

Patterson, John W., 94 Clay St., Battle Creek. 

Pendlton, Mrs. Adela, 575 Jefferson Ave., Grand Rapids. 

Pettiford, Rev. Lewis, 137 East Frank St., Kalamazoo. 

Poole, Alphaeus R., 337 Wesson Ave., Detroit. 

Ray, Sergeant A. W., 308 Ridge St., Sault Ste. Marie. 

Rider. Wm., 509 Church St., St. Joseph. 

Roberts, W. R., 1214 Allegan St., Lansing. 

Simpson, Eli, Decatur. 

Sims, Mrs. Grace, 649 Jackson St., Grand Rapids. 

Smith, Mrs. C. S., 35 Alexandrine Ave., Detroit. 

Stewart, Thomas, Kalamazoo. 

Thompson, Wm. O., 1025 Allegan, Lansing. 

Van Dyke, Fred, Three Rivers. 

Warren, C. A., Cassopolis. 

Warren, Francis H., 325 Broadway Market Bldg,, Detroit. 

Williams, Mrs. Henry, 720 Parker St., Kalamazoo. 

Wilson, M. Ormie, St. John. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 21 

PREFACE. 

When Thomas Wallace Swan, Secretary of the Illinois 
Freedmen's Progress Commission, induced the friends of Afro- 
Americans in that great state to secure the i)assage of a bill 
with a sufficient appropriation to hold a jubilee and Half Cen- 
tury Anniversary in commemoration of the great work accom- 
plished by the world's greatest humanitarian, Abraham Lin- 
coln, a peculiarly fitting accomplishment was effected. 

The celebration of fifty years of freedom for the former 
Xegro slaves of this nation marks an epoch in the history of 
our country that holds much for the future good of our nation. 
True it is that on the surface there appears to have been a 
growth of hostility to Negro Freedom, not so much because 
giving the Negro his freedom was an economic failure, nor yet 
because there remains in the minds of the people at large, any 
idea that slavery for black men was preferable to the freedom, 
or rather the partial freedom that they now enjoy, but this 
apparent growth of hostility to the Negro that has been empha- 
sized in recent years by numerous measures of legislation pro- 
posed against him, is more the result of the fact that the daily 
press, when chronicling crimes of colored men almost uni- 
formly set up the racial character in large type of Negro crim- 
inals, and it has come to pass that in a great majority of 
instances when the term ''Negro" is used in news matter, it 
refers to the criminal Negro and not to that vast bulk of black 
people who are making good and pursuing the even tenure of 
their way. Ordinarily, on the other hand, when many of the 
newspapers mention anything commendable about a black man, 
his racial character is not mentioned, and in at least one 
instance where a black woman was assaulted and robbed by a 
white man in Michigan, no mention was made of the fact that 
the woman was a Negro while in the same article a colored 
robber w'ho had assaulted and robbed a white woman was re- 
ferred to in bold face type as a ''Negro." 

Another instance illustrating how the press emphasizes the 
racial character of black criminals and sujtpresses the racial 
character of black persons performing good deeds was shown 
in the campaign of the Old News Boys of the City of Detroit 
last December, for funds to aid the Oood Fellows Club in buy- 



22 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

ing Christmas presents for the poor and needy. Out of a list of 
some thirty Old News Boys, who had become prominent and 
wealthy citizens, there were included six Negroes who stood on 
the busy street corners of the city on an appointed day and 
sold newspapers for the benefit of the Good Fellows Fund. 
Some twenty articles appeared in the daily press of the City of 
Detroit mentioning some, or all of those Old Newsboys. The 
names of these NegToes were there, but no one could tell from 
reading the article that any Negro had any part in raising 
those funds for charity, but in the same edition of these papers 
or in nearly all of them, appeared the "Negro" in headlines 
over some news item of a criminal act. The racial character 
of the bad Negro was fully expressed ; the racial character of 
the good Negro was fully suppressed ; therefore the effect and 
result has been a seemingly growing hostility to colored people 
bcause of the fact that in reading the daily press the average 
white man wall conclude that there are no good Negroes, that 
all are bad and should be shunned. 

While this has been almost a universal rule with the daily 
papers, there are a few notable exceptions to the rule. The 
ratio is shown by the following table which is compiled from 
clippings from the English-Speaking daily papers of the City 
of Detroit, from December 1st, 1914, to June 1st, 1915. 

Newspaper References Taken from Four English-Speaking 
Daily Papers in Detroit from Dec. 1, 1914, to June 1, 1915. 

Total number of articles mentioning "Negro" 232 

Number of articles referring to Negro criminals 139 

Number of articles referring to prejudice and discrimination 35 
Number of articles referring to Ex-champion Jack Johnson 22 

Number of articles commendatory of Negroes 36 

It will be seen by this table that out of a total of 232 arti- 
cles in which the Negro racial character of the persons is men- 
tioned, 139 articles refer to Nergo criminals; 35 articles refer 
to discrimination in various forms against Negroes; 22 articles 
refer to Jack Johnson, the defeated champion pugilist, and 3(; 
articles were commendable to the Negro. In other words, out 
of 232 articles where Ihe term ''Negro'' was mentioned, nearly 
200 of them referred to the Negro in a manner that was not 
commendable, unless those referring to Jack Johnson could be 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 2S 

SO regarded, lu '2[) published articles referring lo comuiend- 
able acts in which Negroes took part, the racial character of 
the Negro was wholly suppressed. What has occurred in 
Detroit during the six months above referred to is an index to 
the treatment accorded llic black people of this counlry by the 
daily press, especially in the large cities frcun one end of the 
nation to the other, and while it is not true in a large measure 
of the country newspapers, and there are some notable excep- 
tions in the large cities, this constant bombardment of the 
moral character of the black people has produced an apparent 
growth of hostility to the Freedmen in rccml years. S(. I say 
again that it is peculiarly fitting that an opportunity has been 
presented to us by the great State of Illinois, the Innne of the 
mighty Lincoln, to pref^ent to the world the other side of the 
story of the black man, 1(» note his progress during ihe fifty 
years of freedom he has enjoyed, from total ignorance to an 
educated race, from abjed ])overty to a ccmdition of healthful 
self-sustenance, and from vicious ignorance to a wholesome 
christian civilization, doggedly and determinedly working out 
his destiny with the means at hand, assisted and encouraged 
by those noble. God-fearing white men who can look beneath 
the surface and see some good in their black brother. 

In January, 1015, Governor Woodbridge N. Ferris called 
me into his office for a conference regarding the accomplish- 
ments of the colored people of the State of :\Iichigan. The invi- 
tation to the conference was sent through Mr. Charles A. War- 
ren, an attachee of the Governor's office. When ^^■e had pre- 
sented to the governor our statement of Negro accomplish- 
ments in this state, he declared that Michigan cmght to install 
an exhibit at the National Half (Vntury Exposition, and it was 
decided to encourage some member of the Legislature to intro- 
duce a bill 1 was asked to prepare. In February I again went 
to Lansing with the bill prepared to present to SenaK.r Edgar 
A. rianck and Kepresentative Frederick B. Wells, with an 
explanatory statement rc(iuesting them in iiihodu.c ii into 
the Legisljiture and seek to have it adoi)ted. The bill was 
introduced simultaneously in the Senate by Senator IManck 
and in the House of Representatives by Kepi'f''<'"^'"'^'^' '^^'''"^' 
both of Cass County. The bill follows: 



24 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

ACT 47, PUBLIC ACTS 1915. 

Introduced by Senator Planck, March 2, 1915. 

AN ACT 
To provide for the preparation, transpoitatiou and care of a 
Michigan exhibit at the national exhibition to be held in 
connection with the half century anniversary of Nesro 
freedom, in the city of Chicago, in Angust and September, 
1915; to create a commission to manage the said exhibit; 
and to make an appropriation therefor. 
The People of the State of Michigan enact: 

1 Section 1. Wilmont A. Johnson, Mary E. McCoy and 

2 Francis H. Warren, of Wayne County; Charles A. War- 

3 ren, of Cass county; William E. Koberts, of Ingham 

4 county; Elsworth L. Curtis, of Berrien county; S. Henri 

5 Browne, of Kent county ; Margaret Williams, of Kalama- 

6 zoo county, and Oscar Baker, of Bay county ; having here- 

7 tofore been appointed by the Governor of the state of 

8 Michigan, delegates to the Half Century Anniversary of 

9 Negro Freedmen, to be held in the city of Chicago, state 

10 of Illinois, from the twenty-second day of August to the 

11 twenty-third day of September, 1915. are hereby created 

12 a commission to represent the State of Michigan at the 

13 exhibition to be held in connection with the said celebra- 

14 tion. The members of the commission, so constituted, 

15 shall serve without compensation, but shall be reimbursed 

16 for necessary and reasonable traveling, hotel and other 

17 expenses, actually and necessarily incurred in the per- 

18 formance of their duties; Provided. That the secretary of 

19 said commission shall receive such reasonable compensa- 

20 tion as said commission may determine. The commission 

21 shall elect a president and a secretary from among its 

22 members. 

1 Sec. 2. Within a reasonable time after this act takes 

2 effect, the commission shall organize by the election of a 

3 president and secretary ; a notice of the organization with 

4 the names of the i>rosident and secretary, with their signa- 

5 tures, shall be filed with Ihe state treasurer aud the audi- 

6 tor-general. 

1 Sec. 3. It shall be the dntv of Ihe conuuission to col- 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 25 

2 lect, prepare, iusjiall and (.aie lor, at said exhibition, an 

3 exhibit of iuventions and handiworli; in art, science, manu- 

4 factnre and agriculture; and to prepare a manual yhow- 

5 ing the professional, political, religious and educational 

6 achievements of citizens of this state in whole or in part of 

7 Negro descent. 

1 Sec. 4. The sum of five thousand dollars, or as much 

2 thereof as may be necessary, is hereby appropriated out of 

3 the general fund in the State Treasury, to be used in the 

4 discretion of the said commission in carrying out the pro- 

5 vision of this act. All bills shall be paid Avhen rendered 

6 upon proper vouchers, drawn by the secretary of the com- 

7 mission, countersigned by the president of said commis- 

8 sion, and approved In^ the board of state auditors. Any 

9 portion of the sum hereby appropriated which shall not be 
10 used shall remain in the general fund in the state treasury. 

1. Sec. 5. The auditor shall add to and incorporate in the 

2 state tax for the year 1915 the sum of five thousand dol- 

3 lars, to be assessed, levied and collected as other state 

4 taxes are assessed, levied and collected, and shall be cred- 

5 ited to the general fund to reimburse the same for the 

6 money hereby appropriated. 

The Bill was passed by the Legislature with only ten dis- 
sentins: votes and signed bv the Governor on the 14th dav of 
April. 191.0, notices were at once sent out by Mr. Charles A. 
Warren, vrlio had been appointed Secretary of the temporary 
organization of delegates who had previously met and organ- 
ized a tentative commission, to meet on the 21st of April, 1915. 
and effect a permanent organization. 

As the Half Centurj- Anniversary and Exposition was to 
open on the 22nd of August, the time was exceedingly short to 
gather the exhibits and information from the Afro-Americans 
of the State of Michigan, and to prepare this Manual as re- 
quired by the Act, and we therefore ask the indulgence of all 
interested persons in the State of ■Michigan for any inac- 
curacies or omissions that have been rendered necessary in 
sending the coi)y of this Manual to press in time to have it 
printed to be seen at the Exposition at Chicago. 



26 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

But for the eutliusiastic and faithful assistance of several 
public-spirited and broad-minded Afro- Americans, the work 
could not have been accomplished at all. To begin with the 
appropriation was quite meagre considering the territory to be 
covered. The Afro-American population of Michigan is scat- 
tered all over the State, from Houghton on Lake Superior to 
Monroe on Lake Erie, and in some counties only two or three 
Afro-Americans reside, while in a large number of counties, 
there are no Afro-Americans at all. The chief aid rendered us 
in preparing the Manual, of course, came from the Census De- 
I)artment in Washington in the two chapters prepared by Mr. 
Robert A. Pelham, which form the last two departments on 
"Occupations and Mortality'' respectively, found in the Manual. 
Besides the splendid aid rendered by Mr. Pelham, we received 
signal assistance from Commissioners Oscar W. Baker. L. Mar- 
garet Williams, and Elsworth L. Curtis, and no slight aid 
from Commissioners Mary E. McCoy, Charles A. Warren, Wil- 
mont A. Johnson, and William Ross Roberts. Others entitled 
to our special thanks for the splendid aid given are Miss Hattie 
Dixon, our official stenographer, who has foregone all pleasures 
since her appointment both (m week days and Sundays to help 
us complete this work. Mrs. Mabel Perkins, of Grand Rapi<ls ; 
Fred C. Allen, of Vandalia; Carrie M. Hayes, of Ypsilauti: 
Rev. Wm. M. Simpson, of Jackson; Fred S. Atwood, of Sagi- 
naw; W. O. Thompson, of Lansing, and Carrie Foster, of 
Battle Creek; Mrs. C. S. Smith, Ralph C. Owens and Howard 
.leffreys, of Detroit, Enumerators. Besides these Rev. Jose]th 
:M. Evans, of Detroit ; Mr. Henry AVilliams, of Kalamazoo, and 
Rev. Frank E. Clark, of Whittaker, rendered signal aid in ihe 
preparation of this work and in securing exhibits. 

In addition to Miss Dixon our office force consisted of 
Miss Pauline Smith, Miss Mary Grossman, Mrs. Margaret E. 
AA^arren, and Mrs. I-^mily Wormley, all of whom gave sub- 
stantial aid. 

In the short time available for completing the work it 
was impossible to enumerate every Afro-American in the State 
because of their isolati<m in country districts or ol their ab- 
sence from their residences when the enumerators called, but 
as near as we can estimate we have enumerated and listed in 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 27 

the chapters devoted to "Exhibitors" and -Home Owuers" 
fully 85 per cent of the Afro-Americans belonging to Ihe two 
classes above mentioned. 

At a meeting of the Commission held in Detroit, Jnly 24th, 
1915, it was decided to send copies of this .Mannal to each 
Member of the State Legislature, each Elective State Official, 
each Circuit Judge, to Public Libraries and each Member of 
Congress from Michigan, the purpose of which was to acfjuaint 
the leaders of thought in this commonwealth with the true 
character of the Negro people as a whole, and to provide them 
with a faithful record of their achievements and their progress 
as citizens of the commonwealth. If this puri)ose is accom- 
plished, even in part, we shall feel greatly gratified and iiilly 
compensated for the efTorts expended in lis (•oni])ilati(m. 

'R^i^ ^H^ /\i,c ^ A^ 'v^^^,-<^ . 

Secretary. 





28 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




Edgar A. Planck, Senator. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 




Fred W. Wells, Representative. 



30 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

THE COMMISSION. 

In July, 1914, Governor Woodbridge N. Ferris appointed a number 
of Michigan Afro-Americans to be delegates to the Lincoln Jubilee and 
the celebration of the Half Century Anniversary of Negro Freedom to 
be held in the City of Chicago, State of Illinois, during August and 
September, 1915. 

At the suggestion of Governor Woodbridge N. Ferris, Mr. Chas. A. 
Warren, one of the delegates so appointed, who is attached to the 
office of the Governor, sent an invitation to each of the delegates to 
meet in the City of Lansing in February, 1915, for the purpose of petti- 
tioning the Legislature for an appropriation to provide for a Michigan 
exhibit to be installed in the Chicago Exposition of Freedmen's Pro- 
gress to be held in connection with the said Lincoln Jubilee. 

A meeting was held at the A. M. E. Church in Lansing on the 23rd 
day of February, 1915. Those present were Chas. A. Warren, Wilmot 
A. Johnson, Wm. R. Roberts, Ellsworth L. Curtis, Mary E. McCoy and 
Francis H. Warren. Responses had been received from L. Margaret 
Williams, of Kalamazoo, Rev. S. Henri Browne, of Grand Rapids and 
Oscar W. Baker, of Bay City. All of these were named in the proposed 
bill drafted by Attorney Francis H. Warren, which was submitted to 
Senator Planck, Representative Wells and Governor Ferris and the 
delegates effected a temporary organization for the purpose of pushing 
the bill and securing petitions from the people interested, to obtain 
favorable action by the Legislature. Several members of the Com- 
mission addressed the Legislature Committees from time to time in 
favor of the bill and it was duly passed by the Legislature and signed 
by the Governor on the 14th day of April, 1915. 

The persons named in the bill as Commissioners from the State of 
Michigan met at the A. M. E. Church in the City of Lansing, April 21st, 
and effected a permanent organization by electing Oscar W. Baker, of 
Bay County, as President, and Francis H. Warren, of Wayne County, as 
Secretary. Wm. Ross Roberts was elected Vice-President, Mary E. Me 
Coy, Field Agent for Eastern Michigan, Ellsworth L. Curtis, Field 
Agent for Western Michigan and Wilmot A. Johnson, Chairman of the 
Executive Committee. Thus equipped, the Commission started in its 
labors of collecting and preparing exhibits of Afro-Amercan progress 
from the State of Michigan and also to prepare and publish a Mich- 
igan Manual, showing the progress of the Afro-American people of 
this state. Following is a brief sketch of the personnel of the Com- 
mission: 

Baker, Oscar W., is a native of Bay City, Mich., and a product 
of the public schools of that city, completing his education as an at- 
torney-at-law in the University of Michigan. He enjoys an enviable 
reputation for both ability and integrity, not only in his home city, but 
throughout the state. He is still a young man and it is expected he will 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 31 

be called upon as time passes, to till more and more of the responsible 
positions of trust, within both the gift of the people and of individual 
clients. He enjoys a lucrative practice at the Bay County Bar and the 
confidence of all who know hra, without regard to race or color. (See 
sketch under Attorneys-at-Law.) 

Roberts, Wm. Ross, is a native of Michigan, being born in Van 
Buren County 46 years ago and now living in Lansing, Ingham County, 
at 1214 Allegan St. Mr. Roberts has received a high school education 
and became exceedingly proficient in writing. He is also a portrait 
artist of high ability. The fine quality of his penmanship is frequently 
called into service in many ways and for several years past, he has en- 
grossed the diplomas issued by the Michigan Agricultural College. 
From 1901 to 1905, Mr. Roberts was a clerk in the office of the Secre- 
tary of State. For four years succeeding 1905, he was a clerk in Gov. 
Warner's oflfice, after which he accepted the position as clerk in the 
office of the Board of State Auditors. He resigned this position in 
September, 1913, to accept a clerkship with the State Board of Cor- 
rections and Charities and the Michigan State Penology Commission. 
One of the exhibits listed with the Michigan Commission is a portrait 
of Gov. Ferris' drawn by Commissioner Roberts. 

Johnson, Wilmot A., is a native of Richmond, Va., the date of his 
birth being Feb. 17, 1852. He removed to Chatham, Ont., with his 
parents, where he was partially educated. Came to Michigan in 1864, 
and has lived in the City of Detroit since that year. He graduated 
from Prof. Dowell's Business College. Mr. Johnson has always been 
active in politics and was appointed clerk in the office of the Wayne 
County Treasurer under the Hon. Alex. I. McLeod. Subsequently be- 
came a deputy sheriff and served under both Sheriff Littlefield and 
Collins, after which he was appointed to a clerkship in the office of 
the Board of Assessors. For the past 16 years Mr. Johnson has been 
a clerk in the Auditor General's Department at Lansing, where he is 
still employed. He is still a bachelor. 

McCoy, Mary Eieanora Delaney, born at Lawrenceburg, Ind., Jan. 
7, 1846, in an underground railroad station. She was the daughter of 
Jacob C. and Eliza Ann Delaney. Mrs. McCoy did not have the ben- 
efit of a school education, though she did attend for a time a Freed- 
men's school at St. Louis, Mo. She is the wife of the noted inventor, 
Elijah McCoy, to whom she was married on Feb. 25, 1873. She is a 
charter member of the noted 20th Century Club of Detroit, which is 
composed of the best known women of Michigan's metropolis. The 
public spirited character of Mrs. McCoy may be shown by -the numer- 
ous organizations in which she has been most active. She was one of 
the organizers of the Phyllis Wheatley Home for aged colored women 
and is now Vice-President of that corporation. She has maintained the 
McCoy Home for colored children and state organizer and Vice-Presi- 
dent of the Federated Colored Women's Clubs of Michigan, is Vice- 



32 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

President of the Lydian Association of Detroit, and member of the 
National Association for the Advancement of Colored people, Guiding 
Star Chapter O. E. S.; of the Willing Workers; of the King's Daughters, 
besides which she is an active church worker, being a member of the 
A. M. E. Church. She also has been identified with the Women's Suf- 
frage Movement and was a flagbearer in the great parade at Wash- 
ington in 1913, preceding the inauguration of President Wilson. 

Williams, Lula Margaret Roberts, is a native of St. Joe County, 
Michigan. Now resides with her husband at 720 Parker St., Kalama- 
zoo. Mrs. Williams is a high school graduate and also a graduate of 
the Indiana State Normal College. She taught in the public schools 
of Lafayette and Columbus, Ind., for several years and in Haines In- 
dustrial and Normal School at Augusta, Ga. In June, 1906, she was 
married to Henry A. Williams, of Kalamazoo, where they now live and 
whose home is cheered by two children. Mrs. Williams has been 
active in women's club work in her home city and chiefly through her 
efforts the Dorcas Club and Let Us Be Friends Club were organized. 

Warren, Chas. Augustus. Born in Saginaw 1872, and at the age 
of three, removed to Windsor, Ont., with his parents, where he received 
his earlier school training. In 1882 he removed to Port Huron, where 
he continued school for a time and then lived with his parents in Grand 
Rapids. While living in this city, he entered the Michigan Agricultural 
College at Lansing and became a professor in horticulture. Was en- 
gaged as Professor of Horticulture at Tuskegee, Ala. In 1902, Mr. 
Warren returned to Michigan and settled in Cass County, where he 
engaged in farming. When Governor Ferris assumed office in 1913, 
he appointed Mr. Warren to a clerkship in his office, where he is still 
engaged, and from whence he directed his efforts in organizing the 
delegates to the Lincoln Jubilee at Chicago to become active in se- 
curing Legislative aid for a Michigan exhibit, in which he was fully 
successful. In 1902 he married Miss Edna Harris, of Cass County. 

Curtis, Ellsworth L., is a native of Berrien County and was edu- 
cated in the public schools of that county and of Niles. Mr. Curtis is 
one of the most enthusiastic of the Commissioners. In private busi- 
ness he is a dealer in nursery stock and supplies the farmers of south- 
western Michigan with fruit trees and shrubs. He has always been 
active in politics in his part of the state, although never holding any 
public offices of consequence. When made a delegate to the Lincoln 
Jubilee, he was one of the first to become active in organizing the del- 
egates for the purpose of boosting a Michigan exhibit. His efforts 
have been rewarded by being made Chief Field Agent in collecting and 
forwarding the exhibits from the State of Michigan. 

Browne, Rev. S. Henri. Shortly after the organization of the 
Freedmen's Progress Commission in which Rev. Browne gave material 
assistance, he accepted a call to a Baptist Charge near Cincinnati, 
Ohio, and left the state permanently to assume his new charge. Rev. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 33 

Browne has declined to furnish any information regarding himself 
and it is not available to the compiler of this manual. 

Warren, Francis H., was born at Sarnia, Ont., Sept. 3, 1864. At 
the age of four, he removed to Saginaw with his parents, where he re- 
ceived his early education in the public schools. Later attended school 
at Reading Mich., where he went to live with Dr. Thomas, with a view 
to studying medicine. Graduated from the 8th grade to the high school 
9th grade, but was called from school to aid in supporting the family 
before completing his high school course. He became a newsboy in 
Saginaw and learned the trade of plastering with his father. Later 
took up painting with John J. Prest in Detroit, and this occupation not 
agreeing with his health, he accepted work as a waiter in the old 
Russell House, which has recently been displaced by the Pontchartrain. 
During the time he worked as a waiter and later as a pullman porter, 
he traveled all over the United States and Canada, finally settling in 
Mackinac Island, where he took up the barber business and became 
quite successful in that line. In 1894 he branched out into a laundry 
and restaurant business at Mackinac Island and later in St. Ignace, 
and while thus engaged, he took up the study of law with a corres- 
pondence school. Becoming more and more interested in the legal 
profession, he came to Detroit in the fall of 1899 and entered the De- 
troit College of Law at the age of 35. He was admitted to the Mich- 
igan Bar in 1903 with his law class and immediately accepted a posi- 
tion in the County Treasurer's office under the late Fred S. Snow. Mr. 
Warren has been quite active in politics for many years, his efforts 
being chiefly for public ownership of public utilities and other eco- 
nomic reforms. As attorney for the Detroit branch of the National 
Association for the Advancement of Colored people, he has prosecuted 
many cases of race discrimination. He was for nine years the editor 
and publisher of the Detroit Informer, in which work he was ably as- 
sisted by Margaret E., his wife. Mr. Warren is one of the few of 
Michigan Afro-Americans who braved the criticism of his people and' 
became affiliated with the Democratic party, with the hope of securing 
more favor from that organization for the colored people and of stifling 
the opposition of such men as Tillman, Vardaman et al. He entered 
the active practice of law in 1904 and occupied a suite of offices at 325 
Broadway Market Building at Detroit. 



34 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

The Negro in Michigan 

Many interesting incidents have been mentioned arising from the 
presence, first in the territory from which the State of Michigan was 
formed, and second, as residents and citizens of this great northern 
commonwealth, of persons of mixed or of full Negro blood. 

We find in such records as are available mention of a "black man 
who was very pious" in the latter part of the 18th century and several 
instances in the early part of the 19th century where slaves were 
brought to Michigan territory are mentioned. 

Negro immigration to Michigan in appreciable numbers began in 
the decade between 1830 and 1840 and assumed largest proportions 
just prior to the Civil War. The Imigrants consisted of "Free" Negroes, 
i. e. manumitted slaves or their children, also the Negro children of 
white women. The enumeration of home owners has revealed several 
colored decendants of Southern white women, born free because of the 
anti bellum Slave State law that the child followed the condition of 
the mother. These were supplemented by runaway slaves who were 
aided to freedom by the famous "Underground Railway." 

The Negroes became so numerous in the fifties that considerable 
hostility began to be manifested and we are told by Mr. Geo. Water- 
fall, one of Detroit's oldest pioneer citizens, that the Negro population 
of Detroit in 1861 was about 500. Prior to that time. Southern masters 
in search of runaway slaves had been mobbed in Detroit and made to 
leave without their prey, but during the progress of the Civil War the 
Pro Negro sentiment changed and at least one anti-Negro riot in that 
^ity is recorded. 

When the Secretary of War authorized Governor Austin Blair to 
raise one regiment of Negro Volunteers in 1863, Negroes flocked to 
Detroit from all parts of the State and probably some came from Can- 
ada, and soon filled the regiment with 1,500 black volunteers. This 
regiment acquitted itself in excellent fashion during the remainder of 
the War and 173 additional black volunteers were mustered in at De- 
troit and assigned to different regiments during the progress of the 
War. A complete roster of these black heroes is published in a subse- 
quent chapter of this manuel. 

Among the early decisions of the Michigan Supreme Court may be 
found an interesting decision regarding the legal status of the Negro 
as a voter. The case went up from Detroit where the Negro, a man of 
very light complexion, had been denied the right to vote. The de- 
cision followed the Ohio ruling .on the same subject, holding substan- 
tially that a Negro followed the condition of his father and where an 
individual possessed a preponderance of white blood, he was to be 
regarded as white and therefore a voter. After the war, and especially 
after the 15th Amendment to the U. S. Constitution was adopted the 
progress of Michigan's Afro-American citizens has been rapid and cer- 
tain. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 35 

The chapter on Occupations furnished by Mr. Robert A. Pelham, 
found in another part of this mauuel together with the chapter devoted 
to the Michigan Negro in Business clearly shows the rapid rise of the 
Freedmen during the past fifty years and is full of interest. 

The first organization effected to better the condition of Michi- 
gan's Afro-Americans occurred on October 8, 9, in 1860, when a con- 
vention of colored men met at Battle Creek, Michigan, for the purpose 
of petitioning the Legislature for the right of suffrage, to consider the 
intellectual and moral status of the colored people and to devise means 
to better their condition. This convention elected a permanent com- 
mittee of the following persons: 

James Underwood, Washtenaw county; George W. Lewis, Lenawee; 
Wm. Casey, Calhoun; George W. Artis, Cass; Josiah Henson, Jackson; 
Erwin Jeffreys, Van Buren; T. Wilson, Ingham; Mr. Jenkins, Branch; 
D. Roberts, Kent; T. J. Martin, Cass; E. Owens, Kalamazoo; George 
De Baptist, Wayne; E. H. Wilson, Kent; John Freeman, Ann Arbor; 
Walter Duke, White River; Mr. Herod, Ionia. 

Mr. T. J. Martin, of Dowagiac, was elected chairman of the con- 
vention, and this committee had power to call a convention of Michi- 
gan Afro-Americans any time they deemed it necessary to take that 
step. 

Many of this committee had died Avhen in 1884 Mr. Martin con- 
sulted the living members and called a convention w^hich was held 
March 25, 1884, at the same city, at which resolutions were adopted 
in appreciation of Justice Harlan's dissenting opinion of the United 
States Supreme Court's decision on "The Civil Rights Act," and also 
resolutions requesting the Republican party to send a colored delegate 
at large to the Republican National Convention at Chicago in June. 
This convention elected a standing committee composed of the fol- 
lowing persons, many of whom are still living: 

Walter Y. Clark, W^alter H. Stowers, of Wayne; R. Wilson, Lena- 
wee; John J. Evans, Calhoun; Joseph C. Ford, Kent; J. H. Baker, Bay; 
Charles W. Ellis, Saginaw; J. Madry, Cass; J. H. Fox, Washtenaw; 
Frank M. Thurman, Jackson; George Curtis, Berrien; J. M. Artis, 
Hillsdale; N. Hamilton, Kalamazoo; L. R. Roberts, Van Buren; W. H. 
Deigh, Ingham. 

In 1876 a Negro of the full blood, John Wilson, was elected to the 
office of Coroner of Wayne County by the Democratic party. Wilson 
was a musician and boss barber, operating a ten-chair shop on Gris- 
wold street near Jefferson in the City of Detroit, and was probably the 
first Negro to be elected to public office in the State of Michigan. 
Closely following Wilson in office was Thomas D. Owens, also elected 
Coroner of Wayne County on the Democratic ticket. Mr. Owens was 
also a boss barber and one of Detroit's oldest colored citizens, having 
settled in that city in 1845. 

In the early eighties, Negro attorneys appeared before the Detroit 
courts, Thomas Crisup being the first, quickly followed by D. Augustus 



36 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Straker, the latter was a University graduate and seemed to become a 
popular idol of the white people, many commendatory references being 
made about his court work by the daily papers. He was elected Circuit 
Court Commissioner for two terms, in the nineties and after the adop- 
tion of the primary laws was nominated as a delegate to the State 
Constitutional Convention in 1908. He was a rock-ribbed Republican of 
the old school. 

In ascertaining the present condition of Michigan's Afro-Americans 
a question blank was prepared seeking information as follows: 
Nativity of the person enumerated; length of residence in Michigan; 
if of mixed blood their nearest white ancestor; occupation; value of 
real property owned; value of personal property owned; character 
and value of Exhibits offered; extent of education; whether married or 
single, and number of children. 

Only persons owning real estate, producers of something to exhibit 
or professional and business persons were enumerated with the fol- 
lowing results: 

Total number enumerated 1,496 

Natives of Michigan 485 

Natives of other States or Countries 881 

Persons having white ancestry 666 

Number of children of mixed blood 1,433 

Number of full blooded Negroes 239 

Number of children of full blood Negroes 429 

Home owners 1,207 

Owners of other lands 316 

Owners of personal property 979 

Number of exhibitors 196 

Number of professional persons 98 

Number married 1,201 

Number educated at common school or better 1,204 

Number uneducated 58 

Number of occupations in which Afro-Americans are employed. . . 152 

Value of real property $4,219,022.00 

Value of personal property 1,115,683.00 

A number of lists came in too late for tabulation. 

Out of a total of 1496 persons enumerated it will be noted that only 
905 answered the question regarding "White Ancestors," probably be- 
cause of a false modesty regarding the southern manner their white 
blood was acquired or probably because their dark complexion was so 
pronounced that they did not think it necessary to answer the question. 
But the answers given will suffice for the object sought, i. e., whether 
any inherent physical weakness can be determined as a result of a 
mixture of blood as claimed by some more or less noted physicologists. 

The table discloses 1433 children born to 666 persons of mixed 
blood and 429 born to 239 of the full blood. Some notable examples of 
the procreative powers of both classes are recorded in the files of the 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 37 

Commission. Two mixed couples in one township, both farmers, gave 
birth to 44 children with 30 of them living and healthy, both bodily 
and morally. While one couple of full Negro blood in Detroit gave 
birth to IS children, 11 of whom are living and healthy. All of the 
farmers were singly born, while the latter couple gave birth to 3 sets 
of twins. 

It will be difficult to reconcile with the figures here given any idea 
of physical or mental weakness on the part of either mixed or full 
blood Negroes. One father of 22 children is the descendant of a free 
born mulatto of Kentucky and is of French, Indian and Negro extrac- 
tion. This man started as a farmer in 1890 without any capital ex- 
cept a wife and four children and a determination to succeed. Today 
his estate is valued at $30,000 and he lives in the best house in the 
township, containing 20 rooms and all modern conveniences including 
steam heat and he "owes not a dollar to any man," and this particular 
individual can neither read nor write. 

The Aliens of Cass County are all of mixed blood. "Uncle Bill," as 
Wm. Allen is affectionately called, is hale and hearty at 80 odd years 
and here we find great great grandchildren, all healthy, alert, ambitious 
and industrious citizens who measure up favorably with the best the 
Nation affords. 

Among the mixed blood Afro-Americans in Michigan are found 
descendants of one former President of the U. S., of U. S. Senators 
and Congressmen and of a leading General of the Confederate Army all 
from Southern States where inter-marriage of the races has always been 
prohibited by law, but not by practice, as the complexion of these in- 
dividuals and the stories told, plainly prove. 

The chief object of creating the Commission was to prepare and 
install a Michigan Exhibit of Freedmen's Progress at the National Half 
Century Exposition at Chicago, 111., held in connection Avith the 
celebration of the 50th anniversary of Negro Emancipation. 

From the number and character of exhibits all expectations have 
been surpassed. The 196 exhibits listed includes many highly valuable 
inventions, many beautiful w^orks of art from brush, pen and needle, 
many articles of handiwork by craftsmen and farm products of all 
description.. True we have been disappointed in listing some of Mich- 
igan's best inventions. The Dammond R. R. Signal and the Pianola; yet 
the wisdom of providing for the Michigan Exhibit and this manuel is 
amply demonstrated. A complete list of exhibitors together with the 
articles listed is here given: 

List of Exhibitors. 

Alfred, Mrs. Paul, Detroit — Embroidery centerpiece. 

Allen, Geo. W., Cassopolis — Poultry. 

Allen, Green, Vandalia — Farm products, poultry. 

Allen, Mrs. Uriah, Lansing — Raby bonnet. 

Anderson, Miss Fannie, Detroit— Fancy quilt, heir loom, age 60 yrs. 

Armstrong, Mrs., Detroit — Hand painted dishes. 



38 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Artist, T. Mathew, Cassopolis — Poultry. 

Bagnall, Robt. W., Detroit — Two books, "What Every Christian 
Should Know," "One Way Out." Solution of Race Problem. 

Banks, Oliver H., Detroit — Picture of business place. 

Barber, H. Aldine, Lansing — Paintings. 

Barber, Mrs. M. N., Lansing — Dresser scarf and cushion. 

Barnes, Mrs. R. C, Detroit — (Crochet) bed spread; theatre bag. 

Bass, Albert E., Detroit — A photo of my four-family flat. 

Barrier, Miss Hattie, Detroit^ — Framed embroidery work. 

Billups, W. S., Detroit — Photos of buildings I have built. 

Brown, Miss Allie, Kalamazoo — Handwork of fine lace. 

Brown, Charles C, Jackson — Library table. 

Brown, Margaret, Hamtramck — Silk hand bag. 

Bryant, H., Dowagiac — Garden products. 

Bryson, Mrs. McConnel, Detroit — One hand embroidered hat, trim- 
med; one hand sewed braided hat, trimmed. 

Buckingham, Wm., Cassopolis — Grocery Exhibit, poultry. 

Burgess, Theodore F., Grand Rapids — Wife's fancy work. 

Butler, Wm. Powers, Detroit — Picture designs. 

Carpender, Miss Daisy, Detroit — Fancy work. 

Carter, F. Emanuel, Whittaker — Poultry. 

Caruthers, O. O., St. Joseph — Art work of plaster. 

Cockfield, Miss Margaret, Detroit — Embroidery work. 

Coker, Mr. Hiram, Vandalia — Hand made fish rod, high grade for 
casting. 

Corbin, Mrs. Thomas, Grand Rapids — Needlework. 

Cousins, Mrs. Edward, Kalamazoo — Yard hand-made fine lace. 

Clark, Mrs. Anna, Ypsilanti — Fancy hand made pillow. 

Clark, Frank E., Whittaker — Wife's art work. 

Clifford, E. P., Lansing — Jardinere pedestal and police mace. 

Craig, Redges A., Niles — Stand chair, table swing — (made when 8 
or 9 yrs, old.) 

Cromwell, David, Lansing — One novel shoe last. 

Curry, Mrs. N., Lansing — Two hand made pillow tops. 

Curtis, Elsworth L., Niles — Nur.sery stock. 

Davidson, Mrs. Hazel H., Lansing — Pillow and top. 

Davis, Adele, Detroit — Models of hair dressing on wax* figures. 

Dean, Charles, Adrian — Potatoes, poultry, canned fruit. 

DeVere, Eleanora, Detroit — Embroidery doily and centerpiece. 

Dickson, Frank M., Lansing — Cores for engines. 

Dodson, Norris A., Detroit — Candy Mfg. booth. 

Drenshaw, Abram, Flint — Cornerpiece. 

Dulcey, Miss Zithery, Detroit— Toupee. 

Dungay, George W., Cassopolis — Photo of up-to-date threshing ma- 
chine. 

Early, Mrs. Lizzie, Niles — Hand made bed spread and shams. 

Edmunds, Miss Alma, Lansing — Hand woven laundry bag. 

Ellis, Mrs. Mary V., Detroit — Canned Fruit. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 39 

Ellis, Mrs. Rufus, Grand Rapids— Needlework— Pillow, bed linen. 
Eslez, Burgess, Detroitt— Metal and glass polish. 
Evans, Mrs. Ella, Battle Creek— Hair switch. 
Evans, John J., Battle Creek— "Kill "em Quick" roach destroyer. 
Evans, Thomas B., Vandalia— Patent harness hip drap; original. 
Faulkner, Miss Barbara, Detroit — Fancy pillow. 

Fields, Mrs. Susie, Grand Rapids — Lady's crazy kiniona. 
Foster, Jessie and Elizabeth, Detroit— Fancy work, piano cover, 
table spread. 

Foster, Herbert A., Detroit— Painting, drawing, portiers, fern stand. 

Gault, Wm., Niles — Registered hogs, 4 mos. old (pair. 

Gilbert, Miss Fay, Grand Rapids — Embroidered centerpiece and 

doilie. 

Glover, Mrs. Rosalie, Detroit — Hand made shirt waist, 2 silk shirts. 

Golden, Geo. Welford, Detroit— Collection of photos, landscape. 

Graine, Mrs. Dennison, Kalamazoo — Fancy quilt. 

Grant, W. Emmett, Grand Rapids— Four pictures. 

Grayson, Sidney C., Mason — Set of photos. 

Green, Mrs. Anna L., Detroit— Hair goods. 

Green, Mrs. Anna, Detroit— Luncheon cloth. 

Green, Miss Maude, Adrian — Fancy work, china decorations. 

Gregory, Henry A., Detroit — Electrical design. 

Griffin, Alfred W., Battle Creek— New model screen door. 

Griffin, Elijah, Niles — View of farm house and stock. 

Griffin, James Marion, Detroit— Portraits, chart of penmanship. 

Griffin, Noah, Dowagiac — Live stock. 

Hacket, Mr. H. O , Lansing— Photo of house. 

Hack ley. Miss Leta, Pine Grove — Paintings. 

Haithcox, Allen G., Cassopolis — Animals. 

Haithcox, Arthur, Cassopolis — Fruit, poultry. 

Haithcock, Joseph, South Bend, Ind.— Photos of buildings I erected. 

Haithcock, Mable, Kalamazoo— Fancy work, luncheon set. 

Harris, Miss B., Detroit — Fancy work. 

Harris, A. Lincoln, Detroit — Manuscripts of plays. 

Harris, Mr. Winter J., Cassopolis— Fruit. 

Hayes, Carrie M., Ypsilanti— Hand-made slippers, crochet doilie. 

Hemsley, Miss Ethel, Detroit— Battenburg bolero jacket. 

Henderson, Miss Lorainetta, Detroit— Embroidery work. 

Hester, Emmet, Detroit— Pig, modelled and made of clay, by hand. 
Drawing. 

Higgins, Mrs. Eunice, Eaton Rapids— Fancy work, 9 photos. 

Hoggart, Louis N., Benton Harbor— Oil and crayon originals. 

Hopewell, Mrs. L. G., Lansing— Three crochet baskets. 

Hunter, Mrs. L. A., Detroit— Fancy work. 

Hurst, Mrs. L., Detroit — Embroidery work. 

Ivens, John W., Marcellus— Photo of home and Percheroii stallion. 

Jackson, John S., Detroit— Portraits, "Sojourner Truth," Lincoln; 
other portraits; landscapes; other works of art; art cane. 



^0 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Jeffries, Mrs. Pearl, Paw Paw— Hand work purse of beeds and 
seeds. 

Jennings, Mrs. Lida, Detroit — Fancy work. 

Johnson, Mrs. A. H., Detroit — Evening gown, 

Johnson, Mrs. Florence, Detroit — Embroidered pillows. 

Jones, George H., Detroit — Lightning card printing. 

Johnson, Mrs. M. M., Detroit— Fancy sewing. 

Johnson. Mrs. Hattie, Detroit — Battenburg work. 

Joiner, Miss Gladys, Grand Rapids — Embroidered pillow top. 

Jones, Wm. Henry, Ypsilanti — Fancy work. 

Jones, Mrs. Maude, Detroit — Embroidered work — Oriental weave 
towel. 

Keith, Mr. Joshua, Vandialia — Vegetables. 

Kemp, W. P., Detroit — Picture of plant; specimens of printing. 
King, Mr. S. C, Kalamazoo— Mail box made by one of children 
Ladd, Joseph, Detroit — Hand made rug; fancy work. 
Larter, Milton H., Detroit — Toilet goods. 
Lawson, Clarence E., Cassopolis — Fruit machinery. 
Lawson, Cornelius, Cassopolis — Farm products. 
Lemuel, F. J., Detroit — Fancy work. 
Lewis, Mrs. W. C, Detroit — Fancy work. 
Lomax, Eglenna C, Kalamazoo — Evening gown. 
Mass, Miss Lucy, Niles — Crochet bed spread. 
Maury, Miss Leota, Detroit — Hand painted china. 
Mclntyre, George D., Jackson— Photos; live stock. 
Miller Mrs. A., Detroit— Hand painted dishes. 
Miller, Charles W., Lansing — Foot stool. 
Miller, Mrs. M. L., Detroit — China decoration. 
Moffard, Mrs. Elizabeth, Ypsilanti — Hand-made slippers. 
Moore, Miss Mary, Detroit — Hair goods. 
Morris, Mrs. Ella, Detroit. — Hand-work lace. 
McCoy, Elijah, Detroit — Inventions. 

Nelson, Miss Grace, Grand Rapids — Embroidered table runner; 
hand painted china plate. 

Nelson, John C, Niles— Oil painting, "Fred Douglas." 

Newsome, Henry C, Vandalia — Farm products. 

Newsome, Dr. O. E., Cassopolis — Along medical lines. 

Ormsby, Mrs. Frankie, Detroit — Hand painted china. 

Parks, Mrs. Cora, Kalamazoo — Embroidered table runner. 

Payne, Claude M., Detroit — A model house. 

Perkinb, Mrs. Mabel, Grand Rapids — Centerpiece. 

Perry, Miss Laura, Detroit — Fancy work. 

Perry, Mrs. Viola, Detroit — Fancy work. 

Phelps, Mrs. Amanda, Detroit — Two rugs, 

Phelph, Mattie, Detroit— Two hand embroidered doilies, pillow top. 

Phillips, Joseph F., Kalamazoo — Poultry. 

Piersaul, Joseph, Vaun — Poultry; rugs. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 41 

Poole, Alpheus, Detroit — A record of a joint patent issued March 
7th, 1876. 

Posey, Margaret J., Jackson- Hand knit rug. 

Powell, W. A., Bay City— Two models of valve grinders. 

Powell, Mrs. W. J., Bay City — Case of human hair goods entirely of 
human hair combings. 

Preston, Frances E. (Madam), Detroit — Elecutionist ; wax fruit 
made by Mrs. IJibb. 

Ray, Sergt. A. W., Sault Ste. Marie — Penmanship. 

Redd, Mrs. Emmet, Detroit — A model gown. 

Richardson, Daniel W., Elberta — Fruit, farm products, patent hoe, 
patent Cherry picker, canned fruit. 

Richardson, Millie, Detroit — Canned fruit. 

Roberts, William Ross, Lansing — Portrait "Gov. Ferris." 

Robinson, Miss Charlotte, Detroit — Paintins::. 

Russell, Miss Nellie, Kalamazoo — Embroidered tea jacket. 

Scott, John J., Lansing — Photos of berries; old dinner horn made 
by his father. 

Scott, Raymond A., Detroit — Violin and other relics. 

Seaton, W. J., Lansing — Stone work in shape of yard vase. 

Shelton, Mrs. M. E., Detroit — Battenburg work. 

Sherman, Mrs. Wealthy, Ypsilanti — Rug. 

Simmons, Mrs. Minnie, Kalamazoo — Baked goods; 2 aprons; 
boudoir cap. 

Simpson, Miss Gertrude, Adrian — Fancy work, photos, burnt wood. 

Singleton, Albert D., Detroit — Cartoons, paintings. 

Smith, Edwin E., Grand Rapids — Sheet music; poem; railroad 
block system. 

Smith, Frank, Ypsilanti — Candymaking. 

Smith, Mrs. Kezah, Otsego — Wax work. 

Smith, Miss Nellie, Detroit — Hair switch. 

Snelling, Mr. Joseph, Kalamazoo — Harness oil and paste 

Spearman, Mack C, Detroit — Pictures of buildings I have erected. 

Stevenson, John L., Detroit — Painting of home. 

Stewart, Thomas W., Kalamazoo — Mop; game board; blue prints of 
inventions. 

Stone, Charles, Detroit — Music. 

Stowns, Mrs. W. M., Detroit — Hair goods. 

Talbert, H. M., Niles — Carved wood work, panel-s and pi|>i> rack. 

Tate, Eleanor Beatrice, Detroit — Fancy pillow shams. 

Taylor, George, Battle Creek — Crochet centerpiece. 

Taylor, Miss Henrietta, Detroit — Elmbroidery piece. 

Thompson, Mrs. Charles, Soo- Fancy work. 

Thompson, Edward, Oshtemo — Hand-made horseshoes. 

Thompson, Mrs. James G., Lansing — Centerpiece. 

Turner, Mrs. J., Detroit — Hand painted dishes: fancy work. 

Walker, Cyrus H., Lansing — Photo of brick work. 

Wallace, Prof. T., Adrian — Picture showing methods of work. 



42 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Warren, Charles A., Lansing — Poultry; farm products. 
Warren, Fred, Ypsilanti — Hand made cane. 

Warren, Francis H., Detroit^Nine bound volumes of the Detroit 
Informer, 1904-12 (Inc.) 

Watkins, Marion, Detroit — One-piece dress. 

White, Albert J., Kalamazoo — Photographs. 

White, IVIrs. Fannie, Kalamazoo — Embroidered table cover. 

Wilson, Alfred B., Niles — Dairy products; premium butter. 

Winburn, Mrs. Jane L., Grand Rapids — Embroidered centerpiece. 

Winnans, Mrs., Detroit — Canned fruit. 

Wise, Rose Poole, Detroit — Portrait in water color; pastels. 

Wormley, Emily R., Detroit — Fancy needle work. 

Young, Miss Catherine, Detroit — Fancy work. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



43 




■I. 



44 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




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FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 45 

Afro-Americans Engaged in Profes- 
sional Pursuits 

In the tables shown under the head of ihe •"Negro In Michigan," the 
Afro-Americans of this State are shown to be employed in 152 different 
occupations. Of these 16 must be classed as professional pursuits. The 
hitjhor education of Afro-Americans in Michi.sian has indeed been rapid. 
In 1880 there were only two professional men in the State. 

In the files of the Michigan Commission are found 98 persons fol- 
lowing professional occupations, 19 of w^hom are attorneys-at-law, and 
16 doctors of medicine, and all of whom have been educated in their 
professions subsequent to 1880, the older professional men having 
passed away. The following paragraphs on Michigan'.s professional 
Afro-Americans are splendidly supplemented in the Department of Oc- 
cupations in the latter part of this manual. 

Attorney s-at-Law. 

Baker, Oscar W., 223 N. Van Buren St., Bay City. Mr. Baker was 
born Aug. 30th, 1879, and is the youngest of four children of James H. 
and Mary F. Baker. At the age of 7 he met with an accident whereby 
he lost his left limb, amputated above the knee, but this did not affect 
his ambition to achieve success in the professional world. He event- 
ually graduated from the Bay City High School, Bay City Business Col- 
lege, and Law Department of the University of Michigan, class of 1902. 
He entered the law office of the Hon. L. E. Joslyn (now referee in 
bankruptcy, U. S. District Court, for the eastern district of Michigan, 
Southern Division), at Bay City, in 1902, where he has since been 
engaged in the practice of law. Mr. Baker was secretary of the Repub- 
lican County Committee for Bay County for two terms; Circuit Court 
Commissioner for Bay County, one term; is a member of the Bay City 
Board of Commerce and other institutions. In ,Iune, 1910, he married 
Miss Ida Ma,y Harrison, of Ohio, who together with their three children, 
Oscar W., Jr., Albert H. and Dorothy Florence, now comprise the fam- 
ily of our subject. He has been highly successful in the practice of 
law, color prejudice in Bay City being at a minimum. Mr. Baker's 
practice is nearly all white. He is an honorary member of the Epsilon 
Chapter of the Alpha Phi Alpha, of the University of Michigan; stock- 
holder in the Farmers' State Savings Bank, Fulton Mfg. Co. and Kuhl- 
man Electric Co., and other Bay City corporations. He is also a mem- 
ber of the Bay City Y. M. C. A., and has already accumulated a com- 
petence. In 1914 Mr. Baker was appointed a delegate to the National 
Half Century Anniversary of Negro Freedom, by Governor Ferris, and 
in 1915 was made a member of the Freedmen's Progress Commission, 
of w^hich he is the president, to install a Michigan Afro-American 
exhibit in the Exposition held in connection with said Anniversary. 

Barnes, Robert C, 207 Josephine, Detroit. Mr. Barnes was born in 
Mercer County, Ohio. After attending the public schools he graduated 



46 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




FREEDMAN'S PROGRESS 



47 



from Ada Commercial College, Ada, Ohio, and Wilberforce University. 
For a time Mr. Barnes taught school. Twenty-six years ago he came 
to Detroit and engaged in the practice of law. He is associated with 
Mr. Walter H. Stowers, who together have become one of the best 
known law firms in the State of Michigan. A wife and one child com- 
prise the family of Mr. Barnes, who lives in an elegant home at the 
address given. 

Henderson, Byron M., 210 Alfred St., Detroit. Born at Cassopolis 
and has lived in Micliigan 53 years of his life. He is a high school 
graduate and also graduate of the Chicago Union Law College. He 
commenced the practice of law in Chicago 24 years ago. Went from 
there to Oklahoma, where he was assistant U. S. District Attorney at 
Guthrie from 1893 to 1897. In 1905 he returned to Michigan, coming to 
Detroit, where he has since been engaged in the practice of law. 

Johnson, Lindsay E. A native of Mississippi and a graduate of the 
Union Academy of the City of Columbus in that state. He subse- 
quently took a seven-year course at Knoxville College, Knoxville, Tenn., 




Residence of Robert (". Barnes. 



48 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

graduating from there in 1906 with a degree of Bachelor of Arts and 
was chosen by the faculty as valedictorian of his class, an honor con- 
ferred only upon the student with the highest standing. In the same 
year Mr. Johnson came to Detroit, and in order to obtain sufficient 
money to start a law course, he put in one year working for the Pull- 
man Palace Car Co. In 1907 he entered the law course of the University . 
of Michigan, graduating fvom that institution in June, 1910, with a degree 
of Bachelor of Law. Mr. Johnson's father was a contracting bridge 
builder, which afforded a means for our subject to acquire a knowl- 
edge of the use of tools which stood him in good stead while earning 
his way to an efficient education. Receiving his "sheep skin" from 
the University of Michigan, Mr. Johnson sought to establish a law 
office in the City of Detroit. He made many fruitless attempts to 
secure an office in the business district of the city, and was finally 
forced as a last resort to take a high-priced office in the Broadway 
Market building, where he remained from July 5th, 1913, to October, 
1914, when he formed a co-partnership for the general practice of law 
with Mr. Charles H. Mahoney with offices in the old Telegraph Building 
in that city. 

Lester, Benjamin F. A native of Baltimore, Md. His father was 
George W. Lester, who for upwards of 50 years was a prosperous poul- 
try dealer in that city. Our subject was educated in the public schools 
at Baltimore and graduated from the Lincoln University, Pennsylvania, 
in 1891, with a degree of Bachelor of Arts, and later entered the Law 
Department of the University of Michigan, receiving a degree of Bache- 
lor of Law. He returned to his home city and entered the practice of 
law and also engaged in newspaper work. Came to Michigan in 1912, 
and was admitted to practice at the Wayne County Bar, at Detroit. 
He is a frequent contributor to the press and a zealous advocate of his 
people. 

McKinney, Wm. Hayes. Native of Alabama, lived in Michigan five 
years. Has a college education and graduated from the Detroit College 
of Law, class of 1915, at the age of 37, and now has his office with the 
well known firm of Barnes & Stowers in the City of Detroit. 

Lewis, C, Henri, Jr., 221 Alfred St., Detroit. Born at Munich, North 
Dakota. Educated at Virginia University. Came to Michigan in Sep- 
tember, 1909, and has since been engaged in the practice of law in 
Detroit. 

Mahoney, Charles H. Born in Decatur, Mich. Is a graduate of 
Olivet College and the Law Department of the University of Michigan. 
Admitted to the bar in 1910; entered the law office of Francis H. War- 
ren, Detroit, with whom he practiced until 1913, forming a partnership 
in that year with Lindsay Johnson with the firm name of Mahoney & 
Johnson, and now engaged in the successful practice of law in Detroit. 

Marshall, Eugene J., 415 W. Ransom St., Kalamazoo. Born in Detroit 
34 years ago, where he was educated in the public schools. He grad- 
uated from the High School, from the Law Department of the Uni- 



FREED.MEN'S PROGRESS 49 

versity of Michigan, and the University of Wisconsin and from the 
University of Chicago. Mr. Marshall is one of the best educated Afro- 
Americans in the State of Michigan and an orator of matchless ability. 
He was class orator of the University of Michigan in 1903 and won 
the second prize in the inter-state contest with six other state universi- 
ties. He also I'epresented the University of Wisconsin in the Hamilton 
Club contest between nine universities, and won first prize. He also 
represented the University of Wisconsin in a debate with the Uni- 
versity of Nebraska. The Wisconsin team won. He represented the 
University of Chicago in a debate with the Northwestern University 
in which his team was successful. Mr. Marshall also won the bronze 
medal which the Chicago Alumni Association gives annually to the 
best orator in the inter-state league. For the past seven years Mr. 
Marshall has engaged in the practice of law in the state of Michigan, 
finally settling in the City of Kalamazoo, where he now enjoys a liberal 
practice. 

Pettiford, Ira J. Is a native of Palding. Ohio, and has resuitd in 
Michigan eight years. He is a graduate of the Ohio Northern, and the 
Ohio State University and of the Detroit College of Law, class of 1908. 
His office is at 1088 Russel St., in Detroit, and because of the singular 
ability and profound knowledge as a legal advocate, he has already 
attained an enviable reputation and clientage. Mr. Pettiford is a self- 
made man, being compelled to work his way through university and 
college. 

Roxborough, Charles A., 816 Chene St., Detroit. Is a native of 
Plaquemine, La. Has resided in Michigan 17 years, and is a graduate 
of the Detroit High School and the Detroit College of Law, class of 
1914. Mr. Roxborough, although young, is active in politics, and was 
a clerk in the office of Gov. Chase S. Osborn for two years. Near the 
end of Gov. Osborn's term Mr. Roxborough received an appointment as 
Deputy Oil Inspector of the City of Detroit. In this position he acquired 
a wide acquaintance and when he graduated from the Law College in 
1914, he at once entered upon the enjoyment of a lucrative practice 
among his numerous friends. He is making good as a member of the 
Detroit Bar and has proved to be an advocate of high character and 
ability. 

Stowers, Walter H., 306 Meldrum, Detroit. Born in Owensbori.', i\\., 
and has lived in Detroit fifty years, coming here when a young lad, and 
graduated from the Detroit High School, May hews Business University 
and eventually from the Detroit College of Law, class of 1895. Mr. 
Stowers has for years taken an active part in the Republican politics 
of Wayne County and has held several political positions, including 
Deputy Sheriff, Assessor's clerk and Deputy County Clerk. He is a 
stockholder in several commercial corporations for making auto parts, 
moving picture companies and hose coupling manufacturing. He en- 
tered the practice of law after graduating from college and associated 
with Mr. Robert C. Barnes, who together have made a name for them- 
selves known throughout the state as competent attorneys. 



50 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Thompson, Leonard C, 792 Fischer, Detroit. Mr. Thompson was 
born and educated in Detroit and has always lived in that city. He is 
a graduate of the Detroit High School and the Detroit College of Law, 
class of 1905. He was employed by the Union Trust Co., as an 
abstractor and has continued said employment since his graduation. 
Mr. Thompson married a daughter of the late W. W. Ferguson, one of 
the pioneer Afro-American lawyers of the Detroit Bar. He has one 
daughter. 

Thompson, Samuel G., 311 Broadway Market Bldg., Detroit. Born in 
Washington, D. C, and educated at Howard University. Admitted to 
the Detroit Bar seven years ago, coming to Michigan from Minnesota, 
and he had previously practiced law in Washington and New York. He 
bas achieved considerable success at the Bar in Detroit. 

Warren, Francis H., 26 Grant Court, Detroit, Mich. Was educated 
in the public schools of Saginaw and Reading and a graduate of the 
Detroit College of Law. Admitted to practice by the Supreme Court of 
Michigan in 1903, and the Supreme Court of the United States in 1913, 
at Washington. (See sketch under head of Freedmen's Progress Com- 
mission.) 

Webb, Charles R., 319 W. Canfield Ave., Detroit. Born in Pittsburg, 
Pa. Lived in Michigan 43 years; educated in the public schools of 
Detroit and a graduate of the University of Michigan, Law Department. 
Mr. Webb is an expert stenographer and has for many years been 
employed in the Internal Revenue Office of the U. S. in the City of 
Detroit. He has an interesting family, consisting of a wife and six 
children. 

Williams, Charles E., 1365 McLellan, Detroit. Is a native of Michigan 
snd a graduate of the State LTniversity. Has lived in Michigan all of 
the thirty-six years of his life. He was born in 1879 at Saline in Wash- 
tenaw County and his parents were James and Mary Williams. His 
father was a native of Kentucky, where he was born a slave. He 
escaped from slavery in 1858 and changed his name from Beverly 
Johnson to that here given, as was the custom of former slaves after 
reaching places of safety for fear of detection and being returned to 
bondage. While a slave the elder Williams was taught the trade of 
cigar-making and he followed this occupation after reaching the free 
air of Michigan, finally operating a cigar factory at Saline and later 
taking up farming in Washtenaw County. For several years after 
graduation, Charles E. practiced law with Robert J. Willis in Detroit. 
About five years ago he was appointed general clerk in the Assessors' 
office in that city, in which position he has a life tenure of office under 
the new civil service law. He is a full-blood Negro. 

Willis, Robert J. 727 Holcomb, Detroit. Born in Detroit and was 
educated in the public .schools of that city. Graduated from the law 
department of the University of Michigan, class of 1886. Mr. Willis 
has been a prominent figure in tlie politics of Wayne County and has 



FREEDMEN'S TROGRESS 51 

made a competence in the practice of law. He is one of the oldest 
Afro-American members of the Wayne County Bar, and besides his 
law practice has always taken a lively interest in the welfare of Afro- 
American people and has frequently sought to have the door of oppor- 
tunity opened for Negro employment in various industrial occupations. 
He has a family consisting of a wife and four children. His son, Rob- 
ert J., Jr., is a student of the law and is following in the footsteps of his 
father. 



52 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 



Physicians and Surgeons. 

Ames, J. W. (see under Politicians). 

Beck, E. T., M. D., 155 Gratiot, Detroit. Is a native of Wabash, 
Indianna, and removed to Michigan with his parents 15 years ago. Was 
educated in the public schools of Ann Arbor and the University of 
Michigan. After graduation he came to Detroit, where he has since 
been engaged in the practice of his profession. 

Biggs, Adolphus L., M. D. Born at Charlotte. Educated in the pub- 
lic schools of Charlotte and University of Michigan. Recently moved to 
Dayton, Ohio, where he is engaged in the practice of medicine. 

Browning, Eugene, M. D., 637 Franklin, Grand Rapids. Native of 
New York; was a graduate of Lincoln University; lived in Michigan 
nine years. 

Bundy, George, M. D., 842 Seyburn, Detroit. Native of Ohio. Grad- 
uate of Theological Seminary and the Detroit College of Medicine. 
Came to Michigan nine years ago; was rector of St. Matthews Episco- 




Dr. A. B. Cleage. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 53 

pal Church. While there began the study of medicine. Graduated in 
1911. 

Cleage, Albert B., M. D., Kalamazoo. Born in London, Tennessee, 
May 15th, 1883. Graduate of Henderson Normal and Industrial College. 
1902; Knoxville College in 1906; Indiana School of JMedicine in 1910. 
Dr. Cleage won second highest position in the competitive examina- 
tion, with all white applicants, in 1910, for appointment as intern at the 
City dispensory at Indianapolis, where he served as house physician 
and ambulance surgeon. Began private practice in Kalamazoo in 1912, 
where he has become highly successful as a doctor of medicine and 
surgeon. 

Crawford, Miss Catharine, M. D., 1116 Fuller, Ann Arbor. Native 
of Ann Arbor, Mich., and a recent graduate of the medical depart- 
ment of the University of Michigan. Miss Crawford has hung out her 
shingle in her home city. 

Dickerson, John H., M. D., 309 N. Washington, Ypsilanti. Born in 
Baltimore, Md., where he received a high school education. Graduate 
from Hampton Institute and the medical department of Howard Uni- 
versity, 1894. Started the practice of medicine at Columbus, Ohio, the 
same year. Served as a surgeon in the Spanish-American War in the 
9th Ohio Batallion, and held the military rank of Captain. After his 
battalion was mustered out. Captain Dickerson came to Michigan, 
finally settling at Ypsilanti where he enjoys a large practice. He is a 
delegate to the National Half Century Celebration and Lincoln Jubilee 
at Chicago, 1915. 

Gamble, Parker Blair, M. D., 226 E. Lafayette, Detroit. Born at 
Chattenooga, Tenn. Graduate of Knoxville College and the medical 
department of the University of Michigan, class of 1912. Like almost 
all other Negro Professional persons, Dr. Gamble worked his way to his 
gheepskin and is now successfully practicing medicine in Detroit. 

Johnson, Albert H., M. D., 717 Rivard, Detroit. Native of Windsor, 
Canada, and has resided In Michigan 35 years, coming here when a 
young lad with his father Levi H. Johnson. He attended the public 
schools of Detroit and is a graduate of the High School and the De- 
troit College of Medicine. While attending school he contributed to his 
own support by selling newspapers, prefering to be as independent as 
possible of his father, who had become a successful practicing 
physician at that time and could have sustained his sons, Albert and 
William E., in College, had they chosen to rely on him. but they pre- 
ferred to aid themselves and did so very effectively as newsboys. Dr. 
Johnson is one of Detroit's best known physicians of either race and 
has for many years been a successful practitioner, attending to the 
medical wants of many of the best families of the City both white and 
black. He is universally courteous and withall. public spirited, being 
identified with many movements for the betterment of the poor. He is 
one of the wardens of the St. Matthews Episcopal Church, and an in- 



54 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

spector of the public schools for the city of Detroit. He also takes an 
active interest in civic affairs. 

Johnson, H. Peyton, M. D. A native of Richmond, Va.. Was edu- 
cated in Boston, Massachusetts, graduating from Tufts Medical Col- 
lege class of 1897. Dr. Johnson immediately came to Michigan and 
entered upon the practice of his profession in the city of Detroit. He 
has been exceptionally successful, building up a large practice in that 
city. 

Newsome, O. E., M. D., Cassopolis, Mich. Born in Calvin, Cass 
County, and is a graduate of the University of Michigan. Dr. Newsome 
has taken an active part in the political affairs in his home county. He 
is Health Officer and Township Clerk at the present time. 

Turner, Alexander L., M. D., 1042 W. Warren, Detroit. Born in 
Georgia. Graduate of the medical department of the University of 
Michigan. Started his practice in Detroit, 1910, and became highly suc- 
cessful in the treatment of diseases peculiar to women and children. 
Dr. Turner is also a Pharmacist and is the proprietor of two drug stores 
in the city of Detroit. 

Dentists. 
Johnson, Wm. Edward. Is a native of Windsor, Ont. Has lived in 
Michigan 32 years. Besides graduating from the Dental Dept. of the 
Detroit College of Medicine, he is also a graduate pharmacist. He, 
together with his brother. Dr. Albert H. Johnson, succeeded to the bus- 
iness and practice of their father, the late Levi H. Johnson. L'nder the 
management of these young men, the business left by the Senior John- 
son has prospered and grown until the estate has reached large pro- 
portions. 

Shelton, Wm. P. Doctor of dental surgery. Is a native of Missouri, 
but has resided in Michigan 11 years and now has offices in the city of 
Detroit. Mr. Shelton is a graduate of Howard University of Washing- 
ton, D. C, and the Detroit College of Medicine. He is very successful 
in the practice of his profession. 

Smith, Sylvester. A native of Detroit, Mich., and a graduate of the 
Detroit College of Medicine, Dental Department Mr. Smith has main- 
tained an office at 585 St. Antoine St., and has attained an enviable 
reputation as a dentist, besides which he is a musician of the high class 
and his services as such are also in frequent demand. 

Nurses. 

Hailstock, Margaret. A native of Calvin, Mich. Now resides in 
Kalamazoo. She has a common school education and her services are 
in constant demand in her home city, where she has grown popr.lar in 
her profession. 

Joiner, Maud Muriel. Is a native of Canada . Has lived in Michigan 
eight years. Graduated from the Lincoln Hospital, New York as a 
professional nurse. She is engaged in the practice of her profession in 
the city of Detroit. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



55 




c 
o 



H 



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c 



2 
it 

3 



56 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 





Residence of Dr. A. H. Johnson, Detroit. 




Six-Family Flat Owner b.v Dr. A. H. John- 
son, Detroit. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 57 

Pettiford, Flora Joiner. A native of Canada. Has lived in Michi- 
gan eight years. Is a sister of Maud Joiner and graduated with her 
as a nurse from the Lincoln Hospital, New York. She is now the wife 
of Ira J. Pettiford, attorney of the Detroit Bar. 

Price, Wm. Birthplace in Georgia. He now lives at Rattle Creek. 
Mr. Price has a college education and his services are much in demand 
at the Battle Creek Sanitarium. 

Smith, Eliza. A native of Columbus, Ohio. Lived in Michigan 
thirty-five years. Received a common school education and trained as 
a nurse at the Battle Creek Sanitarium. She is now employed in that 
city. 

Thomas, Telesie Rhodriquez. A native of Mexico, now residing in 
Grand Rapids. Lived in Michigan twenty-six years. Received a com- 
mon school education and is a nurse by profession. 

Psychologists. 

Roberts, Wm. Edison. Professor Roberts is one of Detroit's most 
active professional Afro-Americans. Besides being a Professor of 
Psychology, Mr. Roberts is a vocalist and an artist. Is also active in 
church work, being president of the Christian Endeavor Society of 
Bethel Church and also a leader of the senior choir of the same in- 
stitution. 

Chiropodists. 

Cheatham, Abbie Bledsoe. Is a native of Ohio and came to Mich- 
igan 20 years ago wath Mr. Bledsoe, her husband, who was one of the 
best known head waiters in Michigan for many years. She has become 
very successful as a chiropodist and numbers among her patrons many 
of Detroit's prominent citizens and the competence which she enjoys 
has been acquired largely because of her professional popularity. 

Jackson, Susie B. Is a native of Pennsylvania and has lived in Mich- 
igan five years. Has opened an office in Detroit, where she practices 
chiropody. Her cards announce she is massagist, manicurist and scalp 
specialist as well. 

Johnson, Nora. Is a native of Missouri and has lived in Michigan 
ei^ht years, most of which time she has been in business in Mt. 
Clemens, the famous bath resort. She employs two regular assistants 
in her office. Miss Johnson enjoys a large practice as chiropodist and 
beauiifier and has invested her earnings in lands to a considerable 
extent. 

Moore, Edward L. A native of Louisiana. Lived in Michigan five 
years, most of which time he has resided in the City of Detroit, where 
he has an office and enjoys a large patronage because of his popularity 
as an expert chiropodist. He is a graduate of the Moler, Kahler and 
Illinois Colleges of Chiropody and is said to be exceedingly expert in 
his profession. Mr. Moore is the author of two books, "Chiro Thera- 
peutic Guide" and "Treatise on the Sciences of Foot Health." 



58 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 



Burton, Wm. H., D. C. O. Is a native of Indiana. Lived in Michigan 
fourteen years and is a graduate of the Illinois College of Chiropody 
and Orthopedic. Mr. Burton hung his shingle out at Benton Harbor 
and there enjoys a splendid practice in his profession. He is said to 
have one of the nicest and best equipped offices in the State Bank 
Bldg. at Benton Harbor to be found anywhere in the state. His stand- 
ing in the community is of the best. 




Office of Dr. E. L. Moore, Chiropodist, Detroit. 

Dermatologists. 

Davis, Adeie. A native of Illinois. Has been a resident of Detroit, 
Mich., for six years. She is a hair dresser and dermatologist and has 
attained prominence in Madame Lulu Butler's famous beauty parlor. 

Moorehead, Etta Levenia. A native of Canada. Has lived in Michi- 
gan ten years. She is a graduate of the Molar College at Chicago and 
has achieved success in her profession, having acquired considerable 
property by way of investment. 



Chemists. 



Dodson, Norris A. Is a native of Washington, D. C, and has lived in 
Michigan 12 years. Is a graduate of the University of Michigan and is 
now in charge of the pharmacy of Drs. A. H. and W. E. Johnson in the 
City of Detroit. Mr. Dodson has also become a manufacturer of candy, 
in which business a brother is interested with him. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 59 

Stenographers. 

Bakeman, Lillian E. A native of Kentucky. Lived in Detroit thirty- 
eight yeans. Educated in the high school and bu.sine.s.s college of 
Detroit. She is a bookkeeper and stenographer and is regularly em- 
ployed in that city. 

Dixon, Harriet Victoria. A native of Windsor, Ont., Canada. Edu- 
cated in the public schools and Windsor Collegiate Institute. Grad- 
uated as a stenographer in 1911 and started her career as bookkeeper 
and stenographer for Robert Baker, grocer. Later as private secretary 
to S. D. Sumner, printer and rubber stamp manufacturer. Miss Dixon 
was appointed official stenographer to the Secretary of the Freedmen's 
Progress Commission June 8, 1915, and is slill employed in that posi- 
tion, where she has proved very efficient. 

Hayes, Carrie M. A native of Ypsilanti, Mich., educated at Ypsilanti. 
Is a graduate of the high school and the Cleary Business College in the 
class of 1903, she bearing the distinction of being the first colored 
graduate from that school. For three years Miss Hayes was steno- 
grapher and bookkeeper for Dr. Goldberg in Detroit and has now 
returned to her home to keep house for her father, who is a prosperous 
citizen of Ypsilanti. 

Hill, Manford. A native of Detroit. Educated in the public schools 
and Detroit Business College. Is now employed as stenographer in 
the office of the Register of Deeds in Wayne County of said city. 

Jefferson Rachel Johnson. Born at Plymouth, Mich., and was edu- 
cated in the public schools of Detroit and the Gutchess Business Col- 
lege. She was first employed by the Detroit Shipbuilding Co. as a 
stenographer and held a position in the office of said company for a 
number of years until she was married. Since then she has been suc- 
cessively employed as stenographer in the office of Francis H. Warren, 
Attorney, and later she became official stenographer for the Detroit 
College of Law, furnishing students with transcripts of the lectures 
given by the professors. She is at present employed as stenographer 
in the Auditor's Department of the County of Wayne. She is said to 
be one of the most rapid and competent stenographers in the City of 
Detroit. 

Stanton, Jos. A native of Pittsburg, Pa. Lived in Detroit four years. 
Graduated from the high school of Pittsburg and is employed in the 
U. S. Custom House at Detroit as stenographer. 

Smith, J. Pauline. A native of Windsor, Ont., and has resided in 
Detroit, Mich., since her early childhood. Miss Smith is quite a 
remarkable young woman. She is a Negro of the full blood and picked 
up the art of stenographic writing without the aid of college training. 
To use her own l.lnguage, she says that she studied stenography when 
a mere girl "because the odd looking lines or symbols interested me." 
Later, realizing the value of her stenographic knowledge, she perfected 
herself by diligent practice and in reporting sermons, lectures, etc., and 



60 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

finally by taking up the study of typewriting at a business college. 
During a period extending over several years, she sought to obtain a 
position with some firm by answering the numerous advertisements 
appearing in the newspaper for stenographers. Invariably she was 
requested to call for a personal interview, only to find on applying that 
someone iust ahead of her had been given the position. Despairing of 
obtaining a position, she obtained desk room with an Afro-American 
firm of attorneys, Messrs. Barnes & Stowers, where she hung out her 
shingle as a public stenographer and remained until 1914, when her 
business had so grown that she opened an oflice of her own at No. 827 
Chamber of Commerce Bldg., where she is now located, enjoying the 
fruits of perseverence and faithful service. For a time Miss Smith was 
the official stenographer for the Freedmen's Progress Commission, but 
as that position was only temporary and required all of her time, she 
felt that she could not give up her permanent patronage for the tem- 
porary position the Commission afforded her. Miss Smith also pos- 
sesses rare literary talent, having composed several creditable poems 
and a book entitled "Olive Prints." She is also prominent in church 
club work. 

Worm ley, Mrs. Emily R. A native of Detroit, Mich. She was edu- 
cated at Ann Arbor and in Detroit and besides assisting in the work 
of compiling this manual as stenographer, she also listed with the 
Freedmen's Progress Commission an exhibit of fancy needle work t6 
be included in the Michigan Exhibit at the Chicago Exposition. 

Vocalists. 

Greenlaw, Albert E. Native of Pennsylvania; a resident of Michigan 
ten years. He received a common school educaton and turned his 
attention to cultivating a splendid voice, of which he is the possessor. 
For several years past he has been employed as a vocalist with travel- 
ing companies in some of the more prominent church societies, and 
has proved highly successful, receiving one of the highest salaries paid 
to artists of that character. 

Mills, Alice Irene. A native of Chatham, Canada. Came to Michigan 
with her parents in 1901; educated in the public schools of Detroit. 
Miss Mills began the cultivation of her voice under Madam Maggie 
Porter Cole, of "Fiske Jubilee Singers" fame, who has developed Miss 
Mills into a prima donna. Miss Mills possesses a soft, sweet voice with 
wide range, and has become quite popular with the Detroit public, 
where she has given several musical recitals. 



FREEDMEN"S PROGRI']S;S 



61 




Miss Alice Mills, Michisran's Promisinfr Prima Donna, Dtlroit. 



62 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




W. Wendell Gaskins, Jackson. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 63 

Portrait Artists. 

Griffin, James Marion. A native of Georgia. Has lived in Michigan 
five years. Is a graduate of Rust University and an exhibitor of por- 
traits in the Michigan Exhibit at the National Half Century Exposition. 

Foster, Frank and Herbert, brothers. Are natives of Detroit, Michi- 
gan and are crayon and water-color artists. They have opened a 
studio at 225 Garfield avenue, in that city, and are promising young 
artists. 

Gaskin, Wm. W. Is a Negro of the full blood and a penman of ex- 
ceptional ability, being especially fine in scroll work. He is a card 
writer and engrosser by profession, but is also a clever chef, which 
occupation he followed until a few years since at Adrian, where he 
still owns a cozy home. Mr. Gaskin now resides at Jackson, and is 
listed as one of the attractions at the Half Century Exposition. 

Jackson, John Spencer, 340 Erskine St., Detroit, Mich. Is a native 
of Amherstburg, Ont., Canada, and a son of Annie V. and John Jack- 
son, both natives of Amherstburg. Removed to Michigan with his par- 
ents when 3 years old, settling in Adrian, Mich. Mr. Jackson was 
educated in the Public Schools of Adrian, where he evinced an espe- 
cial interest in art work when a lad of ten years old. He was encour- 
aged by his teachers, who told him he should make an especial study 
of art work. There resided in Adrian at that time an art teacher by 
the name of Mr. Eldridge, who advertised for day or night scholars. 
Mr. Jackson's mother took him to see this teacher, but he would not 
accept our subject as a pupil because of his color, but offered him a 
job at sweeping out and mopping. Mr. Jackson took this job long 
enough to get an idea of the coloring and how it was applied, then 
gave up his work as janitor. In 1899 he went to Atlanta, Georgia, 
where he studied for a short time under Professor Anderson. In 1901 
he returned to Adrian. The same Mr. Eldridge who had refused to 
teach Mr. Jackson wanted to employ him in his studio as an artist, but 
Mr. Jackson, having plenty of his own work to do, refused to accept 
the employment. In the same year he went from Adrian to Grand 
Rapids to visit his aunt, Mrs. Newton Carter. Mr. Jackson had some 
of his art work with him. While there some of the German artists, 
seeing his works, drew it to the attention of the Grand Rapids Herald, 
which gave a two-column account of Mr. Jackson's productions and 
genius. This attracted the attention of art dealers. Many artists came 
to view his works, and he was offered different opportunities for em- 
ployment. One he accepted for a short time to make pen sketches and 
illustrations for newspapers and magazines. Later he received a 
better opportunity to make portraits for the West Art Association of 
Grand Rapids, where he worked in their studio for two years. In 
1902 he came to Detroit en route to Atlanta, Ga. In Detroit he thought 
he would inquire whether a colored man could work in a white studio. 
The first man he went to was the proprietor of the Eureka Art Co., 



64 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




John Spencer Jackson, Detroit. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



65 



Windsor, Ont., who would not employ him in his studio, but wanted to 
see some of his work. When the work was delivered he requested 
Mr. Jackson to bring his easel to his studio and commence work at 
once. He remained with this firm for five years. In 1907 he left of 
his own accord with a good recommendation, and the next day went 
to the West Art Association in Detroit, where he was immediately 
employed. Mr. Jackson has remained witli this firm for eight years, 
and is at the present time in their employ, painting all classes of work 
handled by them, including crayon, water-color, India-ink, pastel and 
oil, which are sent to all parts of the world, to Europe, England, and 
throughout the United States. Mr. Jackson, though only 34 years of 
age, is exceptionally progressive and an enthusiastic student of his 
life's work. He is the only colored portrait artist in Detroit who makes 
his livelihood exclusively by art work. In 1908 he married Miss Mattie 
Nelson, daughter of William Nelson, of Windsor, Ont., and resides with 
his wife at the above address. In 1915 Mr. Jackson painted in oil a 
picture of Sojourner Truth interviewing President Lincoln for the 
Sojourner Truth Association, to be a part of the Michigan exhibit at 
the National Half-century Exposition at Chicago. This work is a 
masterpiece designed to bring lasting and wide renown to the name of 
"John Spencer Jackson." Among his other accomplishments, Mr. 
Jackson carves portraits on wood surfaces with jackknives or other 
sharp instruments. 




Mrs. KoKt' I'ooir Win*-. Drlroit. 



66 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 



Singleton, Albert D. Born in Kentucky; twelve years a resident of 
Michigan. Mr. Singleton has listed an exhibit Vith the Michigan Com- 
mission of pastel paintings and cartoons. He is especially clever as a 
cartoonist, and since he is quite a young man, bids fair to become more 
or less famous in his chosen work. He is a Negro of the full blood. 



Roberts, Wm. Ross, 1214 Allegan St., Lansing, Mich, 
under head of Freedmen's Progress Commission.) 



(See sketch 



Wise, Rose Poole, 318 Watson St., Detroit. Has won renown as a 
water color artist. Madam Wise has a studio at the above address and 
has listed an exhibit with the Michigan Commission for the Chicago 
Exposition. She is a graduate of the Detroit School of Art, and a 
daughter of Alpheus A. Poo'.e, a prominent Union Labor Leader of the 
State. 




Miss Bertha Hansbury. 



FREED^rEN■S PROGRESS 



67 








"^C^ 



■St-' 





Q 



68 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




Minnie A. DaTis, Teacher of Music, Boyne City. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 69 

Music Teachers. 

Carter, Helen. A native of Indiana. Has lived in Michigan ten 
years. She was educated in Detroit and conducts a musical studio at 
737 St. Antoine St. 

Davis, Minnie A. A native of Boyne City, Mich., where she still 
lives. Is a graduate from the high school and Conservatory of Music. 
She is very popular v<ith the people of her home city socially as well 
as a teacher of music. 

Guy, Harry P. — Born in Zanesville, Ohio, 47 years ago, commenced 
the study of music at the age of eight years, taking up piano, violin 
and pipe organ. Mr. Guy held three scholarships under the eminent 
musician George Schneider, of Cincinnati, Ohio, and at the National 
Conservatory of Music in New York City. He has filled the oflSce of 
accompanist for the incomparable Selika, and the Cincinnati Opera 
Club, a white organization. He has traveled extensively with various 
companies and settled in Detroit, Mich., twenty years ago, where he 
married Miss Julia Owens. He was for many years organist of St. 
Matthew's Church and is kept busy at present arranging music for 
piano, orchestra and oand for the noted music house of Jerome Remick 
& Co. He bears the distinction of composing the first rag-time waltz 
in the United States, and bears a high reputation as an all-around 
musician. He has one son, who has distinguished himself during the 
current year by inventing a successful flying machine, at the age of 
fifteen. 

Hansbury, Bertha Allena. A native of Detroit and was educated in 
the Detroit high school and Detroit Consevatory of Music. She took 
special instruction in Berlin, Germany, in post graduate work. She 
is a pianist of rare talent and conducts a popular studio at 249 E. For- 
est Ave., in the City of Detroit. Although quite young in years. Miss 
Hansbury has already accumulated a competence and is very popular 
socially as well as professionally. She has taught over three hundred 
students since her return from Europe in 1909. Her 1915 class is com- 
posed of fifty-eight pupils. 

Hardy, Eugene. A native of Michigan and a graduate of the Uni- 
versity. He has been a professor of music for many years and still 
follows his profession in the City of Grand Rapids. 

Jefferson, Helen Carter. A native of Indiana. Has lived in Mich- 
igan ten years. Is a graduate of the Detroit high school and is now a 
teacher of music. 

Johnson, John W. A native of Canada. Has lived in Michigan 
twenty-five years. Was born in 1865. Learned the trade of cabinet 
maker. Started learning to play a cornet in 1882. In 1884 led Dr. 
Carver's band in the Wild West show. In 1885, one year later, traveled 
with the Georgia minstrels as singer and cometist and remained with 
this company five years. In 1890. he settled in Detroit. Three years 
later married Miss Katie Otelia Taliaferro, a former school mate at 



70 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 



London, Ont. Their family consists of four children. Professor John- 
son's work in Detroit has consisted in organizing the Detroit City Band 
and has also been chorister for the Btthel A. M. E. Church and the 
Second Baptist Church, where he is still leader of the choir. He has 
composed and published several songs and instrumental numbers and 
his services are repeatedly in demand as toloist at park concert and 
other entertainments. Professor Johnson aUo has a large orchestra in 
his employ, which has become one of the musical fixtures of Mich- 
igan's metropolis. His annual band concerts have become one of the 
most popular social functions of the city. 




Residence of William E. Stone, Detroit. 



Prior, John Wesley. A native of Tennessee. Has lived in Michigan 
thirty years. i-:dii(at«'d in London, Canada, and teacher of music by 
profession. 

Shook, Benjamin. A native of Cleveland. Ohio. Educated at Fisk 
University, Nashville, Tenn. Succeeded the late Theodore Finney as 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



V?' 




Mr. Z. Morgan, riomir i^iltlcr of Boyne 
City. 



^ 



^\ 



Madame Frances E. Preston, Detroit, Who 
Has Attained National Pi om pence as a 
Temperance Worker and Who is an 
Elocutionist of High RanK. 



Mrs. Eliza Wilson, President of Phyllis 
Whealley Home for Aged Afro-American 
Women. Detroit. 




72 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Manager of Finney's Orchestra and now maintains that organization 
under the name of Shook's Orchestra. Mr. Shook is one of the very- 
popular musical directors of the City of Detroit and he together with 
his organization is constantly employed at important functions and 
gatherings of the city. 

Stone, Wm. E. A native of Canada. Has lived :n rvlichigan forty 
years. A graduate of the Detroit high schools. Mr. Stone became one 
of Detroit's most popular musicians and conducts an organization 
known as Stone's Orchestra, which is one of the most popular musical 
organizations in the City of Detroit, the services of which are con- 
stantly in demand. 

Lecturers and Orators. 

Preston, Frances E. L., Born in Richmond, Va. Her parents were 
John L. Martin, free born, and Louisa Baber, of Louisa Courthouse, a 
slave. As children always followed the condition of the mother, Mrs. 
Preston was therefore born a slave. In 1855 she came to Detroit with 
her parents. Prior to that time she had received some slight education 
in Virginia. After arriving in Detroit she became a student in the 
colored schools that were then conducted in this city but because of 
cruelty of teachers she did not attend regularly and it was largely 
through the efforts of her father who induced her to read good books, 
that she finally acquired sufficient education to become a teacher. She 
also learned to p!ay the piano and organ and taught music with some 
success. Was organist for the Second Baptist Church of Detroit for a 
number of years. She took a course in Detroit Training School of 
Elocution in English literature and graduated in 1882 at the head of 
her class. For a time she traveled with a company of singers giving 
recitals and then returned to school and took a postgraduate course. 
Thus equipped, she was appointed as lecturer and organizer of the 
National Women's Temperance Union and traveled from the lakes to 
the Gulf of Mexico, making converts for temperance and in organizing 
local branches of the Union. By these efforts she secured more than 
seven thousand pledges against the use of alcohol. Madame Preston 
became a teacher successively in the Baptist Academies of Jackson- 
ville, Fla., and Louisville, Ky., and did special educational work in 
Augusta, Ga., Alabama, Texas and Oklahoma. For four years she 
was president of the Michigan Federation of Colored Women's Clubs. 
She possesses rare talent as a reader in a dialect and as an elocution- 
ist and has thrilled many audiences with the magic power of her art. 

Thurman, Mrs. F. M.. .Of Jackson, INIichigan. Is one of Michigan's 
most popular and talented Afro-American women and has enjoyed a 
wide experience as a lecturer and platform speaker, as organizer, and 
the president of the National W. C. T. U., and as president of the 
Michigan Federation of Colored Women's Club.^. She has traveled ex- 
tensively throughout the United States in teniporauce and club work 
She lives in a beautiful home at 206 Christy avenue. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



73 




Residence of Frank M. Thurman. 



74 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




Mrs. F. M. Thurman. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



75 




c 
s 
E 

3 
J= 
H 



a 



76 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Professors and Teachers. 

Bowles, Louis Slater, B. D. A native of Ypsilanti and resided in the 
State of Michigan twenty-two years. Professor Bowles was educated 
at Ypsilanti, Mich., and Wilberforce, Ohio, University. He is one of 
a family of thirteen children reared by John H. and Sarah A. Bowles 
and commenced life as a newsboy. Graduated from Wilberforce Uni- 
versity in the class of 1902 and five years later founded the McKinney 
Institute at McKinney, Ky., with a capital of $50.00. Twelve years 
later the value of his school equipment was placed at $30,000, and 
the value of the land owned by his institute is $8,500.00. During the 
school year of 1914-1915, there were enrolled in Professor Bowles' 
school 340 students. Besides a normal course taught in the literary 
department of McKinney Institute, Professor Bow'les also teaches 
various trades and agricultural pursuits. He is still a young man and 
promises great things along educational lines. 

Locke, Benjamin Harrison, M. A. A native of Maryland and a resi- 
dent of Michigan for one year. Professor Locke was educated at 
Howard University, of Washington and Columbia University, of New 
York, and is now principal of the Adams School at Ypsilanti. Pro- 
fessor Locke bears the distinction of being the only Afro-American 
principal of a public school in the State of Michigan. 

Robinson, Charlotte. Is a native of Saginaw, Mich. Was educated 
in Saginaw and also received college training. She has lived in 
Michigan all her life and is a school teacher by profession. 

Smith, Theresa. Is a native of Windsor, Ont. Has lived in Michi- 
gan from infancy and was educated in the public schools of Detroit 
and the state normal school at Ypsilanti. Miss Smith has risen from 
the status of a mere school teacher to that of a professor of English 
and general history. She taught one year in her home city. For Ave 
years she had charge of the Model Training Department of the State 
Normal and Industrial College at Tallahassee. Fla., and for two years 
she was engaged in the Model School Department of Fisk University 
and is now one of the faculty of Lincoln Institute at Jefferson City, Mo. 
Her home is 107 Hartford street, in the city of Detroit, where she lives 
with her mother and sister. 

Thomas, Gertrude. A native of Savannah, Ga. Has lived in Mich- 
igan one year. Now resides at Pontiac. Miss Thomas was a school 
teacher in the south for several years but at the time of writing this 
sketch she was taking a course in stenography in a Pontiac business 
college. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



77 



Theatrical. 

Bass, Earl. Mr. Bass is a college graduate and a traveling comedian. 
Is a native of Grand Rapids and still resides there when at home. 

Collins, Gustus. A native of Delaware. Now resides in Detroit. 
Has lived in Michigan twelve years. Is a graduate of Cornell Univer- 
sity and is an actor taking the part of I^ncle Tom in one of the Uncle 
Tom's Cabin Companies. 

Mathews, Neal. A native of Georgia. Now resides in Detroit. Lived 
in Michigan twenty years, where he received a common school educa- 
tion. He follows the stage as a profc."^sional actor. 




The Gnmanjo, a Musical Instrument Invented by Juhn Taylor, of Lanainc. 



1' 



r.nc!:!!;AN MANUAIi 




Elijah McCoy, Inventor. 




The Late James Douglas Carter, Detroit. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



T'J 



Inventors. 

McCoy, Elijah. Perhaps the most noted Negro inventor in the 
United States or possibly in the world is Elijah McCoy, of 701 Free 
Press BIdg., Detroit, Michigan, who is now upwards of seventy years 
of age, whose brain is still active in creating useful inventions for 
humanity. Mr. McCoy is a native of Colchester, Essex County, Canada; 
is a Negro of the full blood; received a grammar school and mechanical 
education, and commenced his career as a railroad engineer. He took 
out his first patent July 23rd, 1872, and since that date up to April, iyl5, 
Mr. McCoy has secured upwards of 52 separate and distinct patents 
from the patent office in Washington, D. C. His latest patent, a graph- 
ite lubricator, probably the most valuable that this remarkable man is 
said to have produced, is said to have resulted in a saving of seven 
minutes for each one hundred miles of travel of railroad locomotives. 




The Workshop of John Taylor, the Inventor of Nc« Musical Insi runifiiis, ui l.ansinK. 



80 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




B«T. JoMph M. BnuM. 



FREEDMAN'S PROGRESS 81 

Ministers of the Gospel. 
Shortly after the Civil War the educated Negro minister was an 
unknown quantity. There were quite a number of pious men among 
the Freedmen gifted with native oratory, who served their people well 
according to the culture of the times, but they were almost invariably 
devoid of education or book learning. The time has now come when 
the Afro-American people are served by college graduates in their 
pulpits and great progress has been made in securing an educated 
ministry to guide their people. The following are a few of those filling 
charges in Michigan: 

Allen, William O. A native of Cass County. Michigan, and is a 
farmer as well as a minister. He now lives at Dowagiac and may be 
termed a successful business man as well as a man of God. He has 
earned a competence from his farm while at the same time filling the 
position of spiritual leader of his people. He received his education 
in the common schools. 

Bagnall, Robert W. Rector of St. Mathews Episcopal Church, De- 
troit. Is a native of Norfolk, Va., and has lived in Detroit about five 
years. Father Bagnall is one of the most popular and prominent 
Afro-American clergymen in Michigan. He is an orator of great 
power, either in the church or on the lecture platform and a deep 
student of religious and social economy. He was educated in the 
University of Pennsylvania, and is the author of two books "What 
Every Christian Should Know-," and "One Way Out — A Possible So- 
lution of the Race Problem." Under the leadership of Father Bag- 
nall, St. Mathews Church has become a very popular social center 
among the Afro-Americans of Detroit. 

Blackwell, John. A native of Canada. Resided in Michigan thirty- 
one years. Now resides at Kalamazoo. Rev. Blackwell is a graduate 
of Wilberforce University and now belongs to the A. M. E. connectioa 
of the Michigan Conference. 

Clark, Frank E. A native of Kalamazoo, Mich. Now has charge of 
the A. M. E. Church at Whittaker. He has been a member of the 
Michigan Conference since 1898 and is one of the successful churcu 
builders of the Connection. 

Carr, Rev. G. W. A native of Kentucky, and is now pastor of the 
Hillsdale Baptist Church, Lansing, Mich. Has received a common 
school education and lived in Michigan twelve years. During that 
time he has accumulated some property, which would indicate popu- 
larity as a minister of the gospel, 

Collins, Wm. A native of Canada. Now resides at Jackson, Mich, 
where he has a charge. Has an academic education and has lived in 
Michigan for thirty-five years. 

Dean, C, J. A native of Canada and has resided in Michigan thirty- 
years and belonged to the Michigan Conference most of that time. Is 
now presiding elder of the Michigan District. Rev. Dean was educated 
in Morris Brown College, one of the educational institutions main- 
tained by the A. M. E. Church. 



82 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Derrick, J as. O. A native of Alton, 111. Lived in Michigan eight 
years. Was educated at Wilberforce University. 

Dungill, John A, A native of Michigan and has lived in the state all 

his life. He is a high school graduate and is now stationed at Kala- 
mazoo. 

Gregory, Everett E. A native of Michigan. Has received a college 
education and is now stationed at Battle Creek. 

Hartford, Fred A. Now stationed at Flint, Mich., where he erected 
James Avenue A. M. E. Church. 

Hill, M. H. Native of Virginia. Has been in Michigan three years. 

Hill, W. H. Native of Michigan. Now pastor of Saginaw and Bay 
City Baptist Churches. He received a public school education. 

Ingham, David. Native of Tennessee. Lived in Michigan sixty 
years and received his education in the public schools of the state. 

Jeffries, Robt. A native of Indiana. Came to Michigan fifty years 
ago. Educated in the public schools. Now located at Kalamazoo, 
Michigan Is a traveling evangelist. 

Johnson, Thos. C. A native of Ohio. Lived in Michigan thirty 
years. Now located at Kalamazoo. A high school graduate and had 
one year of college training. 

Jones, J. E. A native of the West Indies and is now pastor of the 
A. M. E. Church at St. Joseph, Michigan. Has lived in Michigan three 
years. 

Simpson, Wm. A native of Indiana. Lived in Michigan fifty-eight 
years and has long been a member of the Michigan Conference of the 
A. M. E. Church. Rev. Simpson is one of the ripest scholars in the 
Connection, being not only a constant student of theology but of all 
great questions affecting the human race and is one of the most cul- 
tured men in the Connection in point of knowledge and oratory. 

Smith, Chas. Spencer, D. D. Bishop of the A. M. E. Church. One of 
the best known members of the Afro-American ministry in Michigan 
is Bishop Smith. Although he has never received an extensive educa- 
tion, as we understand that term, yet he is one of the most powerful 
j)ulpit orators and profound thinkers the race has produced. He was 
born March 16, 1852, in Canada, and entered the ministry in 1872. At 
the age of 18, he began his career by teaching school in Kentucky and 
Mississippi in the employ of the Freedmen's Bureau. He became a 
member of the Legislature in the State of Alabama from 1874 to 1876. 
For eighteen years succeeding this period, he was business manager of 
the great printing establishment of the Sunday School Union of the 
A. M. E. Church and in this position proved his wonderful skill in bus- 
iness and made the Union a great success. After leaving the Sunday 
School Union, Dr. Smith was assigned to various of the more import- 
ant charges of the A. M. E. Connection until the year 1900. when he 
was elected Bishop by the General Conference of that great religious 
organization. Bishop Smith has traveled extensively in Europe, Africa, 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



83 



South America, the West Indies and in the three Negro republics, 
Hayti, San Domingo and Liberia, and hence is a man of the widest 
possible experience, also an author of some note, his chief work 
being "Glimpses of Africa," and many magazine and newspaper arti- 
cles. His home is at 35 Alexandrine Avenue East, Detroit, Mich., 
where he resides in comfortable circumstances with his wife and his 
aged mother. 

White, T. J. Is a native of Indiana, and removed to Michigan five 
years ago. Became a member of the Michigan Conference of the A. 
M. E. Church and is now in charge as Pastor of the church of that de- 
nomination at Cassopolis, Michigan. 




Bishop Charlc'x S|).nr.r Smith. D. 1>. 



84 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 





Joseph C. Ford, Grand Rapids, Popularly 
known as Senator Joe, Who Has Been 
Styled Western Michigan's Political 
Wizard and for Many Years Was Em- 
ployed by the State Senate at Lansing. 



Alonzo John Taylor, City Electrician 
of Adrian. 





John W. Johnson, Manager of Johnson's Wm. Henderson, a Successful Business 
Orchestra, Detroit. Man of Boyne City. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 85 

Afro-Americans in Michigan Politics 

Though it may not be generally known, Afro-Americans have held 
a goodly number of elective offices in the State of Michigan as has 
been the case in other parts of the Union. Colored electors of Michi- 
gan for the most part have been faithful Republicans, sharing the grat- 
itude of all the Afro-Americans for the liberty siven them under the 
Republican administration of Abraham Lincoln in 1865. Nearly all of 
the colored citizens who attained political preferment belonged to the 
educated class of Afro-Americans and they have held positions all the 
way from delegates to the National Conventions down to Committee- 
men in the Republican organization and from member of the Legisla- 
ture to ward constable in elective offices and not a few appointed po- 
sitions. No criticism has ever been heard of the conduct of Afro- 
Americans in office in this state and in some instances the Afro-Amer- 
ican officials acquitted themselves with a high degree of ability and 
credit to themselves and the offices they held. A partial list of those 
holding one form of office or another here follows. To avoid duplica- 
tion persons are here omitted who have been sufficiently mentioned in 
the chapter on occupations. 

Allen, Chas. Fred. Is a native of Cass County, Michigan, and the 
son of Green Allen. Graduated from the Cassopolis high school and 
from McLaughlin's Business University at Grand Rapids. In 1906 he 
received an appointment as clerk in the Auditor General's Department 
at Lansing, serving five terms under Dr. Jas. B. Bradley and Oramel B. 
Fuller, respectively, where his work was said to be of high character 
and most satisfactory. At Lansing he became a member of the Capi- 
tal Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons and was also an active worker 
in the Michigan Co-Operative League, an organization composed of 
Afro-Americans. 

Ames, James W., M. D. A native of New Orleans, La.. Has lived 
in Michigan twenty-one years. Was educated in Straight University 
in New Orleans and is a graduate of the medical department of How- 
ard University, Washington, D. C. Opened an office in Detroit as 
physician, where he has since resided. Married a daughter of the late 
James H. Cole, by whom he has reared four children. Dr. Ames soon 
became active in Republican politics of Wayne County and has served 
as committeeman from his precinct and ward and also as a delegate 
to many Republican state and county conventions. In 1900 he was 
elected to the House of Representatives of the Michigan Legislature, 
where he served one term, after which he was appointed as a member 
of the medical staff of the Detroit Board of Health, from which posi- 
tion he recently resigned after serving some ten years, to look after 
his private practice and business interests. 

Anderson, John B. A native of Canada. Has resided in Detroit, 
Michigan for the past thirty years. Mr. Anderson was always active 



86 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

in Republican politics and has successively held the positions of 
deputy collector of customs at the port of Detroit, clerk and assistant 
bookkeeper of the School Board of the City of Detroit, and is now 
clerk in the office of the Auditors of Wayne County. 

Cole, Daniel. Has been a resident of Detroit for upwards of 30 
years and has received a thorough public school training, graduating 
from the High School and Business College. Mr. Cole for many years 
followed railroading, but of late years has been active in Republican 
politics of his home city. He has held various positions in the office 
of receiver of taxes, and is now general clerk in the office of the County 
Treasurer. When the civil service law was adopted for the city of 
Detroit Mr. Cole took successively three examinations for three differ- 
ent positions, two of which he stood at the head of the class that was 
examined, and in the third examination stood second highest for the 
positions the examination was held to fill. One of the positions Mr. 
Cole was examined for was that of purchasing agent for the Park 
Board, but for some submerged reason Mr. Cole was not appointed to 
the place although he was returned for the appointment by the Civil 
Service Commission. Later an inferior position was offered to Mr. 
Cole by the Civil Service Commission that carried a very small salary, 
but this Mr. Cole declined to accept and be buried in for the remain- 
der of his life. County Treasurer Stein, knowing the value of his 
services, gave Mr. Cole a position in his office which Mr. Cole still 
holds. He is a Negro of the full blood. 

Dickinson, Jos. H...Is a native of Canada. Came to Michigan in 
the early 80's. Mr. Dickinson was never very active in politics but 
was selected as a candidate for the Legislature by the Republican 
Convention of 1896 because of his excellent educational qualifications 
and his splendid standing as a citizen in the community. He was 
elected and served two terms as a member of the House of Represen- 
tatives in the Legislatures of 1897 and 1899. 

Ferguson, Wm. W. A native of Detroit, Mich. Son of the late Dr. 
Ferguson, who was a pioneer Afro-American physician of the state of 
Michigan. Mr. Ferguson was a graduate of the public schools of De- 
troit, and of the Detroit College of Law. He became prominent in the 
practice of his profession after serving a term in the lower house of 
the Michigan Legislature in 1893. Prior to that time he had conducted 
one of the largest printing houses in the city of Detroit. 

Hill, Manford. (See stenographers.) Active in Republican politics. 
Received appointment to the office of Registrar of Deeds of Wayne 
County, where he has been employed for many years, holding his po- 
sition because of the excellence of his ability and as a stenographic 
clerk. 

Owens, Algernon. Was a native of Detroit, Michigan, and a son of 
Thomas D. and Annie Owens. He was educated in the Detroit public 
schools and became active in politics receiving an appointment in the 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 87 

railroad commissioners office at Lansing where he remained for 
twelve years. Was later appointed letter carrier at the Detroit post- 
office. He died recently, leaving a wife and one child. 

Owens, Ralph C. A native of Detroit and one of Detroit's live poli- 
ticians of the younger class. He has served two terms as Deputy 
Sheriff and is at present assistant field agent for the Freedmen's Pro- 
gress Commission. 

Owens, Thomas Dye. Born in Owensboro, Ky. Came to Detroit in 
1845. One account states he came to Detroit in 1842. Opened a barber 
business in the Antisdel hotel, where the Cadillac now stands. Was the 
first Negro head janitor of the City Hall, later of the Superior Court, 
and was elected coroner on the Democratic ticket. He died at the 
age of 70, leaving a wife and ten children in comfortable circumstances. 

Lyie, John B. Born in Lexington, Ky., March 16, 1870. Removed 
to Michigan in 1889. Mr. Lyle was educated in the public schools of 
Lexington, Ky., and is a graduate of the Detroit University. He be- 
came a proficient stenographer twenty-four years ago. In 1891 he en- 
tered the service of the United States Engineering Department as mes- 
senger and 15 years ago worked his way up to a clerkship, in which 
position he is still employed. Mr. Lyle bears the distinction of being 
the first Afro-American to receive an appointment as clerk at large in 
the Engineering Department of the government and his long and 
faithful service indicates that he has made good. In 1894 he married 
Miss Bertie Williams, of Detroit, who, together with his mother-in-law 
constitute his family. Mr. Lyle has charge of the sales division of the 
Lake Survey, which brings him in close contact with all vessel men 
of the Great Lakes. 

Woods, William W., 148 E. Canfield, Detroit. Born in Detroit 49 
years ago and educated in the public schools of that city, graduating 
from the High School. He has always been active in Republican 
politics; was appointed to a clerkship in the Auditor-General's office 
at Lansing in 1893, where he remained until 1901. During the admin- 
istration of Mayor G. P. Codd he was appointed as a general clerk 
in the Assessors' office for the City of Detroit. He is now employed 
au( cleric in the office of the Board of Auditors for the County ot 
Wayne. Mr. Woods is a Negro of the full blood, and although not 
a university graduate, he is a ripe scholar and an excellent mathe- 
matician. 

Pelham, Robert A. Two cigar boxes, a wooden rolling pin, two 
wood screws, some curtain fixtures, a piece of tin and a small strip of 
sheet rubber, coupled with an idea and some ingenuity, put Robert A. 
Pelham in the list of inventors with patent dated December 19. 1905. 
The following letter, written by Mr. William M. Steuart. chief statis- 
tician of the manufacturing division of the United States Census of- 
fice is self-exp'.anatory: 



88 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




Kobt. A. Pelham, Prominent at Washington in the Departmental Service of the 
Government and as an Inventor of Office Devices. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 89 

Washington, D. C, Dec. 15, 1905. 
Hon. S. N. D. North, 

Director of the Census. 
Sir: I respectfully transmit herewith letters from Mr. Robert A. Pel- 
ham, submitting a proposition for the rental of a machine invented by 
him and known as an improvement in pasting device. 

In compiling the statistics of manufactures, it is the practice of 
the office to make carbon copies of the tabulation. These carbon 
copies are cut into slips, the slips assorted so as to bring together 
the statistics for the establishments owned by individuals, companies 
and corporations, also for establishments having different values of 
products. A similar method was followed at the census of 1900 in 
presenting the statistics for industries in the different cities and 
states. At that time the slips were pasted by hand. The work was 
very awkward and comparatively expensive. At the inauguration of 
this work for the present cansus, Mr. Pelham was employed on it and 
his experiences led to the invention of the machine referred to. 
While the machine is simple, it is very ingenious and very effective in 
simplifying this important stage of the work of tabulating. 

The first model of the machine, which was a crude affair, was 
used by Mr. Pelham to assist in his work as early as January 1, 1905. 
Since then he has made various improvement and tlie preent machine 
appears to be practically perfect so far as its application to our work 
is concerned. One of the perfected machines was put in operation on 
August 21, 1905. A second machine was brought to the office on Octo- 
ber 4, 1905. Since then both of these machines have been in con- 
stant use. 

I am satisfied that if the machines had not been used it would 
have been necessary to employ at least four clerks in addition to 
those now engaged on this work for a period of from six to eight 
months." 

Thus it will be seen that the use of these two machines for a 
period of one year in 1905 saved the Government more than $3,000. 

In the work of the Thirteenth Census, 1910, six of these devices 
were in constant use for nearly two years. 

On August 13, 1913, Mr. Pelham again introduced a small device 
designed by him and adapted to a branch of census work, in the 
population division of the Census Office. This machine, a tally 
device, also proved a success. 

In April, 1914, he was assigned to compile the statistics for the 
"Mortality" and "Home Ownership" chapters of the Federal publica- 
tion, "Negroes in the United States," recently issued by the Bureau 
of the Census, Department of Commerce, which publication has been 
universally commended. 

By detail from the Department, Mr. Pelham will represent the 
Bureau of the Census at the Lincoln Jubilee and Exhibition of Freed- 
men's Progress, at Chicago, and under the Michigan banner demon- 



90 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




Mrs. Gay Lewis Pelham. 



^ FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 91 

strate statistical methods and statistical machinery as well as his 
own inventions. 

Mr. Pelham, a legal resident of Detroit, MJchigan, was born in 
Petersburg, Virginia, January 4, 1859, of free pt tiro nag^, the second 
son and fifth child of Robert and Frances Pelham. In the same year 
his parents moved northward to secure for their children those edu- 
cational advantages which the liberal-minded element were extending 
to all classes of men. They finally settled in Detroit, and Robert was 
educated in the public and high schools of that city, completing a 
twelve-year course in nine. In 1871, while still in school, he entered 
the employ of the Daily Post, the leading Republican paper in Mich- 
igan, then owned and controlled by that vigorous exponent of early 
Republican principles, Zachariah Chandler. He began at the lower 
rounds of the ladder and worked his way up to important positions, 
remaining in that employ until 1891. 

Mr. Pelham is best known as a newspaper man. From 1S83 to 
1891, while still under contract with the Detroit daily paper, he 
edited and managed a weekly race journal, The Detroit Plaindealer, 
of which the distinguished citizen, Hon. Frederick Douglass, said: 

"In spirit and in letter, in method and in object, in character and 
ability, The Plaindealer meets my warm approbation." 

From 1887 to 1891 he was also a Deputy Oil Inspector for his home 
state. In 1892 he served as a Special Agent of the United States 
Land Office. From 1893 to 1898 he was an Inspector for the Detroit 
Water Department, and in 1899 was again appointed a Special Agent 
of the General Land Office. In July, 1900 he came to Washington as 
a Census Clerk. He received a degree in law from Howard Uni- 
versity in 1904 and is an active member of the General Alumni Asso- 
ciation of that institution. In 1893 he married Miss Gabrielle Lewis, 
of Adrian, Michigan, who is one of the most active and influential 
members of the musical circles of Washington. 

In 1880 Miss Gabrielle Lewis had the degree of Bachelor of Music 
conferred upon her by Adrian College. She was the first young lady 
in the State to receive a "B. M." She also was the first person of 
color to hold an official position in the Michigan State Music Teach- 
ers' Association, being a member of the executive committee which 
made the Adrian meeting in June, 1893, a splendid success. At this 
convention a paper read by her created a fine impression. 
They have an interesting family of four children. 
Governor Luce, in speaking of Mr. Pelham, said: "Mr. Pelham 
served under my administration in a responsible position with honor 
and credit to himself. He is a man of education, culture and char- 
acter. He is noted for strict fidelity in the discharge of any and all 
assumed duties. He is an all-weather Republican, is strong with the 
people of his race and an honor to them." 

"lola," now Mrs. Ida Wells-Barnett, a special writer for The 
Plaindealer, after a visit to Detroit said: "Mr. Pelham is the busiest 
man 1 know of anywhere." 



92 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Rev. William J. Simmons, author of "Men of Mark: Eminent, 
Progressive and Rising," gave him a place in that roster in 1887, and 
said, among other things: "His habits of life have been of such a 
character as to give him standing in the business world and mark 
him as a man of strict integrity and conscientious scruples in the 
discharge of every duty committed to his care, as well as enabling 
him to profit by all the opportunities of life. Mr. Pelham is a man 
of clear head, pure character and steady habits; a man to be admired 
on account of his modesty, sober-mindedness and intellectual char- 
acter." 

Pelham, Benj. B., is a native of Detroit, where he was born Feb. 
7th, 1862, and has always remained a resident of that city. He was 
educated in the public schools and is a graduate of the Detroit High 
School. He began his career with the Detroit "Post" and Detroit 
"Tribune," which papers he served in various capacities for seventeen 
years, after which he became a publisher and newspaper writer on his 
own account on the Plaindealer and other publications. He has for 
many years been regarded as a successful politician, having served as 
clerk in the Internal Revenue office and later as clerk in the office of 
County Treasurer and Register of Deeds and is now County Accountant 
in the office of the Auditors for Wayne County. In 1895 he married 
Miss Laura Montgomery, of Sandwich, Ont. They occupy their own 
home at 252 Frederick St., and have two children. Miss Francis, a 
miss of 17, and Alfred, a lad of 15 years, both of whom are acquiring 
a thorough education. The latter proved himself a very efficient and 
apt assistant for the Michigan Commission at Chicago, during the 
Lincoln Jubilee. 

Detectives. 

There are several Afro-Americans employed as police officers 
in the State of Michigan — one in Battle Creek, one in Ann Arbor and 
eight in Detroit, the value of the services of two of whom have not 
only been recognized by retention as officials, but they have been 
promoted to the more important position of detective, as follows: 

Richardson, Warren C, 328 Frederick, Detroit.. Is a native of Can- 
ada. Mr. Richardson has lived in Michigan upwards of 30 years. 
For a time he took an active part in Republican politics and started 
the publication of the newspaper called The Informer. About the 
year 1895 he was appointed to the police department of the City of 
Detroit, and in 1914 was promoted to the "plain clothes" or detective 
force connected with that department. He and Mr. Daniel O. Smith 
are the two first Afro-Americans to be honored with appointments as 
detectives in the City of Detroit, Commissioner of Police John Gil- 
lespie making the appointments. 

Smith, Daniel O. A native of Chatham, Canada. Has lived in 
Detroit upwards of 20 years. He became a member of the police 
department in 1898 and in 1914 was promoted to the "plain clothes" 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



93 



detective force connected with that department. As the detectives 
are all paired off, Mr. Smith is paired with Detective Warren C. 
Richardson. 

"The Plain Dealer." 

In 1883 the establishment of The Detroit I'laindealer at Detroit 
attracted attention in the newspaper world, and during the eleven years 
of its publication ranked high not only with its subscribers but also 
with its contemporaries. 




"Plaindoaler Boys" — Top row, left to riirht. Kobort A. }'rlhiim. Walter A. Stower*. 
William! H. Anderson. Sittinjr, left to riirht, Benjamin B. Felham. Byron (i. 



Redmond. 



94 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Early in 1884, under thq lead of this paper, a "Colored Men's 
State Convention" was held at Battle Creek, and by resolution the 
Republicans of Michigan were requested to elect a race representa- 
tive to the National Convention at Chicago. After a spirited contest 
and state-wide campaign, Dr. S. C. Watson, of Detroit, was elected 
delegate-at-large on the second ballot. His candidacy to the conven- 
tion was managed by The Plaindealer staff, with Mr. Robert Pelham 
at their head, easily defeating the Detroit Custom House men who 
opposed them. This was the first movement of its kind in the North. 
It was following this convention that Mr. Pelham and his associates 
"graduated from local politics," in the words of the distinguished 
ex-Postmaster-General Don M. Dickinson, and came into national 
prominence as "political hustlers." 

Editorially the paper was "second to none" and extensively 
quoted throughout the country. The editorial, "Judge Us By the 
Better Types," its articles relative to the Knights of Labor, "Billy 
Smith's" church comments and the "Bazoo and Bootjack" column 
not only attracted wide attention but were copied and commented 
on in all parts of the country. 

The Plaindealer was one of the first newspapers in the "West to 
recognize the great utility of typesetting machines, in such general 
use now, and was the second newspaper in Michigan to secure such 
machinery, a Rogers Typograph being placed in The Plaindealer office 
early in 1890. In addition to their own composition, 150,000 ems 
weekly were set for a "white contemporary." 

Of the five members of The Plaindealer Company at the start, 
as shown in the accompanying portrait, all except one are still citi- 
zens of and identified with Michigan interests. The exception, Mr. 
Byron Redmond, is now a cement contractor in Kansas City, Missouri, 
with a wife and eight children, three of whom are married. 

Policeman Woman. 

Godfrey, Daisy L. Came to Michigan with her parents at the age 
of 8 years and has been a resident of Lansing for 21 years. Was 
appointed matron of the Lansing Police Department March 24, 1897, 
by Chief of Police J. P. Sanford, and has served in that office ever 
since. For the past eight years she has been chief matron of the 
department and all delinquent women and female children are com- 
mitted to the various state institutions by her. She is regarded as 
absolutely trustworthy and is held in high esteem by her superior 
officers. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



95 




Chas. A. and Henry Wiliinms. Two Brothers of the Full Negro Blood, Who Have 
Made Good in Michigan, of Which State They Are Natives. Charles, at the I.oft. 
is an Attorney-at-Law, but Has Been (Jccupied for Some Ywirs as a (Jeneral 
Clerk in the Office of the Hoard of Assssors for the Citv of Detroit, whik- 
Henry Has for Thirteen Years Past Been a Clerk in the I'ostoffice at Knln- 
mazoo. Both Gentlemen Have Won Hosts of Friends Because of their Affable 
Manner and High Character of their Ability in their ( hosen Occupations. 



96 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




Hon. Green Allen, of Cass County, Who Has Been Justice of the Peace in His Home 
Township for Eighteen Years and was Re-elected for Another Four Years' Term 
in 1915. 



The Michigan 

Negro in Business 



Showing the Progress of Race 
Along Business Lines 



AS 
FARMERS, CONTRACTORS AND BUILDERS 

AND IN 
VARIED PURSUITS 



98 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




Albert J. White, Contractor and Builder^ Kalamazoo. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



99 




Residence of Albert J. White. Kulamazoo. 



The Following 

Five Buildings Here Shown Were 

Built Under Contract 



BY 



ALBERT J. WHITE 



OF 



KALAMAZOO 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



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MICHIGAN MANUAL 




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MICHIGAN MANUAL 




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106 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

THE MICHIGAN NEGRO IN BUSINESS. 

Though it is not generally known, not a few distinctive business 
successes must be credited to Negro pioneers and citizens of the 
State of Michigan. All of these successes are remarkable because 
of the fact that the individuals attaining them each started from 
nothing and became either well-to-do and affluent in circumstances 
or quite wealthy. 

The greatest number of successes among Negro business men 
must be credited to farmers — and the range of business successes 
among Negroes has not been exceptionally wide. Contractors and 
builders, express and livery men, contracting plasterers and at least 
one brick manufacturer may be found in the list, while several Negroes 
have gained competencies by conducting lawn-mowing, wood-sawing 
and tailoring businesses, and quite a number have become well-to-do 
in the barber business. 

In the barber business at one time colored men were greatly pre- 
dominant. Almost all of them drew what is commonly known as the 
"color line" in conducting their business, fearing that if they served 
men of their own color it would mean business suicide and conse- 
quential financial loss to them; but the most distinctive success in 
this particular line of business has been accomplished by a Negro 
in the City of Ann Arbor who never drew the "color line" in the con- 
duct of his business, and who served white and black alike, number- 
ing among his patrons many of the most prominent people of Mich- 
igan, including United States senators. Congressmen and many state 
officials, none of whom ever objected to the manner in which this 
gentleman conducted his business by serving all customers in his 
high-class establishment who came properly garbed and conducted 
themselves as gentlemen. This notable instance is conclusive proof 
that, even in so personal a business as barbering, drawing the "color 
line" is not essential to success, since the man referred to has accu- 
mulated a snug fortune, wholly from his business, and is today the 
wealthiest working Negro barber in the State of Michigan. 

The sketches of successful Negro business men here given are 
by no means complete. As before stated, the short time given to 
publish this Manual and the limited funds appropriated for the pur- 
pose made it impossible to obtain complete data regarding Afro- 
American business persons of the State of Michigan; but it is suf- 
ficient to show a wide range of business activity among the Negro 
population, and includes persons of the full Negro blood as well as 
those of mixed blood. 

The following is a partial list of those Afro-Americans who have 
proved successful business people: 

Adams, Joseph J., 233 Williams St., Grand Rapids, Mich., is a native 
of South Carolina and has resided in Michigan for 44 years. Mr. 
Adams is a contracting mason and has been exceedingly successful 
in his business, having accumulated a fortune of comfortable size. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 107 

and resides in* a pretty, commodious and well-appointed residence 
with his wife and three children. He also takes an active part in 
civic affairs and is a member of several secret societ>'^s and an all- 
around public-spirited citizen. He is a Nepro of the full blood and 
one of the solid Afro-American citizens of the Furniture City. 

Allen, John W., started his business career as a carpenter and 
builder thirty years ago in the City of Lansing with practically no 
capital. He had started housekeeping with a bride two years previou.s 
at the age of 18 with a $32 outfit of household goods, and underwent 
many hardships during his early married life. Being possessed of 
plenty of ambition and resourcefulness, he soon became a factor in 
the building trade in his adopted home, and while it is difficult to 
gain exact information regarding his present status, it is knov,-n 
that he is in affluent circumstances and lives in one of the prettiest 
and best appointed homes in the City of Lansing. He has constructed 
many of the best and most substantial buildings at the Capital and 
is known as one of Lansing's substantial business men. His wealth 
is estimated at $25,000. 

Alien, V/illiam. Born in Columbia County, Ohio, in 1832; settled 
in Cass County, Michigan, in 1848. In 1851 he married. His own 
wedding suit cost him $7 and his wife's cost $4, and they went 
to housekeeping with a drygoods box for a dining-room table. Seven 
children were born to this union, and the hardships of the family 
were many, Mr. Allen working for 25 and 50 cents a day or receiving 
25 cents a cord for cutting cordwood. His first wife died at the age 
of 37, but before her death Allen had become the owner of a small 
farm and had started his career as one of tho most successful farmers 
in the nation. He is said to be the shrewdest judge of livestock in 
the State of Michigan. He now owns over SCO acres of excellent farm 
land and about !f20,000 Avorth of personal property. He is in fairly 
good health at the age of S3 and is living v.-ith his fourth wife. He 
has long enjoyed a reputation for the strictest integrity and hon- 
esty, and his success is attributed to good management and good 
habits. He has entertained Booker T. Washington at his country 
home, and also has been entertained in Chicago by such men as 
Philip D. Armour, of the Armour Packing Company, and other notable 
men in the business world. It may be of interest to note that Mr. 
Allen is of white, Negro and Indian extraction. 

Allen, George W., is a native of Porter Township, Cass County, 
where he has lived all of the 40 years of his life, and engaged in the 
business of farming, at which he has been reasonably successful, 
accumulating considerable property. Mr. Allen is a breeder of regis- 
tered poultry and has listed an exhibit with the Frecdmen's Progress 
Commission for the Chicago Exposition. 

Allen, Green, is a native of Calvin Township, Cass County, Michigan. 
where he has lived all of the 55 years of his life, and follows the 
business of farming, at which ho has proved highly successful, h.-ivint' 



108 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




Residence of John W. Allen, Lansing. 



acquired a large property and a sufficient fortune to entitle him to 
the reputation of being a substantial citizen. Mr. Allen is also prom- 
inent in religious work and to some extent has been active in politics. 
He is now president of the Calvin County Interdenominational Sunday 
School Association, has served as superintendent of the Chain Lake 
Baptist Sunday School for 30 years and was recently re-elected for 
five years. He was moderator of the Chain Lake Baptist Association 
of Michigan, being the only layman ever elected to that high position. 
He has served his township ior 28 years in succession as justice of 
the peace and was re-elected in 1915 for another term, and he is at 
present Republican committeeman from Cass County. He has four 
children, one of whom, Fred C. Allen, acted in the capacity of Assist- 
ant Field Agent for the Freedmen's Progress Commission, created by 
the Legislature In 1915. The senior Mr. Allen is also one of the 
exhibitors of farm produce at the National Half Century Exposition 
of Freedmen's Progress. 

Anderson, Amon B., of Jones, Cass County, is a native of Illinois, 
and is engaged In the business of farming. He has been a resident 
of Michigan for 70 years, most of which time he has resided at his 
present home. Mr. Anderson is a veteran of the Civil War and is 
credited with having one of the best kept homes in Southern Michigan. 

Anderson, Wm. H. A native of Sandusky, Ohio, born August 13th. 
1857. Attended common school in that city and came to Detroit at 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



100 



the age of 16. Graduated from the Detroit High School in 1875 and 
commenced his career as parcel boy at the well-known dry goods house 
of Newcomb, Endicott Co. In a few years he became bookkeeper and 
is still employed by this prominent firm, having reached the responsi- 
ble position of credit man. Mr. Anderson is also a newspaper cor- 
respondent and author, his series of articles in the Detroit Plaindealer 
on "Our Relation to Labor" attracted wide and favorable attention. In 
1885 he married Miss Lucy Bowdree, of Jefferson, Ohio, and is happily 
domiciled in his cosy home at 265 Frederick St. 

Atwood, William Quincy, was a native of Wilcox County, Alabama, 
where he was born on the plantation of Henry Stiles Atwood. On 
the death of his father he, together with his mother and throe younger 
brothers, were sent to Ohio in 1851, where, with a few months' school- 
ing, he began work to support his mother and three younger brothers. 
In 1858 young Atwood with one of his brothers made a trip to Cali- 
fornia, where he went into the restaurant business, but later became 
a horse dealer, and eventually invested with varying results in gold 
and silver mining, which was then at boom tide. In 1859 young 
Atwood returned to his home at Ripley, Ohio. He soon again went 
on another exploration, this time into Michigan, land-looking, in 
Lapeer and central Michigan counties, where he located some val- 




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Residence of Green Allen, Farmer, Calvin Township, Cass County. 



no 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 



c 




FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 111 

uable pine lands which afterward made Mr. Atwood one of Michigan's 
wealthiest Afro-American citizens. In 1861 he removed to Saginaw, 
where he built up an extensive lumber and real estate business. At 
the outbreak of the Civil War he returned to Ripley, Ohio, and organ- 
ized a volunteer company of colored troops and offered their services 
to the Governor, but at that time it had not been decided to employ 
colored troops in the War of the Rebellion, and the tender of Atwood's 
company was refused. He returned to Saginav>- and remained there 
until his death, December 19, 1910. Mr. Atwood became somewhat 
prominent in Republican politics, and in 1S88 was elected a delegate- 
at-large to the National Rcpublinan Convention at Chicago. Self- 
educated, self-made and successful beyond early dreams, W. Q. Atwood 
became in middle age a versatile student of history, philosophy and 
the cultured classics, a profound thinker and a forceful and convincing 
orator. It may be said of him that he possessed modesty without 
humility, dignity without arrogance, breadth without shallowness, 
emoiton without fanaticism, humor without sarcasm, reserve without 
reticence, pride without conceit, poise without pose, clean witliout 
prudishness, dynamic vrith control, ideas, theme, and a man mutually 
embraced and portrayed. In 1S72 Mr. Atwood married Miss Charlotte 
M. Eckles, a native of Georgia, at Cleveland, Ohio. She was a grad- 
uate of the Salem Normal School at Salem, Mass. Four children sur- 
vive this remarkable couple — William Quincy of Chicago, Frederick 
Stiles and Oliver Kossuth of Saginaw, who manage the extensive W. 
Q. Atwood estate, and Alberta Lottie McLeod of Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Bell, Louis, of St. Joseph, Michigan, is a native of Michigan and a 
veteran the Civil War. For many years he conducted a barber busi- 
ness at his home city, but is now retired and lives from his well- 
earned competence accumulated from his business, supplemented by 
a pension. 

Broadnax, W. H., is a native of Bermuda Islands, and came to Mich- 
igan 17 years ago, settling at Cassopolis, where he conducts a mer- 
chant tailoring business and in connection therewith a pool and bil- 
liard parlor. 

Brown, Henry H ., of Vandalia, is a native of East Virginia and 
came to Michigan 41 years ago. Mr. Brown is a veteran of the Civil 
War, in which he saw nearly two years of active service as a soldier. 
He enlisted from the State of Ohio, returning there after the surren- 
der at Appomattox, and later came to Michigan, settling in Cass 
County, where he now lives. He made a study of farming and is 
now known by his neighbors as a scientific farmer. He also buys 
and sells real estate and has himself accumulated nearly 400 acres 
of good farming lands and also a comfortable personal estate, and 
is regarded as one of Cass County's most substantial farmers and 
business men. 



112 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 



Bryant, George, a native of Cincinnati, Ohio, came to Michigan 35 
years ago and is one of the pioneer settlers of Whittalcer, Washtenaw 
County. Mr. Bryant is a successful farmer and lives in one of the 
most complete farm homes to be found in the state, a picture of 
which is shown elsewhere. He has also accumulated considerable 
personal property and is styled one of Whittaker's substantial citizens. 




Farm Home of George Bryant, Whittaker. 



Buck, Charles B. Is a native of Mississippi. Came to Kalamazoo, 
Michigan, 57 years ago a destitute, homeless little waif. The mission- 
ary society of one of the white churches gave him clothes and food 
while a colored family took him in their home and cared for him until 
his own mother came north. The first money he earned and saved 
was $36 which his mother paid on a lot for him in Kalamazoo, about 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



113 




Mr. and Mrs. Charles Buck. Kalamazoo. 



50 years ago. He has been saving money and buying property ever 
since. In due course of time he became a successful farmer and 
later developed into a real estate broker. His present fortune is var- 
iously estimated at from fifty to one hundred thousand dollars, though 
it is difficult to accurately state just how much Mr. Buck owns in this 
world's goods. Among his real estate holdings are seven tenement 
houses and one store in Kalamazoo. Three farms and tenements in 
Schoolcraft and Three Rivers. Mr. Buck attributes his success not 
only to his frugal and industrious habits, but to the far-sighted train- 
ing given to him by his mother. Of this he says, "My mother made 
me stay in the country. I shall never forget a whipping she gave me 
one spring when I secured work in the town instead of in the country 
as she had told me to do. The next morning I hired out to a farmer.' 
Butler, John L. A native of Cass County, Michigan, now a farmer 
in Kalamazoo, where he has become quite successful In that business. 
Besides a well equipped farm, he owns several parcels of real estate 
in the city of Kalamazoo. 

Byrd, John W. A native of Windsor. Ontario, but has lived in De- 
troit for the past 28 years. Graduated from the Detroit High School, 
then accepted a po.sition as janitor at the American Savings Bank, 25 
years ago. He was soon raised to the position of messenger, in which 
work he was employed for 10 years, after which lie was appointed re- 
mittance clerk, which he held for a time, and was then made transit 



114 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

clerk at the Dime Savings Bank, Detroit, in which position 
he is still employed. By careful management and frugal habits Mr. 
Byrd has accumulated considerable property. 

Carter, F. Emanuel. Is a native of Canada and has resided at Whit- 
taker, Michigan, 47 years, where he started his career in the business 
of farming in which he has proved very successful. He, together with 
present wife, were the parents of 22 children, 13 of whom are still 
living. He makes a specialty of breeding poultry and is one of the 
exhibitors at the Freedmen's Progress Exposition. 

Carter, James Douglas. Was born January 9, 1825, at Richmond, 
Va., of free parents. At the age of four he lost his father by death. 
In 1848 he made a trip to Detroit. Returning to Richmond he married 
Miss Sarah Morris, October 15, 1848. He moved to Detroit in 1853. 
Having learned the carpenter trade he opened a carpenter shop on the 
site of the present city hall in that city, and later purchased a lot on 
which he established his business at the corner of Lafayette and 
Beaubien streets, where he remained until 1876. In that year he sold 
this land to the Harmonia Society for $10,000 and established a coal 
and wood business at the corner of Sherman and Hastings streets. 
He was thrifty and although having little or no education he accumu- 
lated considerable property in addition to his places of business, own- 
ing a fine brick residence on Macomb street and purchased vacant 
acreage in the north part of what is now the city of Detroit, which 
land forms the only subdivision named after an Afro-American in that 
city, and is called Carter's subdivision. Mr. Carter was a staunch 
member of the Second Baptist Church, and one of its officers for many 
years. He died June 5, 1896, leaving his widow and eight children in 
comfortable circumstances. His estate was said to have amounted 
to upwards of $30,000 at the time of his death. 

Cole, James Henry. Was a free born native of Mississippi. He 
came to Michigan when ten years of age, and secured employment at 
the old Franklin House as chore boy and hostler. The ladies of the 
Second Baptist Church gave their motherly aid to rearing the young 
lad and he became a lifelong member of that society. In 1861 he mar- 
ried Mary Thompson and in the same year started an expressing and 
delivery business. This in time developed into a highly successful 
livery business. He invested his earnings in Gratot Avenue business 
property and at the time of his death in 1907 was possessed of an 
estate valued at nearly one quarter million dollars. Mr. Cole left a 
widow and four children who have organized the James H. Cole Realty 
Company, with a view of holding his estate intact as a monument to 
llis memory. 

Cole, George. Is a native of the City of Detroit. Educated in the 
public schools, and has succeeded to the management of the Cole ex- 
pressing and moving van business, formerly owned by his father, the 
late James H. Cole, and is also one of the organizers of the corpora- 
tion named in their father's honor to hold and manage the real estate 
left by him. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



115 




Mr. and Mrs. F. Emanuel Carter and Three of their Thirteen Livinjr Children. 
Whittaker, Snapped by the Secretary in their Working Clothes. 

Cole, Wm. E. A native of Detroit. Was educated in the public 
schools of Detroit and during the early years of his life assisted his 
father in conducting of the expressing, moving van and storage 
business. Mr. Cole has recently engaged in the real estate business 
and is one of the organizers of the James H. Cole Realty Company. 

Daniels, Nelson. Kalamazoo, Michigan, where he has lived for 
twenty years following the business of sione mason. Mr. Daniels owns 
four houses and lots, possesses a common school education, is a wid- 
ower, and has five children in his family. 

Davis, Nathan H. Is a native of Louisiana; lived in Michigan fifty 
years; has conducted a barber business in Eaton Rapids for many years 
past. He lives in a handsome home which he owns free of debt, with 
a wife and two children. 

Dean, Charles E. Native of Virginia; lived in Michigan forty-nine 
years, now a re.'i^ident of Adrian, where he conducts a house cleaning 
business. An interesting story is told of one of Mr, Dean's anteced- 



116 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 







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FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 117 

ents. His great-great-grandmother was an English brunette woman 
brought to this country as a domestic. Because of her dark complex- 
ion she was enslaved after reaching this country and made to marry 
a slave, according to the slave ethics, and she became the mother 
of several children who were all sold off into slavery. 

Drenshaw, Abram. Native of Ohio, has lived in Michigan forty 
years; now a resident of Flint. He follows the business of carpenter 
and builder and has listed a sample of cornice work as an exhibit with 
the Michigan exhibit. 

Dungey, Andrew. Is a native of Cass County, Michigan, and lias 
resided at Lansing for many years. Mr. Dungey is a contractor and 
builder and has erected over three hundred of Lansing's best dwelling 
houses and bears an excellent reputation for producing high class 
work in his line of business. Mr. Dungey is also active in church work 
and in fraternal work and has accumulated a comfortable fortune en- 
tirely by his own efforts. 

Evans, George. Native of Logan County, Ohio. Came to Whittaker, 
Michigan, forty years ago and is one of the pioneer farmers in that 
section. Has been succesr^ful, accumulating a large property and an 
excellent farm, well stocked. He was equipped only with a common 
school education. 

Evans, John J., 463 Maple street, Battle Creek. Is a native of Cher- 
okee, Georgia. Has lived in Michigan seventy years His father, 
James Elam Evans, was a white planter of Georgia, his mother a 
slave. When the Legislature of that State adopted a law in ante- 
bellum days expelling all free Negroes from the Slate of Georgia the 
senior Evans brought the mother and our subject with four other 
children, north to Indiana, where he lived with them until 1S4(), when 
he died, and our subject, John J., came on to Battle Creek, Mich., and 
entered the barber business. He still operates one of the best barber 
shops in the State of Michigan, employing six barbers as assistants. 
Besides his barber business Mr. Evans is also engaged in the manu- 
facturing business, having invented an insect destroyer that has proved 
exceedingly effective. He has accumulated an independent fortune and 
is still hale and hearty at an age which few men attain in life, being 
nearly eighty years old. (Since writing above Mr. Evans died sud- 
denly Sept. 3, 1915, at Marshall, Mich.) 

Everett, William. Is a native of Kentucky. Lived in Michigan 
twenty-seven years. For many years he was engaged as a waiter. 
About ten years ago he bought a team and embarked in the business 
of teaming, from which he has accumulated considerable property, 
owning a $4,000 home on Monroe avenue, Detroit, and now owning and 
operating from four to six teams constantly. 

Haithcocic, Joseph. Native of Calvin County, Michigan; has lived in 
Michigan all of his life, also maintains an office at South Bend, In- 
diana. Mr. Haithcook is a contractor and builder and has been rea- 
sonably successful in his business. He has a wife and three children. 



118 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 



Harris, Jacob. Is a native of Indiana and lived at Cossipolis fifty- 
five years where he embarked in the business of farming from which 
he has accumulated a comfortable fortune. He is a Civil War veteran, 
belonging to Company B, 102, United States Regiment. 

Havard, Armster-Joseph. Constitute the firm now known as Havard 
Bros., of Highland Park, Mich. Both of these men are under 37 years 
of age and natives of Mississippi, and are the children of John and 
Vena Havard. They are Negroes of the full blood. They came to 
Michigan twelve years ago with no capital. Armster secured employ- 
ment as driver of an ice wagon, and Joseph secured work as a mason's 
tender. About eight years ago these young men began to buy High- 




Joseph and Armster Havard, Being the Fir.^t and Second of Those in the Above 
Portrait from Left to Kisht. The Others Are Three of their Workmen. 



land Park property and as fast as they accumulated capital they 
erected buildings thereon and now own a dozen parcels of Detroit and 
Highland Park real estate valued at about .$30,000, and two years ago 
branched out in business for themselves as above indicated, doing all 
kinds of cement work and erection of cellars. The example of Havard 
Bros.' prosperity may well be emulated by many who claim there is 
little opportunity for success in this nation. They are both imeducated. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 119 

Hawks, Gertrude. Native of Calvin Township, Michigan. Has con- 
ducted a farming business for some years and now owns two hundred 
acres of land free and clear and has proved exceedingly successful. 

Henson, Wm. P. Native of Indiana, lived in Michigan twelve years, 
is foreman of a foundry in Kalamazoo, and has accumulated considera- 
ble property. Mr. Henson has a fairly good education, graduating from 
the common schools and attending college four years. 

Johnson, Wm. Was a native of Tennessee. Came to Detroit, Mich., 
in 1865, where he engaged in the wood-sawing business, wood at that 
time being the universal fuel used in Michigan. Johnson bought a 
wood-sawing machine operated by horsepower and went about the city 
sawing wood. He was of saving disposition and accumulated consid- 
erable property at that business. Later when coal came into general 
use Mr. Johnson turned his attention to taking care of lawns for the 
wealthier class of Detroit people and was kept busy at that work. 
He was so successful that at his death a few years ago he left a for- 
tune the value of which was estimated at $25,000. He was a Negro of 
the full blood. 

Johnston, George A. A native of Canada, has lived in Washtenaw 
. County for forty years, where he entered the business of farming 
which he still follows, and from which he has accumulated a com- 
fortable competence. He is the owner of one hundred and sixty acres 
of excellent farm lands and considerable other property and is said 
to be the wealthiest Afro-American citizen in Ypsilanti. 

Lawson, Cornelius. Native of North Carolina and a resident of 
Michigan for sixty-two years. Mr. Lawson entered the business of 
farming in Cass County and has accumulated a competence from said 
business. He has been honored by being elected Supervisor of Calvin 
Township; has also served as Justice of the Peace in said township 
for upwards of 25 years, and is regarded as one of the solid pioneer 
citizens of his home county. 

May, Frank W. Was a native of Reading County, Ky., where he 
was born a slave July 7th, 1854. Came to Michigan in 1881 where he 
was employed as a lumber skaler. In 1891 he entered the business of 
manufacturing hardwood lumber, owning a sawmill in West Detroit. 
In 1905 he sold out his sawmill business and became a dealer in stand- 
ing timber or what was known in those days as a "timber looker." Mr. 
May retired from business in 1907 and died two years later, leaving an 
estate valued at $50,000. 

May, Ida. Native of Louisville, Ky., and is (he widow of Frank W. 
May. She is engaged in the business of farming and is proving hif;hly 
successful as the manager of the estate left by her husband. She re- 
sided in the city of Detroit with her two daughters. 

Moore, Alexander. A native of Fredericksburg, Va. Was one of De- 
troit's best known colored barbers. For many years he was the bo-s 
barber of the old Russell House. Later he established his shop in the 
McGraw building and was operating the Hammond Huilding barber 



120 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

shop at the time of his death in 1898. He left a widow in good cir- 
cumstances, and a son, Professor S. A. Moore, of Paul Quin College, 
Waco, Texas. 

Merriman, Riley. Native of Canada. Settled at Whittaker, Washte- 
naw County, fifty years ago. Entered the business of farming at which 
he has proved very successful. On his farm Mr. Merriman has one 
of the most complete and modern farm houses to be found in this state. 

Morgan, Zachariah. One of the earliest pioneers, white or black, in 
Charlevoix County, Mich. He was a native of North Carolina, being 
born November 11th, 1840. When seven years of age he removed with 
his parents to Indiana. At the age of seventeen he went to Canada. 
In 1861 he emigrated with his parents to Haiti, West Indies, and was 
there married to Miss Mary R. Nevitt, in 1864, who also had emigrated 
to that country from Canada. Mr. Morgan served as a first lieutenant 
in the Haitian army and after seven years residence in that country he 
recrossed the Atlantic with his wife and two children and settled in 
Maryland. Two years later, in 1870, Mr. Morgan settled at Boyne City, 
Michigan, which at that time was a wilderness of forest, but he hewed 
out a home for himself near Pine Lake clearing the land and makijng 
railroad ties and cord-wood which he marketed for a living in the 
meantime. Later he became an engineer in NichoU's lumber mills. 
With the help of his wife he saved money and invested it in the 
lumber business and in other business enterprises, including a brick 
making plant, and when he died, March 3rd, 1894, he left a com- 
fortable fortune for his family. Mr. Morgan had become one of the 
most prominent and most trusted citizens of what is now a thriving 
center of population known as Boyne City, Mich. He had been elected 
to the position of Supervisor of Wilson Township for two terms, elect- 
ed treasurer of the city for two terms, and had also been elected 
Justice of the Peace, and at the time of his death was one of the 
trustees of the Boyne City schools. Mary R. Morgan, his wife, has 
successfully managed the business left by Mr. Morgan, since his death, 
and has probably increased the value of the Morgan estate. 

Morris, James. Native of Canada. Has resided in Detroit for seven 
years, where he opened a second-hand store in which he has done a 
progresive business. He now owns two stores and manages several 
properties which he equips with household goods and subrents at a 
profit. 

Newman, Albert. Native of Virginia. Has lived in Eaton Rapids 
for several years where he has successfully conducted a barber busi- 
ness for many years. He owns one of the prettiest homes in the city 
of his adoption where he lives with his wife and one daughter. 

Osby, Wm. C. Native of Shipman, 111., and a resident of Michigan 
fourteen years. Mr. Osby is a self made engineer, graduating from a 
correspondence school in electrical and steam engineering. He en- 
tered the employment of the Detroit Realty Company as an engineer 
of one of their apartment houses, upwards of twelve years ago and 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



121 




Residence and Farm Scene of Z. Morgan. Wilson Township, t harlevoix (ounly. 



today is the managing engineer for all of their large apartment build- 
ings, a position carrying with it high responsibility and executive abil- 
ity. He has acquired a considerable property of his own since his 
said employment in Detroit; is president of the local branch of the 
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; an offi- 
cer of the Second Baptist Church, and lives with his wife and son at 
1140 West Hancock Avenue. 

Richerson, George. Is a native of Canada. Came to Whittaker, 
Washtenaw County, twenty-five years ago with a wife and four chil- 
dren, and started farming. Mr. Richerson selected a piece of land at 
Whittaker upon which to start his farm, left his family on it. then 
worked in Detroit as a coal heaver to secure enough money to pay on 
this farm. Returning to Whittaker, he started in actively at the busi- 
ness of farming at which he has become highly successful, also as a 
stock raiser, and a stock buyer, and is said to be one of the shrewdest 
stock buyers in Washtenaw County. He now owns one hundred and 
fifty acres of land, well stocked and well equipped and has erected for 
himself perhaps the prettiest and most modern farm house in the sec- 
tion of the state in which he lives, costing the sum of $5,000 to erect 
and equip. He is the father of 22 children, 17 of whom are now living 
and 19 of whom were mothered by his present wife. The youngest 
child was less than 1 year old in 1915. Mr. Richer.son can neither 
read nor write, but was denied an education becau.se his fatiier 
was too proud to permit him to attend a colored school, and he 
was barred from entering the white schools. He is of French, Indian 
and Negro extraction and Mrs. Richerson is a mulatto. Tiie entire 
family not only seem to enjoy o.xci^llent health but are mentally alert 
and capable. Two sons drive milk routes for large creamery concerns 
and the income of the family is upwards of $:100 per month. 



122 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




Mrs. Mary P. Morg-an, Boync City. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



l-'3 



Robins, Henry Wade. Is a native of Canada. His grandparents 
were slaves. He has lived in Michigan thirty-one years, most of which 
time he has lived in Ann Arbor, where he has conducted a high- 
class barber business, in which he has accumulated a con- 
siderable sized fortune, owning some of tiie best business prop- 
erty in the city of Ann Arbor, as well as some residence 
property and his barber business. Mr. Robbins has completely nega- 
tived the popular fallacy that in order to be successful in the l)arber 
business the boss was required to draw the color line in his patron- 
age. This Mr. Robins has never done. He treated all gentlemen 
alike and catered to high-class trade, both white and colored, and he 
has numbered and still numbers among his patrons many of the best 
known white people in Michigan, as well as the higher class of colored 
people. Among his patrons are men exceedingly prominent in public 
life, Senators, Congressmen, State Officials and Church Men. He is 
progressive, far beyond the average business man. Mr. Robbins is 
possessed of a common school education and resides in his cozy home 
in Ann Arbor with his wife and two children. 

Sanders, David. Is a native of Niles, Michigan, where he has en- 
gaged in the hide and fur business, bearing a high reputation as being 
an excellent judge of hides and fur. 

Scott, John J. Is a native of Indiana and has lived in Michigan 
thirty-five years. He is now a resident of Lansing where he has en- 
gaged in the business of fruit growing. Mr. Scott has accumulated 




Kcsidince of Jlinr\ Wad. Kc.l.t.iii-. Ann Arhor. 



124 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




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FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 125 

considerable in his business and owns several parcels of land in his 
home city. 

Shepherd, Henry. A native of Oswego, N. Y. Came to Michigan 
forty years ago and engaged in the milk peddling business in Detroit, 
which he conducted until about ten years ago, at which time he had 
accumulated considerable property, including many vacant lots in the 
northern part of the city. He then retired from the milk peddling 
business and became a builder, contractor and real estate dealer, in 
which occupations he is still engaged, and has become highly succe.ss- 
ful, owning many high class parcels of real estate and doing a large 
volume of business each year. His fortune is estimated at upwards 
of $50,000. We say estimated because of Mr. Shepherd's modesty in 
revealing the exact extent of his holdings. He has always taken an 
active interest in public matters and especially in the welfare of the 
Afro-American people. He lives in a handsome home at 1734 Twelfth 
street, and is still unmarried. 

Smith, Willard. Is a native of Michigan and has been a resident of 
Whittaker for fifty-three years. He was there engaged in the farming 
business and has accumulated a comfortable competence in that busi- 
ness. 

Steward, Joseph A., is a native of Ohio, and has lived in Cass 
County, Michigan, for forty-six years, where he is engaged in the 
farming business. Mr. Scott is one of Cass County's most prosperous 
and solid farmers; is located near Dowagiac and owns over two 
hundred acres of excellent farming lands, and lives in a beautiful 
home with his wife and five children. 

Story, J. Edward. A native of Bath, New York; resident of Adrian, 
Michigan, for thirty-nine years, the most of which time he conducted 
a successful barber busines.s, from which he has now retired, having 
a competence of several thousand dollars, consisting of tenement 
property in that city. He is a veteran of the Civil War. 

Tate, William Lincoln. Native of Ohio; lived in Michigan 47 years; 
now a resident of Lansing, where he is foreman in a boiler-making 
establishment. He is possessed of a common school education, has 
acquired considerable property, and has a wife and four children. 

Taylor, Thaddeus W. A native of Jackson, Mississippi, and a resi- 
dent of Michigan for eighteen years past. Mr. Taylor was an expert 
manufacturer of wax figures, hair and toilet goods and tailors' sup- 
plies. He was for many years connected with one of the best manu- 
facturing establishments as foreman and designer of the wax goods 
department, in the country, at Lansing, Michigan, and about the year 
1900 he established a manufacturing business of his own in the City 
of Detroit, removing later to Howell, Michigan, where he built up 
an extensive mail order business in hair and toilet goods and tailors' 
supplies. Besides becoming a successful busines man, Mr. Taylor 
earned for himself a most excellent reputation for honest dealing and 
strict integrity. His word was his bond, and he never failed to keep 



126 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 







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FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 127 

it. It may be said of liim that he had no enemies, and the Repub- 
licans of Howell nominated him for city cleric and came within six 
votes of electing him, he running ahead of his ticket by a large num- 
ber of votes. Three years ago Mr. Taylor removed from Howell to 
Detroit so his family could enjoy better social facilities, and estab- 
lished his business in that city. He died July 24, 1915, leaving a 
wife and daughter, Beatrice Bernice, in comfortable circumstances. 

Taylor, Beatrice Bernice, daughter of Thaddeus W. and Ida L. Tay- 
lor, is a native of Chicago, Illinois, and came to Michigan in her 
infancy with her parents. She was educated in the public schools of 
Howell and Detroit; is a graduate of the Detroit High School and 
of the Conservatory of Music. Upon the death of her father, Miss 
Taylor became the manager of the T. W. Taylor Company, organized 
to perpetuate the business established by its namesake, and the young 
lady is proving herself a business manager far above the average in 
tact and ability. Miss Taylor is also administratrix for her father's 
estate. 

Thompson, Charles. Native of Tennessee. Came to Michigan 20 
years ago. He has been a resident of Sault Ste. Marie for a number 
of years, where he is engaged in the business of selling souvenirs to 
tourists. Mr. Thompson is one of the largest exhibitors of fancy goods 
from Michigan at the National Half Century Exposition. 

Wallace, Professor T, has lived in Michigan 38 years, and estab- 
lished a sanitarium or hospital at Adrian, Mich., where he is said to 
have performed wonderful feats in the cure of diseases. He is the 
originator of the Myo-Pathic treatment and has accumulated a large 
property in that city valued at $20,000. 

Watson, Edward. Native of Detroit, Mich., where he has engaged 
in the undertaking business bequeathed him by his step-father, Mr. 
William Henry Howard. Mr. Watson bears the distinction of being 
the great-grandson of Zachary Taylor, a former president of the 
United States. 

Wheeler, James D., is a native of Virginia, and has lived in Detroit, 
Michigan for 19 years. He followed the occupation of a waiter until 
eight years ago, when he established a retail coal business at 422 
Monroe Avenue, in which he has become quite successful and has 
accumulated a snug competence. Besides several teams used in the 
delivering of fuel, Mr. Wheeler also has an automobile for his per- 
sonal use. 

Williams, Harrison and Wallace. Natives of Louisiana. Have lived 
in Michigan live years and arc now engaged in the coal, wood and 
expressing business at 284 Beaubien Street, Detroit. 

Winburn, Mrs. William, is a native of Niles, Mich., where she 
has lived all her life, conducting a business of truck farming, in 
which she has proved very successful. She has accumulated some 
real estate in Nilcs besides hor farm property, and has a considerable 
personal estate. She also has two children, Mrs. Ollie Stafford, who 
is a grocery keeper, and Robert L., who is a real estate dealer, both 
of whom are equally as successful as their parent. 



128 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




^i«f^:. — '^ — — - — ■ - -" ■' " ■ ' ■ " " -"■' — '-" 



Bethel A. M. E. Church, Detroit. 



Afro American 
Organizations in Michigan 



Religious 
Secret Societies 



Charitable Organizations 
Clubs 



160 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




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FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 131 

Afro-American Organizations in 

Michigan 

As previously stated, there have been descendants of the Negro 
race in the State of Michigan for upwards of a century, according to 
history, and in 1836, when slavery was legally abolished in the terri- 
tory now comprising the State of Michigan, there were about forty 
slaves and a very few free Negroes in the state. They have increased 
from time to time and at a very early date formed organizations of 
their own, at that time chiefly churches, the first of these being the 
Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church and the Second Baptist 
Church of Detroit, Mich., which are the pioneer religious societies 
organized among Michigan's Afro-American population. Bethel A. 
M. E. Church was first organized in 1839 and was then known as 
Colored Methodists. They established a church at what is now near 
the corner of Hastings Street and Monroe Avenue. In 1845 the Bethel 
Church invested ?2,300 in a new church property on Lafayette Street 
East, on the site now occupied by the Boydell Varnish House. About 
forty-five years later this church had again outgrown its building and 
removed to the corner of Hastings and Napoleon Streets, where it is 
nov/ located, and where it is housed in one of the largest church edi- 
fices owned by Michigan Afro-Americans. The structure was erected 
at a total cost of $21,000 on that location in 1890. 

The African Methodist Connection, to which Bethel Church be- 
longs, is probably the largest single organization governed by Negro 
Americans, having a beginning with a handful of colored people in 
the City of Baltimore in 1786. It developed into a convention in 1816, 
on which date it was organized under its present name with Rev. 
Richard Allen as its first bishop. Its growth has been rapid and it 
now comprises more than 6,647 churches, nearly 900,000 members and 
over 300,000 Sunday-school scholars. The value of churcii property 
owned by this society is $11,303,489. It maintains a number of mis- 
sionary stations both in foreign countries and at home and raises 
over $200,000 a year for educational and missionary purposes. More 
than thirty bishops have presided over the several districts in which 
the territory of this church is divided, and in Michigan there are 
twenty-three churches belonging to this organization with a total 
membership of 2,480 church members and 1,818 Sunday-school schol- 
ars, 23 regularly assigned pastors and several evangelists. 

The Michigan Conference has a liome for superannuated ministers, 
Avhich is located in the City of Jackson, named after one of the lead- 
ing bishops of this church, James A. Handy. Four of these churches 
are located in and about Detroit, the Bethel and Ebenezer, which are 
the two largest churches in the Michigan Connoclion. and Hamtramck 
and West Detroit Churches. Then there are churches establisiicd at 
Grand Rapids, Kalamazoo, Ann Arbor, Ypsilanti, Lansing. Saginaw, 



132 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




Second Baptist Church, Detroit. 



Jackson, Benton Harbor, Flint, Battle Creek, Cassopolis, Volina, St. 
Joseph, Day's Circuit, Niles, Pontiac, Adrian, Whittaker and Coleman. 
Bethel Church of Detroit has a seating capacity of nearly 700 and has 
long been pastored by able, educated members of the ministry. The 
present pastor of Bethel is the Rev. Joseph M. Evans, D. D., who is 
possessed of a thorough education and is a scholar ripe in ecclesias- 
tical attainments. Dr. Evans is not only a notable pulpit orator but 
also a writer and poet of more than passing notice. His poem on 
Bishop Turner, who was recently deceased, attracted wide attention. 
James M. Henderson, pastor of Ebenezer A. M. E. Church, a 
beautiful edifice in Detroit, seating nearly 500 people, is also one of 
the more noted members of the Michigan Conference, possessing a 
high education, and has achieved tlio ro])utation of being a powerful 
orator. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



133 




Kev. R. L. Bradby. 



134 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Other noted divines now holding Michigan pastorates are the 
Revs. D. R. Ampey of Grand Rapids, L. Pettiford of Kalamazoo, I. F. 
Williams of Ypsilanti, J. W. Jarvis of Lansing, T. Augustus Reid of 
Saginaw, Benjamin Roberts of Jackson, W. B. Pearson of Ann Arbor, 
Walter Crider of Benton Harbor, J. O. Morley of Flint, S. T. Bird of 
Kalamazoo, T. J. White of Cassopolis, James E. Jones of St. Joseph, 
R. T. Reed of Pontiac, and Frank E. Clarke of Whittaker. 

The next religious organization in point of numerical importance 
is the Baptist. While this denomination is not governed like the 
Methodist, they have eleven churches in the State of Michigan with 
an estimated membership of 1,500 people, the exact figures not being 
available at this time. The most important of the Baptist churches 
is the Second Baptist Church in the City of Detroit. This church 
has been recently rebuilt and enlarged and now has a seating capacity 
of about 800 people, and is also perhaps one of the most successful 
churches in the state, as the rebuilt edifice is already too small for 
the large attendance of its members and friends. Its pastor, the Rev. 
Robert L. Bradby, has proved one of the most popular prelates who 
has ever had a charge among Michigan Afro-Americans, and he found 
it was with him a comparatively easy task to raise from among the 
membei's and friends of the Second Baptist Church over $20,000 with 
which to rebuild that edifice, and that was accomplished before he 
had been the pastor of said church three years. The Second Baptist 
Society of Detroit is the pioneer Afro-American Baptist Church in the 
state, it having been established back in the '40s. There are ten 
other churches, all of more or less importance in point of the size of 
their congregations, at the following cities: Battle Creek, Rev. B. M. 
Meeds, pastor; Ypsilanti, Rev. J. O. Derrick, pastor; Ann Arbor, Rev. 
Moses Peters, pastor; Lansing, Rev. Peter Everett, pastor; Saginaw, 
Rev. W. H. Hill, pastor; Benton Harbor, Rev. B. J. Sampson, pastor; 
Kalamazoo, Rev. E. W. Edwards, pastor, and Grand Rapids, Rev. T. 
C. Johnson, pastor. 

Other prelates connected with the church are Rev. G. W. Carr, 
of Lansing, and Rev. O. T. Judge, of Battle Creek. This society has 
a very pretty new edifice, called the Hillsdale Baptist Church, at Lan- 
sing, Mich., and also a beautiful little church in Adrian, Mich., which 
is not listed as being pastored by Rev. Meeds, who furnished much 
of the information. In addition to these there are several Baptist 
churches in the southwestern palt of the state and northern Indiana 
known as the Chain Lake Association. One of the churches and burial 
grounds connected therewith in Cass County is shown on another 
page. 

The Protestant Episcopal Church has one healthy organization in 
the City of Detroit with a splendid church property valued at upwards 
of $15,000 and a seating capacity of 400 people, beautifully equipped, 
of which the Rev. Robert W. Bagnall, a young priest, who is a grad- 
uate from the theological university and is one of the most forceful 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



l:;5 



and eloquent pulpit orators of which the Afro- Americans of Mic'.iisi'.n 
can boast. Father Bagnall was one of the organizers of the Detroit 
branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored 
People and has taken an active part in the upbuildinK of that organ- 
ization as well as bringing many new converts to the Episcopalian 
faith and filling the pews of St. Mathew's Episcopal Church of Detroit 
to overflowing with enthusiastic members and followers. 

A mission Episcopal Church is now being fostered in Grand 
Rapids. It is believed these are the only two Afro-American Episcopal 
Churches in the state. 




Chain Lake Baptist Church and View of Ceme'.cry. (■alv:n Township, t ass I ounty. 




A. M. E. Church and ( imitcry. < nMn ( iiitrc, ( nsh ( ounly. 



136 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




Hillsdale Baptist Church, Lansing. 



Only one Catholic body of Afro-Americans, St. Peter Claver Church 
of Detroit, exists in this state. This church was recently organized by 
the colored Catholics, who had become residents of the metropolis of 
Michigan and a pretty church edifice was purchased outright at a 
cost of $15,000. 

The Zion African Methodist Church has established two or three 
churches in Michigan and seems to be growing, though slowly in this 
state. 

Besides these Afro-American Churches, a large percentage of the 
Afro-American people, especially in those sections where their num- 
bers are few, are found to commune with the white people in their 
churches, where they have ever been made most heartily welcome, 
much more so in recent years. 

Perhaps the largest secular organization among Afro-Americans of 
the state is that of the Free and Accepted Masons, the grand lodge 
of which, for the state of Michigan, celebrated its fiftieth anniversary 
and communication at Deti'oit in the year 1915. At the end of the 
year 1913 the thirteen lodges of Colored Masons contained 512 mem- 
bers and possessed property valued at $8,000 in round figures. Many 
of the prominent Afro-Americans of the state, most of whom are men- 
tioned in thi.s manual, are members of the Masonic order and the re- 
ports of the annual communications of this body show splendid exec- 
utive ability in the personnel of its officials. Mr. Andrew Dungey is 
the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge for the year 1915. A sketch of 
the life and character of this promimmt and successful Afro-American 
may be found clsewhoro in this work. The otlior officers of the Grand 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



137 



Lodge are Charles C. Campbell, of Lansing, secretary; Robert C. 
Barnes, of Detroit, deputy grand master; John B. Anderson, Detroit, 
grand treasurer; Clarence E. Lawson, Cassopolis, senior grand warden; 
Edward J. Lewis, Ann Arbor, junior grand warden; George W. Singer, 
Kalamazoo, grand marshal; David A. Xorris, Detroit, grand lecturer; 
Rev. Spafford T. Byrd, Battle Creek, grand chaplain; Calvin Grayson, 
Grand Rapids, senior grand deacon; William S. Sherman, Ypsilanti, 
junior grand deacon; Charles Harper, Jackson, grand tyler. 

Next in point of numerical importance is the order of the 
KNIGHTS OF PYTHIAS of North America. South America, Europe, 
Asia, Africa and Australia. This seCret organization came into ex- 
istence in 1883 and the first lodge of Afro-American Pythians was or- 
ganized in Mississippi. Its growth has been most wonderful, number- 
ing in 1915 a total membership of 130,000 men and 60,000 women, be- 
sides the Juvenile Department of large dimensions. In Michigan there 
are three thriving lodges of this order, Pingree Lodge of Detroit, Mon- 
mouth Lodge of Grand Rapids, and Damon Lodge of Battle Creek. 
The total membership of the three lodges is now about 250 and each 
of them are in excellent financial condition. Not having a requisite 
number of subordinate lodges to permit a Grand Lodge, these Michigan 
lodges are attached to the Supreme Lodge with headquarters at New 
Orleans, La. Francis H. Warren, 325 Broadway Market Bldg., Detroit, 
is the present Deputy Supreme Chancellor for the State of Michigan 
and Province of Ontario, from whom information may be obtained. 

Union Company No. 1, of Uniform Rank, K. of P., was organized 
in 1905 by Major Gen'l R. R. Jackson, of Chicago. The chief officers 
of this Company are John H. Reed, Captain; S. A. Monroe, 2nd Lieut. 

There are two companies in the State, one in Grand Rapids, Cris- 
ley Co., No. 2, with Henry C. Milton, Captain, Robert Bowman, 2nd 
Lieut. 




Second Baptist Church, Adrian. 



Chain Lake BaptiHl Churrh. CiiKin Tiiwn- 
Hhi|). Cuss C<>iint\ . 



138 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

The State organization of the Uniform Rank is headed by Gen'l 
Ollie McCary. Brigadier Gen'l. 

Col. Alphonso Corbin, Chief of staff. 

Col. Edward S. Rodgers, Asst. Adj. Gen'l. 

Col. Francis H. Warren, Asst. Judge Advocate Gen'l. 

Col. Edward J. WatkinS, Asst. Quarter Master Gen'l. 

The Grand United Order of Odd Fellows also have three 
lodges within the State of Michigan, chief of which is the Zack 
Chandler Lodge of Detroit, W. H. Duporte, Cor. Antoine and Wilkins 
Sts., is the secretary Is the largest and most prosperous of the three 
lodges in the state. There is one lodge in Battle Creek and another in 
Grand Rapids. 

Other secret societies having one lodge in the state are the im- 
proved Benevolent and Protective Order cf Elks of the World, Wolver- 
ine No. 72, Ralph C. Owen, secretary, 33 Catherine St.; United Brothers 
of Friendship and Sisters of the Mysterious 10, who have one 
lodge in Detroit; Order of the Eastern Star, auxiliary to the Masonic 
Order, who have lodges in Detroit, Grand Rapids and other centers of 
Afro-American population. There are a large number of non-secret 
and non-religious or semi-religious organizations throughout the state, 
many of which are Women's clubs. 

Sojourner Truth. 

One of the most promising of these for uplift work is that of the 
Sojourner Truth Memorial Association. This association was re- 
cently organized to perpetuate the memory of one of the noblest 
women the Negro Race has yet produced. Born in slavery over a 
hundred years ago. Sojourner Truth suffered all the hardships com- 
mon to the slaves at that period, but because of her brilliant intellect 
and inherent worth, philanthropic people became interested in her and 
secured her liberation in 1826. 

She immediately commenced her career as an abolitionist prepar- 
ing herself to become a lecturer and became one of the most noted 
anti-slavery platform orators contemporaneously with Frederick 
Douglas, that were engaged in anti-slavery work. Some years before 
the Civil War, she made her home in Battle Creek, Mich., and was an 
active agent of the underground railway prior to the great conflict. 
She was optimistic by nature and became so prominent as a publicist 
and advocate, that she was readily received by presidents and states- 
men wherever she went 

The primary object of the Sojourner Truth Association is to erect 
some substantial and beneficial monument to the memory of this 
gifted woman, and the officers of the organization have decided to 
found free scholarships in the University of Michigan to be contested 
for by the children of ex-slaves now residing in the Wolverine state. 
They hope to secure a sufficient fund to found an annual scholarship 
and thus maintain at least four students in the University as bene- 
ficiaries of the Sojourner Tiuth Memorial fund Hosidos this work 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



139 




Sojourner Truth. 



140 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS HI 

the Association has designed to accomplish, it is proposed lo build a 
fitting monument over the grave of this noble woman where she was 
laid to rest at her death. 

The officers of the Association are Mary E. McCoy, President: 
Wm. C. Osby, Vice-President; Francis E. Preston. Secretary, 469 Mon- 
roe Ave., Detroit; Sarah J. Hale, Treasurer; Francis H. Warren. C. 
Emry Allen, L. Margaret Williams and Mrs. John J. Evans. Trustees. 

The Christian Industrial Club, one of the most helpful organiza- 
tions, was incorporated July 6. IftOi), for the purpose of providing a 
home for Afro-American working girls, who are either strangers in the 
city or not provided with home accommodations. This club is located 
in Detroit, where most of the uplift clubs among the colored people 
will be found, because in that city the preponderance of Afro-American 
population is found. A commodious home for this organization is 
being purchased at 117 Horton Ave. in that city on the land contract 
easy payment plan. Miss Etta Foster Taylor is its President, Mrs. 
Nora Burns, Vice-President. Mrs. C. B. Martin, of 117 Ilorton Ave., 
Secretary, and Mrs. Anna Powell, Treasurer. 

The Dorcas Club is one of the most helpful organizations among 
Afro-American people, located at Kalamazoo. This club was organ- 
ized some years ago to provide needy Afro-American children with 
sufficient clothing and wearing apparel, to make them presentable in 
school and to facilitate their school attendance. Just how much work 
the club has done, is not available but that it has grown to be a very 
popular organization in its home city is well known, as it has re- 
sponded to many calls for charity outside of the special work for 
which the club is designed. It consists of twelve members led by Mrs. 
L. Margaret Williams, at whose home the club was organized. A 
picture of the club is shown elsewhere. 

The Let Us Be Friends Club is one of the six organizations formed 
in the Youii.q, Women's Christian Association of Kalamazoo. This club 
was organized October 14, 1914, with fourteen members. All of the 
young ladies are regular members of the Young Women's Christian 
Association and were well represented at the annual banquet of that 
organization The object, as set forth in their constitution, is to pro- 
mote the spirit of friendliness among the young colored women of the 
city and to develop the highest type of womanhood. The club meets 
every Monday, the evenings being divided between bibl(> study and 
business, and social meetings. 

The Phyllis Wheatley Home is an association of colored women 
organized Nov. 12, 1897, and incorporated in I'.tOl, with Miss Fannie 
Richards, the popular pioneer Afro-American public school teacher as 
first president. This association was organized for the purpose of 
providing a home for aged colored women and in 1JH>1 purchased a 
eleven-room house pleasantly situated at 176 Elizabeth St., in the City 
of Detroit, for $4,500,00. Sinc(> that time more than forty inmates have 
been provided with a home at that place. The ollicers are Mrs. Eliza 
Wilson, President; Mrs. Mary E. McCoy. Vice-President; Mrs. Isabella 



142 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Jenkins, Recording Secretary; Mrs. Elida Price, Corresponding Secre- 
tary; Mrs. Lulu Harris, Treasurer; Mrs. Christine S. Smith, Chairman 
of Board of Managers; Miss Fannie Richards, Chairman of Board of 
Trustees. On the fourth day of January, 1915, the Association cele- 
brated the burning of the mortgage on their home and they are now 
turning their attention to raising funds with which to enlarge and 
improve their present property. There has never been a time since it 
was organized, that there were not more applications for admittance 
to the home by aged colored women than there was room for their 
accommodation. 

The Lydian Association is perhaps one of the strongest charita- 
ble organizations in the state. This association is composed of 
branches throughout the country, which formed a national body. The 
Detroit branch has 75 members and maintains a comfortable bank 
account. They pay sick benefit to their members and provide a burial 
fund at death, besides contributing to the various charities of the 
city. Mrs. Maude Henderson is its president and Mrs. Elida A. Price 
recording secretary. 

The Detroit Women's Council was organized in 1911 for the pur- 
pose of aiding strangers who may arrive in the city and also in meet- 
ing their friends and forming new acquaintances. It is also engaged in 
some charitable work, where strange women are found to be in need 
upon arriving in that city. The officers are: Mrs. Elida Price, Presi- 
dent; Mrs. Sarah Henson, Vice-President; Mrs. Maude Henderson. 
Secretary, and Mrs. Mary Johnson, Treasurer. 

The Benevolent Society is one of the oldest charitable organiza- 
tions in the City of Detroit. Organized in 1867 for benevolent pur- 
poses. It has done splendid work since that time along benevolent 
lines. Its officers are Mrs. Florence Willis, President; Mrs. Phoebe 
Ford, Vice-President; Mrs. Gertrude Montgomery, 541 Beaubien St., 
Secretary. 

The Scholarship Fund Club of Detroit is one of the most useful 
organizations, having been founded in 1910 through the efforts of Mrs. 
Elizabeth Smith and Mrs. Vernia Lucas, who gave an entertainment to 
aid a young lady to complete a teacher's training course at Ypsilanti 
State Normal School. The need for such help that could be given to 
young people became apparent on this occasion and the club was put 
up on a sound footing by a membership composed of three persons 
from each of the Federated clubs of the city. Each year two or more 
ambitious students have been assisted by this club. This year, two 
young men, one a student at Ann Arbor ,and another a student at 
Wilberforce University, are receiving the club's assistance. The 
officers are Mrs. Vernia Lucas, President. Mrs. Delia Barrier, Vice- 
President; Mrs. Abbie Cheatham, Treasurer, and Mrs. Maude Hender- 
son, Secretary. 

The Detroit Study Club was originally effected for literary pur- 
poses only, but since becoming a member of the Detroit Federation of 
Clubs in 1900, it has broadened its work to include child's welfare 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 143 

work, the Junior Civic League and Free Lecture Committee, and now 
has a department of philanthropy and reform, which raises funds for 
charitable contribution. All of its members are highly educated and 
talented ladies without exception. Its officers are Mrs. S. H. Russell, 
President;' Mrs. A. Rideout, Vice-President; Mrs. J. B. Anderson, Sec- 
retary; Mrs. A. L. Turner, Assistant Secretary; Mrs. L. E. Bakeman, 
Corresponding Secretary; Miss Lulu CnvLrory, Treasurer. 

The Detroit Branch of the National Association for the Advance- 
ment of Colored People was organized in the Guild Hall of St. Mathews 
Episcopal Church in 1910 and has become one of the most active agents 
for the protection of the rights of citizens in the State of Michigan. 
It is composed of both white and colored membors and holds an annual 
Lincoln-Douglas celebration in honor of the births of the great emanci- 
pator and of Fred Douglas. It meets on the first Thursday of each 
month and its committees are ever alert in securing needed assistance 
against the transgression of private or public rights of colored citizens. 
Its officers are: Wm. S. Osby, President; Rev. R. W. Bagnall, Corre- 
sponding Secretary; Miss Hattie Butler, Recording Secretary; Walter 
D. Johnson, Treasurer; Francis H. Warren. Attorney. 

The foregoing Afro-American organizations must serve as an index 
to a large number of like bodies throughout the state, especially in the 
larger cities. There is for instance the State Federation of Colored 
Women's Clubs in Michigan, which has representatives from every 
center of colored population in the state, but the work of these clubs 
Is indicated by those here given and the time is too short in wliich 
to secure the necessary data to give individual information regarding 
each. Many of them are connected with the church societies, while 
some others are adjuncts of secret orders, all of which serves to show 
the activity of the Afro-American people in club uplift work, in addi- 
tion to which social clubs are almost equally as numerous. 



144 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




c 
o 

N 

£ 

— 
"a 

.a 

3. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



145 




Residence of BenJ. L. Shook, Detroit. 



146 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




Negro Home and Property Owners 

MICHIGAN'S AFRO-AMERICAN TAXPAYERS. 

One of the most gratifying accomplishments of Michigan's Afro- 
Americans is their mai'lted progress In purchasing and occupying com- 
fortable and in many instances beautiful home property. This depart- 
ment of the Manual is liberally illustrated with homes that are owned 
and occupied by the colored people, together with the names of the 
communities in which they live. In at least one instance, that of Mr. 
Alexander, of Adrian, who is listed as a laboring man, but who is 
styled by Adrian people as a landscape artist, drew a first prize 
recently offered by the City of Adrian for the most beautifully kept 
home property in that city. His house is a modest one-story affair, 
but the spacious grounds surrounding it were a model of beauty, both 
in what is styled as the front yard, and that portion of the premises 
used for raising vegetables for family use. 

It may be well to remark that in the City of Adrian, the colored 
people have perhaps shown the highest degree of thrift of any like 
community in the state. Without casting any reflection upon the part 
of the Afro-American people in any place in the state, it is worthy of 
note to point to the fact that in Adrian, since local option was adopted 
there several years ago, 43 out of 48 colored families have become 
owners of their own homes, and Adrian also is the home of a noted 
Afro-American lady who gained more or less renown as a temperance 
worker, although she was too modest to give the enumerator a sketch 
of her life — Mrs. Frank L. Rodgers — the residence of whom is shown 
under this head. Many other beautiful residences are shown herewith. 
That of Mrs. Frank Thurman, of Jackson; Bishop Smith, of Detroit; 
Messrs. Dungey and Allen, of Lansing; Phillips, of Kalamazoo; and in 
fact the handsome residences of Afro-Americans in the staff are too 
numerous to mention in this foreword of this Department. 

It is estimated that 85 per cent of all the owners of homes or real 
property are represented in this record. They represent a total value 
of $4,219,022 in real estate, beside which there is listed |1, 115, 683 in 
personal property, the owners of much of -which having no lands do 
not appear in the list which here follows: 



14S 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 
HOME AND PROPERTY OWNERS. 



Adams, Joseph J., Grand Rapids. 
Adams, Mrs. Mary, Ann Arbor. 
Alexander, John, Boyne City. 
Alexander, Joseph, Adrian. 
Allen, Arthur A., Grand Rapids. 
Allen, Bennet. Cassopolis (F). 
Allen, Clifford, Grand Rapids. 
Allen, Charles, Grand Rapids. 
Allen, Edward, Dowagiac. 
Alen, Green, Vandalia (F). 
Allen, John W., Grand Rapids. 
Allen, John W.. Lansing. 
Allen, Mary A., Lansing. 
Allen, Uriah, Lansing. 
Allen, Herbert, Cassopolis (F). 
Allen, W. G., Cassopolis (F). 
Allen, Wm , Cassopolis (F). 
Alison, Sarah, Grand Rapids. 
Ames, Dr. J. W., Detroit. 
Amper, Mr. D. B., Marcellus (F . 
Anderson, Amon, Jones (F). 
Anderson, Alfred, Ypsilanti. 
Anderson, Mrs. Caroline, Grand 

Rapids. 
Anderson, Charles, Ypsilanti. 
Anderson, Lucy, Ypsilanti. 
Anderson, John, Detroit. 
Anderson, Thomas, Detroit. 
Artes, Ida, Romeo. 
Artis, Cynthia Ann, Cassopolis 

(F). 

Atris, George, Flint. 

Artis, Martin L., Cassopolis (F). 

Artis, Mathew T., Cassopolis 

(F). 
Ash, Chester, Kalamazoo. 
Ash, Lafayette, Niles (F). 
Ashe, William, Ypsilanti. 
Ashby, John L., Detroit. 
Atwood Fred S., Saginaw (F) 

& (H). 

Atwood, Oliver K., Saginaw (F) 
& (H). 

Bailey, George, Kalamazoo. 
Bailey, Fred, Flint. 




The Brush inn Nann.e Maxwell, Propri- 
etrix, Detroit. 



Bailey, Frank, Flint. 

Bailey, Henderson, Kalamazoo. 

Bailey, Richard, Flint 

Baker, Belle, Detroit. 

Baker, James, Bay City. 

Baker, Oscar W., Bay City. 

Ballad, Ebenezer, Grand Rapids. 

Banister, Luke, Grand Rapids. 

Banks, John, Grand Rapids. 

Banks, Oliver, Detroit. 

Barber, La Don, Lansing. 

Barber, Mrs. M. M., Lansing". 

Barber, Mrs. Margaret, Lansing. 

Barnes, Percy, Battle Creek. 

Barnes, Robert C, Detroit. 

Barnett, Stanley L., Grand Rap- 
ids. 

Bartlett, Mrs. Elizabeth, Ypsi- 
lanti. 

Bass, Albert F., Detroit. 

Bass, Frank, Benton Harbor. 

Bass, Mr. Gander, Boyne City. 

Bass, William, Kalamazoo. 

Bassett, Margaret, Battle Creek. 

Bates, Mr. L. D., Ann Arbor. 

Beck, Dr. Estel Thornton, De- 
t7-oit. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



149 




Residence of Herbert Allen, Farmer, Calvin Township, CasB County. 



Beck, Mr. Geo., Ann Arbor. 

Beck, Mr. Jacob, Ann Arbor. 

Beck, Julia, Adrian. 

Bedford, J. M. D., Kalamazoo. 

Beeler, Clarence, Battle Creek 
(F). 

Bell, James F., Lansing. 

Bell, John A., Grand Rapids. 

Beil, Louis, St. Joseph. 

Belt, Frank, Detroit. 

Benjamin, Samuel, Grand Rap- 
ids. 

Senson, Mrs. Anna, St. Joseph. 

Berry, Mrs Margaret, Leslie. 

Beuzard, Ellis C, Detroit. 

Beverly, Asa L., Lansing. 

Bibbs, Charles E., Jackson. 

Bibbs, John, Jackson. 

Bibbs, Lincoln II., Kalamazoo 
(F. 

Biggs, Lewis, Charlotte. 

Bird, John T., Detroit. 

Bird, Oscar Milan. 



Bird, Sarah, Whittaker. 

Blackwell, Anna, Kalamazoo. 

Bolden, Mrs. Louise, Kalamazoo. 

Bolden, James, Grand Rapids. 

Boone E. H., Benton Harbor. 

Boone, Frank, Benton Harbor. 

Bow, Egbert, Ypsilanti. 

Bow, Solomon, Ypsilanti. 

Bowman, Mrs. Mary, Grand Rap- 
ids. 

Boyd, Mrs. Mary, Grand Rapids. 

Bradley, Arthur, St. Joseph. 

Bradley, Daniel, Kalamazoo. 

Bradley, Eutella, Detroit. 

Bradley, Ellis, Kalamazoo. 

Bradley, Fred O.. St Jos.-ph. 

Bradley, Harry, Detroit. 

Bradley. William, Marcellus (F). 

Bragg, Mrs. Anna, Benton Har- 
bor. 

Branson, Mrs. Louise, Detroit. 

Bray, John, Lansinc. 

Brice, Saniuoi, Grand Rapids. 



150 



MICHIGAN MANJAL 




FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



151 




Property of Oi;car W. Baker, Bay City. 



Briggs, Mrs. Rachel, Detroit. 

Briggs, Miss Georgia, Battle 
Creek. 

Bright, Mrs M. W.. Detroit. 

Broadnax, W. H., Cassopolis. 

Brooks, James, Flint. 

Brooks, Miss Nettie, Grand Rap- 
ids. 

Brooks, Peter, Grand Rapids. 

Brooks, Robert A., Detroit. 

Gnl. ?.7— Mortality S+atistics 

Brooks Robert J., Yn'^ilanti. 

B'-ooks, Salena, Detroit. 

Brooks, William H.. Ynsilanti. 

Brown, Charles C, Jackson. 

Brown, Mrs. Emma. Grand Rap- 
ids. 

Brown, Gence, Grand Rnpids. 

B-own, Harry, Flint. 

Brown. Henry, Battle Crppk. 

Brown, Henry H.. Vandalia (F). 

Brown, James H., Kalamazoo. 



Brown, John T., Detroit. 
Brown John, Ypsilanti. 
Brown, Robert, Grand Rapids 
B'-own, R R., Coleman (F). 
Brown, Wa'ter. Benton Harbor. 
Brown Will'am, Butternut (F). 
Brown, Zachariah, Vandalia. 
Browning, Eugene D., Grand 

Rapids. 
Brvant. Brazil J., Detroit. 
Bryant TT. B.. Dowagiac 
Bryant, H. D., Dowagiac. 
Bryant, reorge, Whittaker (F). 
Brypon. Eva McConnel. Grand 

Rapids 
Buhbs. Mrs. Frances, Ann Arbor. 
Buck Charles B.. Marcellus (F). 
Buck. Charles B.. Kalamazoo 

(Fl & (H). 
Biickor. I.nwell, Detroit. 
Buckingham \Vm., Cassopolis. 
Bucknor, James. Battle Creek. 



152 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 



Buckner, Jos., Detroit. 
Bundy, Geo., Dr., Detroit. 
Burden, Emerson, Coleman (F . 
Burden, E. W., Coleman (F). 
Burden, R., Coleman (F). 
Burdine, Jessie, Jackson. 
Burgess, Theo., Grand Rapids. 
Burgis, Mr., Kalamazoo. 
Burnett, Taylor, Kalamazoo. 
Burns, David, Battle Creek. 
Burton, Calum, Grand Rapids. 
Burton, Henrietta, Battle Creek. 
Burton, Mrs., Grand Rapids. 
Burton, Mr., Grand Rapids. 
Butler, Charles, Adrian. 
Butler, Mrs. Edna, Leslie. 
Butler, Earnest, Adrian. 



Butler, N. John, Kalamazoo (F). 
Butler, Lewis, Battle Creek. 
Buster, Louis G., Detroit. 
Byrd, Chester Emery, Cassopo- 

lis (F). 
Byrd, Enos H., Cassopolis (F). 
Byrd, James, Cassopolis. 
Byrd, F. L., Benton Harbor 
Byrd, John W., Detroit. 
Byrd, Sarah, Battle Creek. 
Callier, Chas. R., Benton Harbor. 
Callier, Mrs. Rosie C, Benton 

Harbor. 
Calloway, Chas., Cassopolis (F). 
Calloway, Milton, Cassopolis (F). 
Campbell, Charles A., Lansing. 
Candler, William, Grand Rapids. 




Kcsidcnce of Oscar W. Baker, Bay City. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



153 



■ '..V..j 







1* 



Buckingham's Store and Residence in Calvin, ("ass County. 




Residence of Marj I'. Unker. Hay City. 



154 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




Residence of H. H. Brown, Jr., Farmer, Cass County. 



Carniichael, Albert, Adrian. 
Carr, Rev. G. W., Lansing. 
Carrol, Thomas, Grand Rapids. 
Carson, Robert, Ann Arbor. 
Carter, Albert C, Adrian. 



Carter, F. Emanuel, Whittaker 

(F). 
Carter, Lewis John, Detroit. 
Carter, Newton, Grand Rapids. 
Carter, Wni. H., Battle Creek. 




Residence of Chester Byrd, Fiunoer Farmer, Calvin Township, Cass County. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



155 




Residence of OUrer Banlcs, Detrttt. 



^^ 




Residence of Calvin Burton, Grand Rapid*. 



156 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




3 

"3 

c. 
e 



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B 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



157 




Residence of 15. E. Curtis, Farmer. Calvin Township, Cass County. 



Carter, William, Detroit. 

Carruthers, O. O., St Joseph. 

Case, Henry A., Jackson. 

Case, Herbert D., Jackson. 

Casey, Mrs. Mary, Battle Creek. 

Cayne, Mr. Marshall. Ypsilanti. 

Chambers, Joseph, Jackson 

Chandler, Samuel, Battle Creek. 

Chandler, Thomas, Saginaw. 

Chase, Mrs. Elsie, Battle Creek. 

Chase, Maxwell, Battle Creek. 

Cheatham, Madam Bledsoe, De- 
troit. 

Cheatham, George, Battle Creek 
(F). 

Chivis, Mrs. Charity, Kalamazoo. 

Chivis, George W., Kalamazoo. 

Christian, David L., Kalamazoo. 

Christian, Tabitha, Kalamazoo. 

Clark, Mrs. Anna, Ypsilanti. 

Clark, Edward, Lansing. 

Clark, Frank E., Whittaker. 

Clark, James, Ypsilanti. 

Cockfield, Abel Stelle, Detroit. 

Coker, Hiram, Vandalia. 

Coker, Thomas, Cassopolis (F). 

Colbreth, John H., Jackson. 

Cole, George C, Detroit. 

Cole, Reuben & H., Adrian. 

Cole, William E., Detroit. 

Coleman, Thadeus, Grand Rap- 
ids. 



Colillier, Mrs. Addie, Saginaw. 

Collins, Gustus, Detroit. 

Collins, William, Jackson. 

Collins, Walter G, Lansing. 

Connor, John, Battle Creek. 

Connor, Mr., Kalamazoo. 

Contee, Mrs. Mary, Saginaw. 

Conway, Earl, Detroit. 

Cook, Charles, Detroit. 

Cook, Charles S., Battle Creek. 

Cook, Charles S., Detroit. 

Cook, Mrs. Hattie, Detroit. 

Cook, Maria, Detroit. 

Cook, Virginia, Detroit. 

Cooper, C. R.. Ann Arbor. 

Copeland, Mrs. Amanda. St. 
Joseph. 

Copley, W S.. Vandalia. 

Corbin, Thomas, Grand Rapids. 

Corrothers, Daniel, Battle Creek. 

Cousins, Jerome S., Cassopolis. 

Cowan, E. H., Dafter (F). 

Cox, Charles Henry, Ann Arbor. 

Craig, George, Ann Arbor. 

Craig, Horace, Lansing. 

Crawford, Miss Dr. Katie. Ann 
Arbor. 

Cromwell, David J., Lansing 

Cromwell, Mrs. Margaret, Lans- 
ing. 

Crosby, Mrs. Elizabeth, Ypsi- 
lanti. 



158 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 



Crosby, Mrs. Eva, Whittaker (F . 
€rosby, Mr. George, Saline. 
Crosby, Mrs. Lottie, Ann Arbor. 
Crosby, Mrs. Rebecca, Ypsilanti. 
Crosby, Mr. Simeon, Ypsilanti. 
Gal. 38^Mortality Statistics 
Cross, Mrs. Frank, Battle Creek. 
Cross, Lester, Battle Creek. 
Cross, Mrs. Nellie, Battle Creek. 
Crump, Jeremiah, Lansing. 
Cruzet, Andrew, Detroit. 
Curry, Harry H., Detroit. 
Curry, Mrs. M., Lansing. 
Curtis, Clodius, Benton Harbor. 
Curtis, Edward, Detroit. 
Curtis, Edward, Niles. 
Curtis, Els worth L., Niles. 
Curtis, James W., Niles (F). 
Curtis, Nelson, Battle Creek. 
Daley, Collie, Battle Creek. 
Daley, Henry, Grand Rapids. 
Daniels, Nelson, Kalamazoo. 
Darrdson, John T., Lansing. 
Davidson, Nelson G., Lansing. 



Davis, Albert, Alma. 
Davis, Mr. Albert, Ypsilanti. 
Davis, Allen, Battle Creek. 
Davis, Mrs. Cora, Kalamazoo. 
Davis, Gabriel, Detroit. 
Davis, Harry, Detroit. 
Davis, Lewis, Kalamazoo. 
Davis, Nathan, Eaton Rapids. 
Davis, Samuel, Detroit. 
Davis, Thomas, Niles. 
Day, Mr. Arthur, Saline. 
Day, Mrs. Eva, Grand Rapids. 
Day, Isiah M., Cassopolis (F). 
Day, John, Detroit. 
Day, Joseph, Detroit. 
Day, Wiley W., Detroit. 
Dean, Charles, Adrian. 
Dean, C. J., Benton Harbor. 
Dean, John, Detroit. 
Dean, Walter, Detroit. 
DeAnglas, Leon, Jackson. 
Delsey, Richard, Grand Rapids. 
DeMeaux, Mrs. Mary A., Lansing. 
DeMeaux, Theodore, Lansing. 




Residence of C. A. Campbell, Lansing. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



159 






■m^^ 














A. M. E. Church. I'onliar. 



160 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 



^^'*' ^ 




"s^SiieiP 



FREEDMEN'S rllOGRESS 



161 




Residence of Asa Beverly, Lansing. Residence of Mrs. Anna EldrcdKc, ronliar. 



Dent, Wallace. 

Derrick, Rev. James, Ypsilanti. 
Dew, Edward & Austin, Ypsi- 
lanti. 
Dickerson, Bruce, Flint. 
Dickerson, Albert, Detroit. 
Dickerson, Dr. John, Ypsilanti 



Dickson, Frank, Lansing. 
Di.xon, Alexander, Battle Creek. 
Dixon, Mrs. E. M., Ann Arbor. 
Doane, Charles Henry, Lansing. 
Dosey, Miss Marie, Lansing. 
Drane, Gertrude, Battle Creek, 
Dudley, Charles, Niles. 




Residence of J. C Earl.v. Pion.rr Farmer. Cnlvln Townnhip. Cnsi. Counfy. 



162 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




Residence of Wm. D. Furby, with Miss Gertrude Thomas Seated in the Foreground. 



Duke, Samuel, Detroit. 
Dungey, Andrew, Lansing. 
Dungey, Clem., Dowagiac. 
Dungay, George W., Cassopolis. 
Dungey, John, Dowagiac. 
Dungil, John A., Kalamazoo. 
Dyer, S. D., Niles (F). 
Dyer, William, Mason. 
Eaton, F. J., Lansing. 
Eaton, James, Detroit. 



Early, John C, Cassopolis (F). 
Ebbo, Emory, Grand Rapids. 
Eddy, John, Detroit. 
Edwards, Wm. H., Grand Rapids. 
Eldrege, Mrs. Annie, Pontiac. 
Ellis, Rufus, Grand Rapids. 
Ely, Ralph, Saginaw. 
Ennis, Joseph, Flint. 
Eslez, Burgus, Detroit. 
Evans, Mrs. Ella,, Detroit. 




Residence of Daniel Fairfax, Bay City. 



Residence of G. P. Finly, Niles. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



163 





-J; 



Residence of Alexander 

Evans, Mrs. Ella, Battle Creek. 

Evans, Mr. Charles, Kalamazoo. 

Evans, Fred, Lansing. 

Evans, George, Whittaker (F). 

Evans, Miss Hattie, Kalamazoo. 

Evans, John, Battle Creek. 

Evans, John F., Battle Creek. 

Evans, John J., Battle Creek. 

Evans, Sarah, Ypsilanti. 

Evans, Thomas B., Vandalla. 

Evans, Thomas, Durand. 

Everett, Mr. Watson, Grand Rap- 
ids. 

Everett, William, Detroit. 

Fanning, W. H., Detroit. 

Farmer, Slephes, Midland (F). 

Fields, Caine, Flint. 

Fields, Mrs. Susie, Grand Rap- 
ids (F). 

Findley, Garfield, Cassopolis. 

Findley, Schuyler, Niles. 

Findley, Walter, Niles (F). 

Finley, G. P., Niles. 

Finley, William, Niles. 

Finn, George, Grand Rapids. 

Flemmings, Wm., Battle Creek. 

Flower.s, Andrew, Remus (F). 



Fowler, Lansing:. 

Ford. John, Battle Creek. 
Ford, Joseph C, Grand Rapids. 
Forte, Benjamin, Saline. 
Foster, Jessie & E., Detroit. 
Foster, Frank V., Detroit. 
Foster, James W., Battle Creek. 
Fowler, Alexander. Lansing. 
Fowler, James, Battle Creek. 
Frazer, William, Oshtemo (F. 
Freeman, Mrs. Emma, Ann 

Arbor. 
Freeman, Joshua, Adrian. 
Freeman, Robert, Detroit. 
Furby, William D., Pontlac. 
Gaeus, J. H., Benton Harbor. 
Gaines, Alfonso, Battle Creek. 
Gains, Mr., Grand Rapids. 
Gamble, Louis K., Detroit. 
Gamble, Parker B , Detroit. 
Gant, Charles, Adrian. 
Garel, James, Grand Rapids. 
Garret, Sarah E.. Jackson. 
Gaskins, Elzie, Benton Harbor. 
Gaskins, Francis, Detroit. 
Gaskins, Wendell, Jackson. 
Gass, Charles, Grand Rapids. 
Gales, Miles B., Lansing. 



Iu4 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 








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Residence of James A. Goug:h, Adrian. 



Residence of Meivin Grady, Farmer, 
Cass County. 



Gault, C. M., Niles. 
Gault, Henry, Niles (F). 
Gault, Ralph, Benton Harbor. 
Gault, William, Niles. 
Gibson, Cassopolis (F). 
Gilbert, William, Grand Rapids. 
Gillem, James, Detroit. 



Glenn, George, Grand Rapids. 
Glenn, John, Grand Rapids. 
Godden, Mrs. S., Detroit. 
Godfrey, Mrs. D. L., Lansing. 
Goggins, Minnie, Grand Rapids. 
Goins, Benjamin, Kalamazoo. 
Goins, Daniel, Jackson. 




Residence of Mrs. R. L. Green, Jackson. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



165 




Residence of Alex. Griffin, Nile*. 



Coins, James, Grand Rapids. 
Goins, Leo, Grand Rapids. 
Goins, Mary Anna, Jackson. 
Goins, Robert, Grand Rapids. 
Gal. 39— Mortality Statistics 
Golden, Walter, Battle Creek. 
Goodall, Frank, Jackson. 
Coodridge, Wallace L., Saginaw. 



Goody, Melvin, Cassopolis (F). 
Gordon, Mrs., Milan. 
Cough, Daniel, Ypsilauti. 
Gough, George W., Ann Arbor. 
Cough, James A.. Adrian. 
Grady, Leason, Lansing. 
Graham, Joseph, Detroit. 
Graine, Jess L., Kalamazoo 




A firoup of Sunday ."^rhiiol I'irnirrri at Adrinn. 



166 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




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FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



167 




Residence of John Hathaway, Niles. 




Rcsidcncf ol IU\ . I. J. Hi. I. Hh.mu- ( .l>. 



168 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



169 




Residence of Gillam Hawks, Farmer, Calvin Township, Caas County. 



Grant, Emmet, Grand Rapids. 
Grant, George, Battle Creek. 
Grant, Henry P.., Grand Rapids. 
Graves, Frederick, Grand Rapids. 
Graves, Robert, Grand Rapids. 
Gray, Blaine. Detroit. 
Grayer, William, Ann Arbor. 
Grayson, Jennie, Battle Creek. 
Grayson, Payton, Battle Creek. 
Green, Mrs. Annie, Detroit. 
Green, Arthur, Ypsilanti. 
Green, B. F., St. Jo.scph. 
Green, George, Detroit. 
Green, George, Hamtramck. 
Green, James, Grand Rapids. 
Green, Mrs. L. A., Ann Arbor. 



Green, Maria, Jackson. 
Green, Matthew, St. Louis. 
Greene, Maude, Adrian. 
Green, Minnie, Grand Rapids. 
Green, Ora, Ann Arbor. 
Greenlaw, Albert, Detroit. 
Grenage, Hiram, Flint. 
Grenage, J., Flint. 
Grenage, Maria, Flint. 
Grenshaw, Isaac, Cassopolis. 
Gresham, Mary, Adrian. 
Groyson, Calvin. Grand Rapids. 
Griffin, Albert, Dowagiac. 
Griffin, Albert W, Battle Creek. 
Griffin, Elijah. Niles (F). 
Griffin, H. M.. Detroit. 





Residence ol Henry (). Ilarkolt. I.nnHinit. 



lii-H^dciic'c of .liilin ll:ilr, Dctniil. 



170 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 



Griffin, James Marion, Detroit. 

Griffin, Louisa, Battle Creek. 

Griffin, Solomon, Niles (F). 

Griffin, William, Battle Creek. 

Grennage, James, Ypsilanti. 

Grose, Herbert A., Detroit. 

Gross, Peter A., Jackson. 

Guest, William, Grand Rapids. 

Guy, Douglas, Belding (F). 

Guy, H. P., Detroit. 

Guyot, DeLos, Battle Creek. 

Hachett, H. O., Lansing. 

Hackley, Anna, Kalamazoo. 

Hackley, G. L., Benton Harbor. 

Hackley, Iremus, Kalamazoo. 

Haithcock, Charles, Kalamazoo. 

Haithcock, J., South Bend, Ind. 

Haithcock, Margaret, Kalamazoo. 

Haithcock, N. J., Coleman (F). 

Haithcock, William, Kalamazoo. 

Haithcock, Allen G., Cassopolis 
(F). 

Haithcock, Arthur, Cassopolis (F). 

Haithcock, Robert, Jones (F). 

Hale, John, Detroit 

Hall, Anna, Grand Rapids. 

Hall, J. J., Lansing. 

Hall, Mary, Jackson. 

Hall, Quint, Detroit. 

Hall, William H., Jackson. 

Halland, Mrs. Famer, Benton 
Harbor. 

Hamilton, Richard, Ypsilanti. 

Hammond, Benj., Grand Rapids. 

Hammond, Mrs. James, Kalama- 
zoo. 

Hampton, Eugene, Detroit. 

Handy, Charles, Flint. 

Hansbury, Bertha Ellena, De- 
troit. 

Hanson, Benj. F., Grand Rapids. 

Hardeman, Enoch, Oshtemo. 

Hardy, Eugene, Grand Rapids. 

Harper, Mrs. Eugene, Ypsilanti. 

Harper, Fred, Cassopolis. 

Harris, Alice, Ypsilanti. 

Harris, Emerson M., Kalamazoo. 

Harris, Frank, Battle Creek. 



Harris, H., Belleville. 
Harris, Hewsy, Adrian. 
Harris, Jacob, Cassopolis (F)^ 
Harris, James, Flint. 
Harris, James E , Detroit. 
Harris, Leon, Battle Creek. 
Harris, A. Lincoln, Detroit (F). 
Harris, Orla B., Detroit. 
Harris, Simeon, Remus (F). 
Harris, William, Ypsilanti. 
Harris, Winter J., Cassopolis 

(F). 
Harrison, Henry, Dowagiac. 
Harrison, Levi, Jackson. 
Harrison, William E., Jackson. 
Harrison, W. H., Jackson. 
Harrod, John, Detroit. 
Harrod, Mary, Niles. 
Hart, Horace, St. Joseph. 
Hartford, Mrs. Fred A., Saginaw. 
Hatfield, George, Midland. 
Hathavi-'ay, John, Niles. 
Hatter, George A., Jackson. 
Havard, Armster, Detroit. 
Havard, Joseph, Detroit. 
Hayes, Carrie M., Ypsilanti. 
Hayes, Mary C, Grand Rapids.. 
Hayes, George W , Ypsilanti. 
Hayes, James A. W., Detroit. 
Hawks, Gertrude M., Cassopolis 

(F). 
Hector, Jerremy, Kalamazoo. 
Hedgpath, Augustus, Kalamazoo. 
Hedgepath, Effie, Kalamazoo. 
Heiskell, Robert Lee, Detroit. 
Henderson, Anna, Adrian. 
Henderson, Byron M., Detroit. 
Henderson, George W., Lansing. 
Henderson, Saul, Boyne City. 
Henderson, William, Ann Arbor. 
Hendricks, P. J., Bay City. 
Henry, Elizabeth, Kalamazoo. 
Henson, Harold H., Detroit. 
Henson, William P., Kalamazoo. 
Herndon, Charles T., Detroit. 
Herod, Richard, Grand Rapids. 
Hiatt, Rufus R., Grand Rapids. 
Higgins, And. J., Eaton Rapids. 



FREEDMEN'S rROGHESS 



171 




Residence of John S. Ivem, Farmer, I'asa County. 



Higsins, Eunice, Eaton Rapids. 

HiRhpate, Oliver, Midland. 

Hiph wooden, Ross C, Jackson. 

Hill, Amos Gillespie, Adrian. 

Hi'l, Cyrus F., Jackson. 

Hill, Irene, Cassopolis 

Hi'l, Forest, Kalamazoo. 

Hill C. G., Dowagiac. 

Hill. Manford, Detroit. 

Hinton, J. W., Detroit. 

HosTcartt, Lewis N., Benton Har- 
bor. 

Holly, John, Detroit. 

Gal. 40— Mortality Statistics 

Hog2;att, Louis N., Jr , Benton 
Harbor. 

Hollv, S. W., Co'eman (F). 

Holmes, Henry, Battle Creek. 

Hooper. Fred, Detroit. 

Hoopor Louis S., Detroit. 

Hopewell, .Mr. L. G., Lansing 

Hoesy, Maggie, Detroit. 

Houston, Heber C, Detroit. 

Howard, William, Detroit. 



Hunt, S;one, Flint. 
Hunter, Luc v. Adrian. 
Hudson, Walter, Detroit. 
Hurst, John, Flint 
Huse, Jobn, Grand Rapids. 
Hustler, Marie, Adrian. 
Hutchins, Jessie B., Detroit. 
Ingham, Rev. David, Grand Rap- 
ids. 
Ivens, John W., Marcellus (F). 
Ivens, Ry'voster, Cassopolis (Ft. 
Ivens, Wrisht F., Marcellus (F). 
Jack.son, Alice, Detroit. 
Jackson. Ebeen, Lansing. 
Jackson, George \V., Detroit. 
Jackson, Hesper, Detroit. 
Jackson, Horace, Battle Cnek. 
Jackson, Ida Joiner, Detroit. 
Jackson, John B., Bay City. 
Jackson, John S., Detroit 
Jackson, Leith, Detroit. 
Jackson, Nancy, Battle Creek. 
Jackson, Nathaniel, Niles. 
Jackson. Susie B., Detroit. 



172 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




Residence of Nathan Jackson, Niles. 




Residence of Georffe Johnson, Ypsilanti. 



FREEDMENS . ROGRESS 



173 




Residence of Clarence Perkins. Grand Rapids. 




Residence of \Vm. I.iiroy, (;rand Kapidn. 



174 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




Phyllis Whcatli-y Homp for Aged Colored Women, Detroit. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



17[ 



Jackson, Theodore, Ann Arbor. Jennings, 

Jackson, Winfield L., Detroit. Jim, Mrs 

Jackson, William, Boyne City. Johnson. 

Jackson, William J., Lansing. Johnson, 

Jacques, Barney, Ypsilanti. Johnson, 

Jaffry, Roman W. J., Detroit. Johnson, 

James, Rev. J. E., St. Joseph. Johnson, 

James, Norman, Lansing. Johnson. 

Jeffries, Charles, Marcellus. Johnson, 

Jefferies, Rev. Robert, Kalama- troit. 

zoo. Johnson, 

Jefferson, Rachel, Detroit. Johnson, 

Jefferson, Thos., Grand Rapids. Johnson, 

Jenkins, Charles A., Detroit. Johnson, 

Jenkins, Fred A., Detroit. Johnson, 

Jenkins, Joseph, Detroit. Johnson, 

Jenkins, Virginia, Ann Arbor. Johnson. 



George E., Detroit. 
. Beulah, Detroit. 
Abe. .Adrian. 
Abner. Kalamazoo. 
Dr. Albert H., Detroit. 
Anna, Kalamazoo. 
v.. Whittakcr (P). 
Carl. Detroit. 

Catherine Long, De- 

Chark's. IJalUc Creek. 
Elmer, Boyne City 
Frank, Adrian. 
Fred, Battle Creek. 
George S.. Detroit. 
G. R.. Detroit. 
G. W., Ann Arbor. 




RcHidcnce of J. J. JurkNun. Ua> Cily. 



176 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




Nine-Y^ar-OId Miss Who 
Johnson, Hamilton, Detroit. 

Johnson, Henry, Flint. 

Johnson, Hiram, Grand Rapids, 

Johnson, H. L., Coleman (F). 

Johnson, H. Peyton, Detroit. 

Johnson, John, Grand Rapids. 

Johnson, J. C., Detroit. 

Johnson, Rev. J. E., St. Joseph. 

Johnson, John R., Detroit. 

Johnson, John W., Detroit. 

Johnson J. Wesley, Detroit. 

Johnson, Katie, Lansing. 

Johnson, Mrs. M. M., Detroit. 

Johnson, Nora, Mt. Clemens. 

Johnson, Ray A., Jackson. 

Johnson, Robert E., Detroit. 

Johnson, Samnel E., Lansing. 

Johnson, Rev. Thomas C, Kal- 



Works for Charity on Tag Days. 

amazoo. 
Johnson, Mrs. V., Ann Arbor. 
Johnson, Mr. W. L., Lansing. 
Johnson, William, Grand Rapids. 
Johnson, Wm. Edward, Detroit. 
Johnson, Wilmot A., Detroit. 
Johnston, George A., Ypsilanti. 
Jones, Charles R., Niles. 
Jones, Emma, Grand Rapids. 
Jones, Jesse, Grand Rapids. 
Jones, John, Detroit. 
Jones, Mr. John, Bay City (F). 
Jones, Mary E., Lansing. 
Jones, Mattie, Niles. 
Jones, J. Paul, Mackinaw City 

(H) & (F). 
Jones, Preston S., Detroit. 
Jonos, Sandy, Grand Rapids. 



FREEDMEN'S TTJOOPxESiS 



177 




Residence of Mrs. Anna McCoy, Y|)si!anti. 



Jones, Mrs. T. J., Niles. 
Jones, Wm. Henry, Ypsilanti. 
Jones, W. R., Ypsilanti. 
Jordon, Harry M., Detroit. 
Judson, Delia, Kalamazoo. 
Keene, John, Grand Rapids. 
Keene, Joseph, St. Joseph. 
Keith, Joshua, Vandalia (F), 
Kelly, J. W., Pipestone (F). 
Kelly, Porter, Ann Arbor. 
Kelly, Thomas, Flint. 
Keneer, Mrs. E. M., Lansing. 
Kennedy, Low. Wheeler. 
Kersey, Bud, Flint. 
Kersey, Herman E., Ypsilanti. 
Kersey, James, Ypsilanti. 
King, Harlis J., Detroit. 
King, S. C, Kalamazoo. 
Koger, James B., Detroit. 
Lacy, William H., Grand Rapids. 
Ladd, Joseph, Detroit. 
Lain, John B., Detroit. 
Lamb, J., Flint. 
Lane, Ollie, Cassopolis (F). 
Lane, James E., Vandalia (Fl. 
Lane, John C, Jones (F). 
Lane, John T., Cassopolis (F). 
Lambert, Toussaint L'Overture, 

Detroit. 
Lambkins, D. B., Grand Rapids. 
Larter, Milton H., Detroit. 
Lawrence, Frank, Flint. 



Lawson, Archie, Detroit. 

Lawson, Clarence E., Cassopo- 
lis (F). 

Lawson, Cornelius, Cassopolis 
(F). 

Lawson, John, Adrian. 

Leach, Walter, Detroit. 

Lebb, Eldridge, Grand Rapids. 

Lebb, Loretta, Butternut (F). 

Leek, Jane, Lansing. 

Leek, Leonard, Lansing (F). 

Lenney, Avery, Flint. 

Lenny, Geo., Flint. 

Leonard, William G., Detroit- 
Leonard, Isaac, Kalamazoo. 

Lett, Mrs. Loretta, Butternut.. 

Gal. 41— Mortality Stati.stic.-; 

Lett, John S., Grand Rapids. 

Letts, Benjamin, Battle Creek. 

Lett, Edward, Boyne City. 

Lett, John S., Grand Rapids. 

Letz, Stanley, Kalamazoo. 

Letz, Zachariah, Comstock (F). 

Lewis, Benjamin. Detroit. 

Lewis, Edward, Ann Arbor. 

Lewis, Ella, Battle Creek. 

Lewis, C. Henri, Detroit. 

Lewis, J. H., Rattle Creek. 

Lewis, Robt. H., Detroit. 

Lewis, W. v., Detroit. 

Lindsay, Oscar, Detroit. 

Lewis, Mr., Marsellus. 



178 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



179 



Lochlear, Jennie, Kalamazoo. 
Logan, George, Grand Rapids. 
Logan, William M., Jackson. 
Loggan, Eugene, Nlles. 
Lomax, Henry, Mason. 
Lomax, Clem, Battle Creek. 
Loomis, Eva. Detroit. 
Lucas, Columbus, Detroit. 
Ludlow, Cecil, Battle Creek. 
Ludlow, Minnie, Battle Creek. 
Lyle, John B., Detroit. 
Lynch, Ira, Ypsilanti. 
Lyons, Andrew, Mason. 
Maben, Martha, Grand Rapids. 
MacDonald, Harry, Detroit. 
Mack. John, Benton Harbor. 
Madison, Louis, Detroit. 
Mahaley, Jeremiah, Ypsilanti. 
Majors, Mr., Grand Rapids. 
Manuel, Amos, Battle Creek. 
Manuel James, Dowagiac. 
Marshall, Ernest Douglas, De- 
troit. 
Martin, Bruce, Detroit. 
Martin, Jeff, Detroit. 
Martin, William, Saline. 
Mason, Elihu, Eau Claire. 
Mason, Emmet, Eau Claire. 
Mass, Daniel, Niles (F). 
Mass, Lucy, Niles. 
Mathews, Arthur, Battle Creek. 
Mathews, Obed, Jackson. 
Mathews, Roger A., Jackson. 
Mathews, Thomas E., Jackson. 
Matthews, Isaac, Cassopolis (F). 
Maury, James H., Detroit. 
May, Harry L., Detroit. 
May, Ida, Detroit. 
May, W. H., Ann Arbor. 
Mayle, Willis, Wheeler (F). 
McCary, Ollie, Detroit. 
McClain, James, Detroit. 
McConnell, James, Detroit. 
McCoy, Anna, Ypsilanti. 
McDonald, Geo., Pavillion (F). 
McDonald, William, Kalamazoo. 
McGruder, Jas. L.. Battle Creek. 



Mclntyre. Geo. D., Jackson (F). 
McKinney, William H., Detroit. 
McKorkle, Albert, Detroit. 
McPherson, Daniel, Wheeler. 
Meadows, William F., Detroit. 
Meckins, William, Adrian. 
Merchant, James, Lansing. 
Merchant, Thomas, Lansing. 
Merriman, Elizabeth, Ypsilanti. 
Merriman, Philip. Ypsilanti. 
Merriman, Riley, Whittaker (F). 
Merritt, John Early, Bay City. 
IMerritt, John, Bay City. 
Milburn, Charles, Coleman (F). 
Miller, Archie, Ann Arbor. 
Miller, Charles, Battle Creek. 
Miller, Charles W., Lansing. 
Miller, Hiram, Whittaker (F). 
Miller, John Kitz, Battle Creek. 
Miller, John, Bay City. 
Miller, M. M., St. Joseph. 
Miller, Robert, Detroit. 
Miller, Thomas Henry, Ypsilanti. 
Miller, W. S., Lansing. 
Mills, Joshua, Hamtramck. 
Mills, Philip, Detroit. 
Mills, Phillip, Detroit. 
Mills, Robert, Detroit. 
Milton, Henry, Grand Rapids. 
Miner, Mrs. Dan, Saline. 
Miner, Wm. J., Detroit. 
Miner, Mary A., Detroit. 
Minisee, Helen, Byron Centre 

(F). 
Minisee, Ray, Byron Centre (F). 
Mitcham, Joseph, Niles (F). 
Mitcham, Val. P., Benton Harbor 
Mitchell, Benj. B., Detroit. 
Mitchell, T. M., Benton Harbor 

(F). 
Mitchell, Henry, Niles. 
Mitchell, James, Battle Creek. 
Mitchell, Joseph, St. Joseph. 
Mitchell, Matthew, Niles. 
Moffard, Elizabeth, Ypsilanti. 
Moleson, Adelia, Grand Rapids. 
Molton, Ernest A., Detroit. 



180 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 



Monroe, Louisa, Detroit. 
Monroe, Saul, Detroit. 
Monroe, William Penn, Detroit. 
Montgomery, Anna, Adrian. 
Moody, William, Grand Rapids. 
Moore, Artimlssia, Grand Rap- 
ids. 
Moore, David A., Grand Rapids. 
Moore, Fred D., Battle Creek. 



Moore, James S., Kalamazoo. 
Moore, John, Kalamazoo. 
More, Mary, Detroit. 
Morehead, Etta L., Marquette. 
Morgan, David, Kalamazoo (F). 
Morgan, Mrs. Etta L., Strong 

(P). 
Morgan, Henry, Kalamazoo. 
Morgan, Mary, Boyne City. 




o 






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FRET^DMEN'S PROGRESS 



181 



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Residence and Farm View of H. C. Newsome, Calvin Township, Cass County. 



Morgan, Nicholas, Boyne City. 
Morris, Allen, Ann Arbor. 
Morris, Henry, Saline. 
Morris, Karnes, Detroit (F) & 

(H). 
Morris, Margaret, Ypsilanti. 
Morton, Ida, Ypsilanti. 
Morton, William A., Ypsilanti. 
Moss, Joseph, Kalamazoo. 
Moss, Lincoln, Kalamazoo. 
Moxley, Fannie L., Marcellus. 
Mulder, Judson, Detroit. 
Mumford, William, Detroit. 
Murdock, Owen L., Jackson. 
Murry, John, Grand Rapids. 
Nelson, James K., Detroit. 
Nelson, John C, Niles. 
Newman, Albert, Eaton Rapids. 
Newsome, Asa, Kalamazoo. 
Newsome, Henry, Vandalia (F). 
Newsome, Dr. O. E., Cassopolis. 
Newton, Mrs., Whittaker (F). 
Nichols, Emma, Jackson. 
Nidy. Willard K., Detroit. 



Norman, James, Detroit. 

Noriss, Lizzie, Ypsilanti. 

Norris, John, Webberville (F). 

Norris, Perry, Lansing (F). 

Osby, William C, Detroit. 

Owen, Alonzo, Flint. 

Owen, George, Flint. 

Parks, Hiram, Kalamazoo. 

Park, Michael, Detroit. 

Patterson, Edward, Detroit. 

Patterson, John, Battle Creek. 

Patterson, Jno. W., Battle Creek. 

Patterson, R., Grand Rapids. 

Payne, Albert, Grand Rapids. 

Peek, Clinton. Grand Rapids. 

Pelham, Benjamin B., Detroit. 

Pendlton, Ambrose, Grand Rap- 
ids. 

Penn, William H., Detroit. 

Perkins, Andrew, Battle Creek. 

Perkins, Clarence R., Grand Rap- 
ids. 

Perry. Joliii 1! . Ypsilanti. 



lb. 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




o 
o 

•S 






e 
3 






FREEDMENS PROGRESS 



is:; 



Pettiford, Enoch, Grand Rapids. 
Pettiford, W. J., Kalamazoo. 
Pettiford, William, Coleman (F). 
Phelps, Amanda, Detroit. 
Phillips, Gilmore, Kalamazoo. 
Phillips, Joseph F., Kalamazoo. 
Phillips, Joshua W., Kalamazoo. 
Phillips, Louis, Detroit. 
Phillips, Sylvester, Kalamazoo. 
Phillips, Thomas, St. Joseph. 
Pierce, Llewellyn, Lansing. 
Pierce, R. T., Lansing. 
Pinkey, Eliza, Detroit. 
Pinkey, Samuel, Grand Rapids. 
Pollard, Clarence, Kalamazoo. 
Pollard, William H., Ypsilanti. 
Pompey, J., St. Louis (F). 
Poole, Alpheus A., Detroit. 
Poole, Peter J., Jackson. 
Poole, Thomas A., Adrian. 
Pope, Lillian, Ann Arbor. 
Porter, Jesica M., Kalamazoo. 



Posey, Margaret J., Jackson. 
Powell, Thomas, Jones (F). 
Powell, xMrs. W. J., Hay City. 
Powell, William, Bay City. 
Powell, W. A., Bay City. 
Pratt, Ollie, Kalamazoo. 
Piebble. John 11.. Jackson. 
Price, William, Battle Creek. 
Preston, Frances E., Detroit. 
Preston, Simeon. Ypsilanti. 
Pruett, Joseph, Flint. 
Purdue, James, Benton Harbor. 
Rarclift", John H., Detroit. 
Rawn, John W., Cassopolis (F). 
Ray, Bazel E., Grand Rapids. 
Redfern, M. M., Benton Harbor. 
Redmond, Frank, St. Louis (F). 
Reed, Abner, Fenwich (F). 
Reed, Alvin, Belding (F). 
Reed, John Herbert, Detroit. 
Reed, Joseph E., Detroit. 
Reed, Joseph M., Detroit. 




RcfciQencc ol Mr. »..inu)rr h. I*h u.i.">w..».o. 



184 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




Residence of Mary J. Powell, Bay City. 



Reeves, J., Detroit. 

Reid, George, Detroit. 

Reynolds, Mattie, Jackson. 

Richards, Augustus, Benton Har- 
bor. 

Richards, Rebecca, Kalamazoo. 

Richardson, Daniel W., Elberta. 

Richardson, Joseph H., Ypsilanti. 

Richardson, Mattie, Detroit. 

Richardson, Richard, Ypsilanti. 

Richardson, Warren C., Detroit. 

Richerson, Arthur, Whittaker 
(F). 

Richerson, George, Whittaker 
(F). 

Rickards, T. Frank, Detroit. 

Rideout, Ethel, Detroit. 

Ricks, William, Grand Rapids 
(F). 

Ridgley, Charles F., Kalamazoo. 

Ridgley, Charles, Kalamazoo. 

Riley, George, Detroit. 

Robbins, Henry Wade, Ann Ar- 
bor. 



Robbins, John Lankford, Kala- 
mazoo. 

Robbins, Reuben, Kalamazoo. 

Robbins, Simeon, Kalamazoo 
(F) 

Robbins, Walter, Ypsilanti. 

Robbins, William, Battle Creek. 

Roberts, Adelbert, Niles. 

Roberts, Charles, Kalamazoc. 

Roberts, R. H., Ypsilanti. 

Roberts, Turner, St. Joseph. 

Roberts, William, St. Joseph. 

Roberts, William Ross, Lansing. 

Robins, Addie, Lansing. 

Robins, Andrew, Battle Creek. 

Robinson, Albert, Hamtramck. 

Robinson, Aquilla, Jackson. 

Robinson, Edward, Grand Rap- 
ids. 

Robinson, Frank, Ann Arbor. 

Robinson, Harry R., Detroit 

Rol)inson, Mrs. J., Grand Rap- 
ids. 

Robinson, Jefferson. Ypsilanti. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



185 




Residence of John Winters, Pontiac. 

Robinson, Lottie Binga, Sagi- 
naw. 

Robinson, Merrick E., Detroit. 

Rodgers, Allen, Detroit. 

Rodgers, Frank L., Adrian (F). 

Roland, Caroline, Detroit. 

Roland, George, Flint. 

Roland, Henry, Flint. 

Roman, Charles, Bay City. 

Rudd, George E., Lansing. 

Russel, Albert, Battle Creek. 

Russe!, Charles, Kalamazoo. 

Russel, James T., Kalamazoo. 

Russel, Nellie, Kalamazoo. 

Russel, Samuel, Detroit. 

Russel!, Mrs. W. L., Detroit. 

Russell, William M., Ka amazoo. 

Russell, William W., Kalamazoo 
(F). 

Ryder, Simeon, Pontiac. 

Ryder, W. H., St. Joseph. 

Sanaals, Mr., Grand Rapids. 

Sanders, David, Niles. 

Sanders, Oscar, Fenwich (F). 

Sanders, Samuel D., Vandalia 
(F). 

Saunders, Elizabeth, Ann Arbor. 

Scipio, John, Adrian. 

Scott, Albert H., Detroit. 

Scott, Albert, Lansing. 

Scott, C, Whittaker (F). 



Residence of W. E. Lowndes, Detroit. 

Gal. 43 — Mortality Statistics 

Scott, Ellen, Kalamazoo. 

Scott, J. D., Lansing. 

Scott, John J., Lansing (F). 

Scott, Samuel, Cassopolis (F). 

Shachleford, Adam, Battle Creek. 

Shafer, Albert, Coleman (F). 

Shafer, Mrs. W., Coleman (F). 

Shafer, William, Coleman (F). 

Shepard, Henry, Detroit. 

Shepphard, Emery L., Kalama- 
zoo. 

Sherman, Chauncy, Grand Rap- 
ids (F). 

Sherman, Mrs. Wealthy, Ypsi- 
lanti. 

Shoemaker, Sylvester, Benton 
Harbor (F). 

Shook, Benjamin, Detroit. 

Shook, Ollie Deming, Detroit. 

Simmons, Elizabeth Johnson, 
Detroit. 

Simmons, Ester, Adrian. 

Simmons, Florence, Ypsilanti. 

Simmons, Minnie, Kalamazoo. 

Simons, Zack, Ann Arbor. 

Simpson, Charles O., Ypsilanti. 

Simpson, John H., Cassopolis 
(F). 

Simpson, Raymond, Battle 
Creek. 



ISG 



MICHIGAN M^-.uAL 




Residence of C. T. WhUe, Bay City. 




Farm Home of Georgre Richerson, Whittaker. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



187 




~*-^- 



Barn and Si!o of George Richerson. WhHtaker. Showinfr Himself and Ono of His Sons. 



Simpson, Rev. W. M., Jackson. Smith, 

Simpson, William, Adrian. Smith, 

Simuels, James, Detroit. Smitli, 

Single, Mns. R. \V.. Kalamazoo. Smith. 

Singford, Georgina, Detroit. Smith, 

Skimmerhorn, Fannie, Ann Ar- Smith, 

bor. Smith, 

Slaughter, \V. K., Detroit. Smith, 

Sleet, Thomas, Grand Rapids. Smith. 

Sma'l, Joseph, Niles (F). Smith. 

Smith, Rev. Charles, Detroit. Smith. 

Smith, Charles, Detroit. Smith, 

Smith, Charles H., Lansing (F). Smith. 

Smith, Daniel, Niles (F). Smitli, 

Smith. Daniel O., Detroit. Smith. 

Smith, Edward, Ann .\rbor. Smith. 

Smith, Edward D., Detroit. Smith. 



Edwin, Grand Rapids. 
Elizabeth, Detroit. 
Elizabeth. Battle Creek. 
Frances C, Ypisilanti. 
Frank, Detroit. 
George. Grand Rapids. 
F. George. Grand Rapids. 
Harman. Battle Creek. 
Harriet A., Detroit, 
liattie. Ypsilanti. 
Henry, Grand Rapids. 
Henry, Ann Arbor. 
Hezekiah, Battle Creek. 
Jane, Detroit. 
IJtlleton B.. Detroit. 
Ned. Grand Rapids. 
Noah. Kalamazoo. 



188 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




n 

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a 

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B 






FREKDMEX'S PROGUESS; 



189 




Kesidence of I'rank I,. Uoclners, Adrian. 




Farm Hou.hc View of Aaron Sncllinir, Bro«nvill<'. 



190 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




Residence of Morris Richardson, Bay City. Residence of John L. Stevenson, Detroit. 




Residence of the Late Hon. D. Augustus Straker, Detroit. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



191 




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192 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




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FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



193 




Residence of Mrs. Rhoda J. Thompson, Detroit. 




Apartment ISuildinK Owned by Mr«. Rhocla J. Thompson, Detroit. 



194 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




FREEDMEX'S PROGRESS 



Smith, Oscar, Detroit. 

Smith, Oscene, Cassopolis. 

Smith, Phillips, Grand Rapids. 

Smith. Robert, Hamtramck. 

Smith, Sarah, Ionia. 

Smith, Dr. Sylvester. Detroit. 

Smith. Verly. Benton Harbor. 

Smith, William, Grand Rapids. 

Smith, Mrs. Willie, Detroit. 

Smith, Willard, Whittaker (P). 

Snell, Sherwood, Detroit. 

Snelling, William, Vandalia (F). 

SnodRrass, Matilda, Battle 
Creek. 

Sooe. Joseph, Bay City. 

Spearman, Mack C, Detroit. 

Spriggs, Mary, Battle Creek. 

Spriggs, Wendell, Battle Creek. 

Stafford, Charles H., Kalamazoo. 

Stafford, George W., Kalamazoo. 

Stafford, William, Kalamazoo. 

Stanton, Joseph. Detroit. 

Starks, Charles, Ypsilanti. 

Starks, Milford, Ypsilanti. 

Starks, Rose, Ypsilanti. 

Starks, William, Bay City. 

Stephens, James M., Detroit. 

Stevens, John L.. Detroit. 

Stevens, John M., Grand Rap- 
ids. 

Steverson, Salome, Lansing. 

Steward, Asa, Cassopolis (F). 

Steward, Green, Grand Rapids. 

Steward, Joseph A., Dowagiac. 

Steward, R. F., Cassopolis. 

Stewart, Charles, Detroit. 

Stewart, Minerva, Dowagiac. 

Stewart, R. R., Cassopolis. 

Stewart, Thomas W., Kalama- 
zoo. 

Stone, Charles, Detroit. 

Stone, Wiliam E., Detroit. 

Stonesheet, Ella, Detroit. 

Story, John Edward, Adrian. 

Stowers, Walter H., Detroit. 

Stowns, W. M.. Detroit. 

Strickland. William Newport. 
Detroit. 



Stuart. Benjamin, Kalamazoo 

(F). 
Summerscale, Mrs. M., St. Louis. 
Tann. George W.. Lansing. 
Tann, Tabitha, Lansing.^ 
Tate. William L.. Lansing. 
Taylor, Annie L., Jackson. 
Taylor, George, Battle Creek. 
Taylor, Henrietta, Detroit. 
Taylor, Isiah, Milan (F). 
Taylor, Mary, Adrian. 
Taylor, Rebecca, Ypsilanti. 
Taylor, Robert, Milan (F). 
Taylor, Thomas, Jackson. 
Taylor, Thaddeus, Detroit. 
Thomas, John, Ann Arbor. 
Thomas, Telesia, Grand Rapids. 
Thomas, William O., Ann Arbor. 
Thompson, Allen, Kalamazoo. 
Thompson, Charles, Sault Ste. 

Marie. 
Thompson, Edward. Oshtemo. 
Thompson, Elijah. Ypsilanti. 
Thompson, E. F., Detroit (F) & 

(H). 
Thompson, Frank C, Belding. 
Thompson, George, Ypsilanti. 
Thompson, Henry P., Detroit. 
Thompson, Leonard C, Detroit. 
Thompson, Rhoda J., Detroit. 
Thompson, Timothy Whittaker 

(P). 
Thompson, Samuel G., Detroit. 
Thompson, W. O.. Lansing. 
Thornton. Bruce. Kalamazoo. 
Thornton. George, Dowayiac. 
Thurman, Frank M., Jackson. 
Thurman, John, Kalamazoo. 
Thurman, Peter L., Saginaw. 
Tillman. Augusta, Kalamazoo. 
Timbers, Ambrose, Detroit. 
Timbers. J.. Belleville (F). 
Tobias. John, Detroit. 
Gal. 44 -Mortality Statistics 
Toles, George. Battle Creek. 
Toles, Rachel. Battle Creek. 



196 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




Residence of Bishop C. S. Smith. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



197 



Tolliver, Albert, Saline. 
ToUiver, Henry, Detroit. 
Tomilinson, William, Detroit. 
Tompson, T., Whittaker (F). 
Travis, Solomon, Adrian. 
Tucker, Edward. Kalamazoo. 
Tucker, Hannah, Battle Creek. 
Tucker, Harriet, Battle Creek. 
Tulbert, Julia, Yp.silanti. 
Tuppin, Donald, Detroit. 
Turner, Dr. Alexander, Detroit. 
Turner, James Alexander, De- 
troit. 
Turner, Mrs. J., Detroit. 
Tyler, Human, Jackson. 
Tyler, James E., Grand Rapids. 
Van Mater, Mrs. S., Detroit. 
Vaughn, Rebecca, Jackson. 
Vaughn, Uriah, Cassopolis (F). 
Vaughn, W. N., Cassopolis (F). 
Vincent, Benjamin, Adrian. 
Vincent, Duncan, Grand Rapids. 
Vincent, Thomas, Detroit. 
Vincent, Mrs., Flint. 



Wade, Harry Clyde. Cassopolis 
(F). 

Wade, Miranda, Cassopoli.s (F). 

Wade, Mrs. Wallace, Bay City. 

Wagner, Henry, Bay City. 

Waldron, Henry, Detroit. 

Walker, Cyrus H., Lansing. 

Walker, David. Battle Creek. 

Walker, Francis A., Lansing. 

Walker, George. Bay City. 

Wallace, Benjamin, St. Clair 
Heights. 

Wallace, Josh.L., Battle Creek. 

Wallace, Prof. T., Adrian. 

Waller, Mr.. Whittaker (F). 

Warren, Chas. A., Lansing (F). 

Warren, Frank, Detroit. 

Warren, Frank J., Grand Rap- 
ids. 

Warren, Francis H., Detroit. 

Warren, Fred, Ypsilanti. 

Warren, George B., Ypsilanti. 

Warren, Richard, Battle Creek. 

Warrix, Rieley, St. Joseph. 




Kcsidcnrc of Mrn. Mary \\ .'illiiro. H.iy < il>. MirhiKiui. 



198 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




Residence of Thomas P. Wright, Grand Rapids. 




Residence of Wai'ter Winburn, Grand Rapids. 




Residence of James H. Wilson, Farmer, Cass County. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



199 



Warfield, Mary, Cassopolis. 

Warsaw, Thad. D., Detroit. 

Washington, Eflie, Dt^troit. 

Waterman, Mrs. W. W., Buchan- 
an. 

Watkin.s, Mrs. P. F., Detroit. 

Weaver, Miss Bertha, Grand 
Rapids. 

Weaver, Robert N., Kalamazoo. 

Webb, M. Charles R., Detroit. 

Wells, S. H., Dowagiac. 

West, Elizabeth, .Jackson. 

West, Elizabeth, Jackson. 

West, Mrs. E. C, Bedford. 

West, John A., Ann Arbor. 

West, J. H., Lansing. 

Westly, Christina, Jackson. 

Western, William, Grand Rap- 
ids. 

Wheeler, Charles D., Detroit. 

Wheeler, James D., Detroit. 

White, Albert J., Kalamazoo. 

White, Arthur B., Niles. 

White, Charles T., Bay City. 

White, Mrs. Emma, Detroit. 

White, E. L., Belleville (F). 

White, Henry, Kalamazoo. 

White, John, Ypsilanti. 

White, Mary Deming, Detroit. 

White, Susie, Grand Rapids. 

Wilkinson, Ross, Detroit. 

Williams, Bert, Detroit. 

Williams, Chas. E., Detroit. 

Wil'iams, Benjamin, Grand Rap- 
ids. 

Williams, Harrison, Detroit. 

Williams, Henry A., Kalamazoo. 

Williams, Henry L., Niles. 

Williams, John Turner, Detroit. 

Williams, Joseph, Ann Arbor. 

Williams, Nelson, Detroit (F) & 
(H). 

Williams, Joseph, Grand Rapids. 

Williams, Julia, Flint. 

Williams, N. R.. Detroit (F) & 
(H). 

Williams, Susan, Battle Creek. 



Williams, Theodore, Ni'.es. 

Williams, Thomas A., Detroit. 

Williams, Wallace, Detroit. 

Willis, Florence, Detroit. 

Willis, Henry, Mason. 

Willis, James, Mason (F). 

Willis. Robert J., Detroit. 

Willis, Rose, Detroit. 

Wilson, Alfred B., Niles (F). 

Wilson, DiiW^oize, Adrian. 

Wilson, Edith, Saline (F). 

Wilson, Elijah, Kalamazoo. 

Wilson, Frank, Marcellus (F). 

Wilson, Mr., Milan (F). 

Wilson, Henry Clay, Cassopolis 
(F). 

Wilson, Henry, Parma (F). 

Wilson, Hiram, Kalamazoo. 

Wilson, James H., Cassopolis 
(.F). 

Wi'son, John H., Grand Rapids. 

Wilson, Mary, Adrian. 

Wilson, Mary K., Detroit. 

Wilson, N. H., St. Louis. 

Wilson, Orrin E., St. Johns. 

Wi'son, Richard, Grand Rapids. 

Winborn, Mrs. Alexander, Niles 
(F). 

Winburn, Walter N., Grand Rap- 
ids. 

Winters, John, Pontiac. 

Wood, Isaac, Kalamazoo. 

Woodruff, A. B., Benion Harbor. 

Woods, Gertrude. Kalamazoo. 

Woods, Abraham, Ypsilanti. 

Woods, David, Grand Rapids. 

Woods, William W.. Detroit. 

Woods, Mrs. William, .\nu Ar- 
bor. 

Woodfall, Guy, Grand Rapids. 

Woodford. Thomas, Ka'amazoo. 

Wooten, Charles, Detroit. 

Wooten, Grant, Detroit. 

Wormley, (Jarrett N., Detroit. 

Wright, Harrison, Flint. 

Wright. James, Flint. 

Wright, JiTomo, Flint. 



200 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




Residence of Frank Wilson, Farmer, Volina Township, Cass County. 




Residence of Arthur White, Niles. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



201 



Wright, Ora, Adrian. 
Wright, Robert, Ypsilanti. 
Wright, Thomas, Grand Rapids 
Zebbs, Jacob, Ann Arbor. 



Zebbs, Richard, Ann Arbor. 
Zebbs, Samuel, Ann Arbor. 
Zebb.s, William, Ann Arbor. 




Residence of William Wimns, Benton Harbor. 




K<-Hi(liiu<- nf .Iiihn W iKoii. (.run. I UnpiHs. 



202 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 









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Residence of W. H. Anderson, Detroit. Residence of Duweize Wilson, Adrian. 




A Row of Pretty IlomoK Owmd l)> Af ro-AiiuriiiinK, (Hiilivld \\(nui'. Detroit. 



204 



MICHIGAN MANLaL 




Residence of F. M. Cannady, Farmer, Porter Township, Cass County. 




Residence of Henry Lewis Archer, Farmer, Cass County. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



20i 




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206 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




Mr. and Mrs. Henry Williams and Children, Kalamazoo. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



207 




Residence of Commissioner L. Margaret Williams, Kalamazoo. 




A. M. E. Church and Parsonage, Whittaker. 



208 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 





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A. M. E. Church at Ypsilanti. 



FREED.MEK'S PROGRESS 



209 




Studio of W. I.. Goodridge, Saginaw. 



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210 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 







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FREEDMENS PROGRESS 



111 




View of Afro-American Sunday School Picnic at Indian Lake, Near nowaRriac. 



212 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




Gilmore L. Phillips, Kalama/.o<i. Manager of Phillips Bros." Orchestra. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



213 



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B. Berneice Taylor. 



214 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

HOME AND PROPERTY OWNERS. 
Too Late for Classification. 
Rickman, James, Marquette. 
Baxter, Thomas, Marquette. 

Cotton, Charles, Hancock. Kennedy, James S., Cassopolis 

Thompson, Charles, Ispheming. (F). 

James, Ezra, Cassopolis. 

Lane, Henry C, Cassopolis (F). Curtis, William B., Cassopolis 

Snelling, Aaron, Cassopolis (F). (F). 

Curtis, Bishop E, Cassopolis Stonestreet, Mrs. Ella, Detroit. 

(F). Dulsey, Mr., Grand Rapids. 

White, Albert J. Contractor and builder of Kalamazoo. Was born 
Feb. 6th, 1861, at Canton, Ind. His parents walked from South Caro- 
lina to that State. When Albert J. was five years of age they ;-e- 
moved to Russiaville, Ind., about which time his father died, leaving 
the mother with four children. When seven years of age Albert was 
placed with a farmer with whom he stayed until he was fifteen years 
old, when he came to Michigan and worked on a farm for one year. 
He then settled at Kalamazoo, and began work tending a mason. He 
wanted to learn the trade but his employer discouraged him saying it 
would be better for him to learn something else, but he persisted with 
his employer to teach him the trade, finally offering to work for noth- 
ing for several months, at the end of which time he received some 
wages. His apprenticeship lasted seven years after which he worked 
at his trade as journeyman for two years when he started in the con- 
tracting business for himself. Among the many buildings constructed 
by Mr. White are the Hawthorn Paper Mill; the rebuilding of the High 
School on the first construction of which he started to learn his trade ; 
Riverview Paper Mills; Original Vegetable Parchment Mill; Illinois 
Envelope Factory; Jewish Synagogue; Charles Clarages Foundry and 
Machine Shop; part of Bryant's Paper Mill; two additions to the Kal- 
amazoo Paper Mill and part of Nazareth Academy, all of Kalamazoo. 
St. Anthony's Home at Comstock; High School at Plainwell; Four 
business places at Hastings. Mr. White is modest and unassuming 
in personal demeanor, absolutely reliable as to integrity, and one of 
the most highly respected citizens of Kalamazoo County. Half tones 
of our subject and his beautiful residence appear elsewhere in the 
Manual. 

Ray, Sergt. A. W., Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. An interesting feature 
of Afro-American employment is found in the Northern peninsula 
of the State where our subject is a sleepmg car conductor on the 
great lines of railroad characterized as "Soo" or "Soo & South Shore" 
lines. These roads run Afro-American conductors in charge of sleep- 
ing cars and also dining cars, Mr. Charles Cotton being one of the 
conductors of the dining car service, while our subject, Sergt. Ray, is 
a sleeping car conductor and probably the first instance in the country 
where colored men have been employed in these positions, it being 



FREEDMEN'S I'llOGKESS 215 

quite ordinary to employ them as porters, not conductors. Tliey have 
made exceptionally good and for the most part are highly educated, 
eflQcient men. Sergt. Ray is not only a Pullman conductor, but also a 
penman of cxfcllcni abilit\. 

Lambert, William. Born at Trenton, N. .1., ls2o, and came to De- 
troit about the year 1835. He worked for a time for Mr. Wm. Ranks, 
a colored clothing merchant, and later in the '50s opened a tailoring 
establishment on his own account. Mr. Lainht it i)rospered in business 
and accumulated a small fortune. He lived with his family in a com- 
fortable home on Larned St. He was a devout member of Christ's 
Protestant Episcopal Church and was the foremost organizer of St. 
Matthew's Episcopal Church in that city. He died in 1892 at a ripe 
age, leaving four children, all prominent in Detroit's Afro-American 
society. 

Simpson, William. A native of Toledo, Ohio. Removed to Michigan 
about 50 years ago, and now lives at Adrian, where he conducts a 
large printing establishment, doing a general line of book and job 
printing. 

Landscape Artist. 

Jackson, Rev. George R., was born at Short Creek, Ohio, educated 
by the Quakers and received a teacher's certificate at the age of 16, 
when he began his career as a teacher at Cadiz, Ohio. He entered 
the ministry after three years and for the past 28 years has been 
traveling evangelist in Michigan connected with the M. E. Church, 
having his home at Quincy, Branch County. Rev. .Tacksou is a land- 
scape artist of rare merit and specializes in painting farm scenes true 
to life. He also is an excellent penman. 

Kemp, William P., editor and publisher of The Detroit Leader, is a 
native of Plattsmouth, Neb., and came to Detroit eight years ago. He 
was educated in the high schools of Lincoln, Neb., and learned the 
trade of typographer in his native state. In addition to publishing the 
Leader, Mr. Kemp also owns and operates a large printing establish- 
ment that is the pride of Afro-Americans of Michigan's metropolis. He 
is also connected with several of Detroit's social organizations, is ac- 
tive in |)olitics aiul all movements for the public good. 

Jenkins, Charles A. Detroit's leading Negro contractor and builder 
is a native of Maryland and has lived in Michigan 35 years. His grand- 
parents on both sides were white southerners. Mr. Jenkins has con- 
structed soine of the most modern and substantial residence properties 
in his homo city, bears a splendid reputation as an expert mechanic 
and has accumulated a snug fortune from his business. 



216 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




Gen'l O. M. McCary. 



Military Record of Michigan 
Volunteers in the Civil War 

With Honor Roll 



OF 



Negroes Who Went to the 
Front in Defence 



OF THE 



Nation and Freedom 



218 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 



Inmates of Soldiers' Home, 
Grand Rapids 






John Sanford. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



219 




Lort'nzo Rann. 



James Estes. 




Charles Owens. 





John Hall. 



MaRNlirld Smith. 



220 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Michigan's Volunteer Negro Soldiers 

At this late date it is not generally known how many Michigan 
Negroes volunteered their services to the Government in the War of 
the Rebellion, 1861 to 1865, and it will be of interest, no doubt, to 
learn that more than 1,600 of Michigan's Colored population, in 1864, 
enlisted in the Union Army to aid in crushing the Rebellion. Troops 
had been tendered to the Government and had been refused, and it was 
not until late in the war that Colored men were accepted as defenders 
of the nation. 

In 1903 the Michigan Legislature adopted an act, providing for the 
compilation and publication, in alphabetical form, the regimental his- 
tory of all soldiers in Michigan who were enlisted and credited to the 
State of Michigan in the War of the Rebellion. The act provided for 
one volume devoted to the First Regiment, Michigan Colored Troops. 
It was duly passed by the Legislature and approved by Governor Aaron 
T. Bliss. The compilation was subsequently completed and published, 
volume 46 being devoted to Negro volunteers. 

It was in July, 1863, that Gov. Austin Blair was authorized by the 
Secretary of War to organize one regiment of infantry composed of 
Colored men and as fast as the different companies were recorded the 
officers for same were appointed by the Secretary of War and the com- 
panies mustered into service. It is not the purpose here to give any- 
thing of a history of the accomplishments of the Negro troops, but 
primarily to provide an honor roll in this Manual for the Negro citizens 
of the State who volunteered their services to the Government in its 
hour of need. 

The total number of men who enrolled as soldiers from July, 1863, 
to the close of the war in 1865 was 1673. There were killed in action, 
5; died of wounds, 7; died of diseases, 116; discharged for disability, 
114. This regiment left Michigan for Annapolis, Md., in 1864, where it 
joined the 9th Army Corps. Quoting from the Record First Michigan 
Colored Infantry, Civil War: "It was soon detached and sent by trans- 
ports to Hilton Head, South Carolina, where it arrived April 19th, 1864. 
For two months the different companies did picket duty at St. Helena 
and Jenkins Islands and at Hilton Head Island. The regiment then 
occupied Port Royal and assisted in constructing fortifications and 
other fatigue duty. In August the regiment was sent to Jacksonville, 
Fl^.; then marched to Baldwin, where it destroyed railroad tracks. It 
was attacked by the enemy and during the engagement the regiment 
convinced its officers that the men could be relied upon when serious 
service was demanded. After a long march from through Eastern 
Florida they first embarked on transports at Magnolia for Beaufort, 
S. C. In September it was sent to different points at Coosa and Port 
Royal Islands and in October the enemy attempted to surprise and cap- 
ture the regiment, but was repulsed and driven off. In November, 1864, 
a detachment of 300 joined the forces under General Foster at Boyd's 
Landing, and engaged the enemy at Honey Hill, S. C, Tillifinny and 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 221 

Deveaux Neck. At Gorhamsville a detaciuuent fought a sangmnary 
battle with the enemy and received the highest commendation of the 
officers in command for holding its ground in a severe fire and in 
repulsing a charge and charging in return. 

"The artillery from the expedition suffered severely from the 
enemy's fire, so many horses being killed that two guns had to be 
abandoned, but the men of the first hauled them off by hand and they 
were saved. 

"Many of the men, though wounded and bleeding, refused to go to 
the rear and fought until the battle was concluded. In February, 1865, 
the regiment was re-united at Pocatalligo and made several expedi- 
tions into the enemy's country, driving off his cavalry and destroying 
railroads and building breast works. It was then sent to Charleston, 
where it built defences and then embarked for Savannah, Georgia. 
Returned to Charleston, April 9th, and divided into two wings, each 
wing making daring incursions into the interior of the state, meeting 
the enemy in several severe skirmishes, defeating him in each engage- 
ment. On May 29th, after the surrender of General Johnson, the regi- 
ment proceeded to Charleston and for the next few months occupied 
Summerville, Branchville, Orangeburg, and Winnsboro, and returned 
to Charleston, where it was mustered out September 30th. Arriving in 
Detroit, the regiment was paid off and disbanded, October 17th, 1865." 

The following is a complete list of all the Michigan men who 
became volunteer soldiers in the Union Armies during the War of the 
Rebellion as published in Volume 46, before mentioned: 

Names of Michigan Volunteers, Date of Enlistment, Place of 
Enlistment, Company, Regiment and Age. 

1010. 

Co. — Company. 

1st C. I. — First Colored Infantry. 

U. S. C. C. — United States Colored Cavalry. 

U. S. C. H. A. — United States Colored Heavy Artillery. 

U. S. C. A.-United States Colored Artillery. 

Abbott, George, Dec. 26, 1863, Lodi Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 32 

Adams, William, Aug. 22, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 24 

Aiken, George, Feb. 4, 1864, Rollin Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 44 

Albert, David, Oct. 13, 1864, Erin Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 20 

Alexander, George, Mar. 29, 1865, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 27 

Alexander, Jacob, Howard Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 40 

Alexander, Joseph, Jan. 7, 1864. Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Alexander, Joseph, Dec. 2, 1863, Grand Rapids 1st C.I. Age 18 

Alfred, Alexander, Oct. 10, 1864. Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Alfred. George, Oct. 7, 1864. Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 23 

Alfred, John, Oct. 1, 1864, Detroit Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 26 

Allen, Alexander. Dec. 15. 1864, Pontiac 1st C.I. Age 18 

Allen. Arthur, Juno 29, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. C. Ist C.I. Age 18 

Allen. Franklin. Dec. 11, 1863. Detroit Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Allen. George L.. Sept. 1. 1864, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 19 



222 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Allen, James, Mar. 15, 1864, Adrian Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Allen, John, Sept. 27, 1864. Pontiac Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 40 

Allen, Lewis, Jan. 21, 1864, Marshall Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 30 

Allen, Martin, Feb. 10, 1864, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 23 

Allen, Myron, Jan. 29, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 26 

Allen, Samuel, Oct. 7, 1864, Detroit 1st C.I. Age 37 

Allen, Squire, Feb. 5, 1864, Detroit Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 25 

Allen, Ward J., Mar. 14, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Allen, Warren, Dec. 8, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Allen, William, Sept. 19, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 25 

Almond, James, Oct. 21, 1863, Detroit Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 31 

Alvord, Henry H., Bay City Co. C. 1st CJ. 

Amos, James, Aug. 16, 1864, Pontiac Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Anderson, Amos, Porter Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Anderson, Dewitfield, Jan. 31, 1864, Detroit Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 42 

Anderson, Allis, Jan. 13, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 24 

Anderson, George, Oct. 6, 1864, Detroit Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Anderson, James, July 28, 1864, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Anderson, Jefferson B., Jan. 11, 1864, Porter. . . .Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 44 

Anderson, John, Feb. 28, 1865, Ypsilanti Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 30 

Anderson, John, Oct. 6, 1864, Detroit Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Anderson, John, Jan. 4, 1864, Pontiac Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 44 

Anderson, John, Jan. 21, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Anderson, Lewis, Sept. 1, 1864, Penn Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 17 

Appleton, George, Bronson Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 34 

Appleton, George, Nov. 17, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 34 

Archer, John, Jan. 15, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 23 

Archie, Turner, Oct. 10, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 44 

Archy, Thomas, Sept. 9, 1864, Jackson Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 20 

Artis, Archy, Mar. 4, 1864, Port Huron Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 23 

Artis, Eziah H., Calvin Co. K. 1st C.L Age 23 

Artis, George, Nov. 5, 1863, Calvin Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 24 

Artis, Kinchen, Dec. 19, 1863, Battle Creek Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 37 

Artis, Levi, Feb. 2, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.L Age 18 

Artis, Mathew, Oct. 7, 1863, Calvin Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 27 

Asbury, John, Dec. 11, 1863, Jackson Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Ash, Ashberry, Aug. 17, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. B. 1st C J. Age 18 

Ash. Joseph C, Calvin Co. G. 1st C.L Age 38 

Ash, William H., Jan. 28, 1865, Grand Rapids. . .Co. A. 1st C.L Age 22 

Bailey, Isaac, Jan. 30, 1865, Grand Rapids Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 36 

Bailey, James, Aug. 31, 1864, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.L Age 18 

Bailey, William, Jan. 11, 1864, St. Joseph Co. K. 1st C.L Age 39 

Baily, John. Nov. 2. 1863, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.L Age 28 

Baily, John E., Oct. 10, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.L Age 37 

Baker, Hillis, Mar. 3, 1865, Pontiac Co. D. 1st C.L Age 27 

Banks. Henry, Feb. 12, 1864, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.L Age 28 

Banks, Lewis, Oct. 1, 1863, Battle Creek Co. C. 1st C.L Age 31 

Banks, William, Nov. 3, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.L Age 18 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 223 

Banks, William, Jan. 4, 1864, Detroit Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Banks. William. Oct. 9. 1863, Detroit Co. I. 1st C.I. Age IS 

Bannister, Gustavus, Oct. 1, 1864, Howard Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Barnes, Alexander. June 10. 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Barnes, Henry, Detroit 1st C.I. 

Barnett, John, Aug. 8, 1864, Jackson Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 21 

BartoUs, James F., Sept. 1, 1864, Nile.s Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 25 

Bartolls, John, Aug. 31, 1864, Nilcs Co. B. 1st CI. Age 31 

Barton, Thomas, Porter 1st C.I. Age 45 

Basey, James S., Nov. 29, 1863. Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Ago 28 

Bass, George W., Oct. 19, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Bass, James H., Oct. 21, 1863, Kalamazoo Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Bass, Sylvester, Jan. 24, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Batt, Andrew J., Nov. 25, 1863. Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 20 

Battis, Joseph, Oct. 23, 1863. Warren Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 23 

Battles, Wilson, Sept. 16, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 37 

Baxter. David, Dec. 24, 1863. Detroit Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 29 

Baza, Andrew, Jan. 11, 1863, Detroit Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 25 

Beauford, George, Mar. 30, 1865, Jackson Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 37 

Beauregard, Nathan, Oct. 8, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 23 

Bee. John, Nov. 26, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 26 

Beeler, Lewis, Jan. 13, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 44 

Bell, Caleb, Jan. 6, 1864, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Bell, Charles, Sept. 25, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 24 

Bell. David, Dec. 15, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 27 

Bell, George, Mar. 21, 1864, Detroit 1st C.I. Age 20 

Bell, Jefferson, Dec. 26, 1863, Ganges Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 26 

Bell, John, Mar. 23, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Bell. Louis, Aug. 26, 1864, Jackson Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 20 

Bell, Nathaniel, Nov. 24, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 26 

Benjamin, David C Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 34 

Bennett, Edward L., Dec. 24, 1863, Kalamazoo.. Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 33 

Bennett, George E., Oct. 21, 1863, Kalamazoo. . .Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 37 

Bennett, Orson W Co. A. 1st C.I. 

Bennett, Rutson M., Dec. 3, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Bennett, William T 1st C.I. 

Benton, Aaron, Aug. 30, 1864, Palmyra Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Berry, Alli.son, Dec. 18, 1863, Marshall Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 35 

Beverly, Reuben, Jan. 17, 1865, Kalamazoo Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 40 

Beverly, William T., Jan. 29, 1864, Kalamazoo. .Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Bibbins. George H.. Aug. 31, 1864, Jackson Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Binns. Daniel. Feb. 20. 1865. Detroit Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Bird, Abner R., Jan. 16, 1864, Calvin Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 20 

Bird. David. Mar. 29, 1865, Kalamazoo 1st C.I. Age 25 

Bird, Joseph. Nov. 19. 1864. Port Huron 1st C.I. Age 19 

Dirton. Henry S.. Oct. 19, 1863, Lowell Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 44 

iJi.shop, Solomon. Feb. 26. 1864, Detroit Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Black, William. Dec. 31. 1863. Detroit Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 43 



224 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Blackburn, Benjamin, Sept. 21, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st CI. Age 26 

Blackman, Wesley, Dec. 31, 1863, Detroit Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 31 

Blackstone, Henry, Dec. 28, 1863, Detroit Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 40 

Blackwell, James, Sept. 14, 1864, Jackson Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 23 

Blair, Benjamin, Apr. 14, 1864, Annapolis Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Blair, Moses, Apr. 10, 1865, Erie 1st C.I. Age 21 

Blake, William, Nov. 3, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 41 

Blay, Robert, Nov. 3, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 37 

Bleeker, James H., Oct, 19, 1864, Detroit Co.K. 1st C.I. Age 25 

Bloom, Joseph, Oct 14, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Boatman, William, Porter 1st C J. 

Bock, Thomas, Jan. 14, 1864, Three Oaks Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 44 

Boget, John, Jan. 8, 1864, Pittsfield 1st C.I. Age 31 

Bolden, Daniel, Oct. 13, 1863, Schoolcraft Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 45 

Bolin, Caro, Feb. 16, 1865, Niles Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 35 

Bolton, Squire, Dec. 19, 1863, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Bon, Parker C, Sept 16, 1863, Detroit. 1st C.I. Age 27 

Bonson, Dandrige, Jan. 14, 1864, Ypsilanti Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 26 

Booker, John, Jan. 11, 1864, Detroit Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 26 

Bosley, John, Nov. 2, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Boswell, James, Jan. 29, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 44 

Boswell, John, Nov. 9, 1863, Detroit 1st C.I. Age 22 

Bowden, John, Nov. 28, 1863, Cassopolis Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Bowles, William, Aug. 3, 1864 Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 30 

Bowlin, James, Nov. 4, 1864, South Haven Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 27 

Bowls, John, Feb. 15, 1865, Ypsilanti Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 32 

Bowman, Alexander, Dec, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 23 

Bowman, Frederick, Apr. 7, 1865, Jackson Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 40 

Boyd, Alfred, Jan. 17, 1864, White Pigeon 1st C.I. Age 20 

Boyd, Andrew J., Dec. 12, 1863, Cassopolis Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Boyd, George W., Apr. 3, 1864, Annapolis Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Boyd, John, Jan. 17, 1865, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 41 

Boyd, Lucien, Jan. 18, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 29 

Badbury. Sherrard, Sept. 29, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 28 

Bradley, James F Co. F. 1st C.I. 

Bramble. Aaron, Aug. 29, 1864, Monroe Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 28 

Bright, Thomas, Dec. 26, 1863, Detroit Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 33 

Brisco, William, Dec. 3, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Brodie, Isaac, Dec. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. G. 1st C J. Age 23 

Brookins, Philip, Feb. 29, 1865, Jackson Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Brooks, Benjamin, Dec. 26, 1863, Lansing Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Brooks, George, Oct. 19, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Brooks, Jonathan, Sept. 2, 1864, Forester Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Brooks, Kincheon, Nov. 3, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 32 

Brooks, Nelson, Sept. 16, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 40 

Brooks, Paul W., Jan. 18, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 27 

Brooks. Thomas, Oct. 6, 1864. Erin Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Brown. Alexander, Sept. 16, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 18 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 225 

Brown, Charles, July 22, 1864, Detroit 1st C.I. Age 24 

Brown, Cornelius, Aug. 17, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Brown, George, Feb. 15, 1865, Buchanan Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 25 

Brown, George, Jan. 22, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 44 

Brown, Henry A., Dec. 28, 1863, Adrian Co. E. 1st C.l. Age 16 

Brown, Horace, Dec. 27, 1864, Detroit Co. A- 1st C.I. Age 30 

Brown, Isaiah, Porter 1st C.I. Age 38 

Brown, James, Feb. 27, 1865, Jackson Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Brown, James, Feb. 23, 1865, Berrien 1st C.I. Age 39 

Brown, James L., Oct. 1, 1863, Battle Creek Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 37 

Brown, John, Jan. 24, 1865, Jackson Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 23 

Brown, John, Oct. 20, 1863, Calvin Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 31 

Brown, John, Oct. 21, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 25 

Brown, John, Nov. 8, 1863, Adrian Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 23 

Brown, John, Dec. 19, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 27 

Brown, John, Feb. 27, 1865, Jackson Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 24 

Brown, John B., Jan. 2, 1864, Hudson Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 24 

Brown, John R., Jan. 9, 1864, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 28 

Brown, Martin V., Oct. 3, 1863, Battle Creek Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Brown, Nelson, Oct. 8, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Brown, Samuel, Feb. 26, 1864, Detroit Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 29 

Brown, Samuel, Feb. 23, 1864, Detroit Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 31 

Brown, Samuel, Porter 1st C.I. Age 32 

Brown, Stuart, Oct. 20, 18R3, Calvin Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 27 

Brown, Tlieodore, O ;t. 13, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 36 

Brown, Thoma.s, Dec. 24, 1863, Detroit Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Brown, Thomas, Aug. 17, 1864, Raisiiiville Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 20 

Brown, Thomas B., Dec. 7, 1863, St. Clair Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 35 

Brown, Warren, July 22, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Bryant, Gilmore, Aug. 16, 1864, Tecumseh Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 35 

Bryant, Samuel, Feb. 29, 1864, Port Huron Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 23 

Bucey, George, Dec. 19, 1863, Detroit Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 27 

Buchanan, William, Sept. 27, 1864, Kalamazoo. .Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Buckner, Gibson, Dec. IG, 1863, Adrian Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 23 

Buckner, Isaac, Aug. 27, 1864, Jackson Co. I. 1st C.l. Age 17 

Buckner, John, Nov. i:j, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 26 

Buckner, William, Sept. 29, 1863, Detroit Oo. A. 1st C.I. Age 38 

Bullard, Augusta. Sept. ::0, 1863, Jackson Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 28 

Burnett, Aaron, Sept. 28, 1SG3, Kalamazoo Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Burnett, Franklin, Oct. 7, 1863, Calvin Co. 15. Ut CJ. Age 36 

Burnett. James, Jan. 21, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. Ago 21 

Burress, Gilbert, Feb. 27. 1S64, Detroit Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 28 

Burton, Elbert, Aug. 29, 1864, Kalamazoo 1st C.I, Age 36 

Burton, George W., Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 39 

Busby, Stephen, Aug. 30, 1864, St. Joseph Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 39 

Butcher. David, Oct. 21, 1863. Calvin Co. B- 1st C.I. Age 19 

Butcher, William. Aug. 22, 1864. Pontiac Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Butler, Charles, Sept. 16, 1863, Detroit Co. A. IstC.I. Ago 19 



226 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Butler, Charles, Jan. 4, 18G4, Pontlac Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 48 

:Butler, George, Mar. 4, 1864, Pontiac Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 28 

Butler,, Henry, Mar. 18, 1865, Detroit Co. H. 1st CI. Age 30 

Butler, James H., Oct. 10, 1864, Kalamazoo 1st CI. Age 18 

Butler, John E., Feb. 14, 1865, Detroit Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 32 

Butler, William A., Feb. 8,, 1865, Jackson Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 37 

Butler, William H., Feb. 17, 1865, Pontiac Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 40 

Butler, Zachariah, Nov. 29, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Byrd, Crawford, Jan. 30, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 17 

Byrd, James M.. Calvin Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 32 

Byrd, Lanson, Dec. 29, 1863, Kalamazoo Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 28 

Byrd, Turner, Jr., Calvin Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Cahill, Edward, Jan. 19, 1864, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 20 

Calaman, Benjamin F., Jan. 24, 1864, Sodus 1st C.I. Age 27 

Caleman, Benjamin F., Jan. 24, 1864, Sodus Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 27 

"ICallahan, John, Aug.^ 23, 1864, Livonia Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 31 

Callaway, Albert, Dec. 11, 1863, Porter Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 37 

Callender, Alexander, Mar. 16, 1865, Saline Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Callaway, Giles, Oct. 21, 1863, Porter Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 25 

Calloway, Creed, Nov. 18, 1863, Calvin Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 23 

Camel, John, Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 40 

"Cammel, Vance S., Feb. 8, 1865, Kalamazoo Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 31 

Campbell, Harrison, Dec. 31, 1863, Detroit Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 27 

■Campbell, William. Dec. 30, 1863, Detroit 1st C.I. Age 20 

Canada, Benjamin, Jan. 5, 1864. Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 31 

Canada, William, July 15, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 23 

'Cannon, John, Feb. 16, 1864, Franklin Co. F. 1st CI. Age 34 

Caraway, Leroy, Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st CI. Age 27 

Carey, Aquilla R., Jan. 3, 1864, Overisel Co. H. 1st CI. Age 38 

Carmel, John, Mar. 9, 1865, Jackson Co. I. 1st CI. Age 18 

Carr, James, Oct. 26, 1863, Detroit Co. B. 1st CI. Age 27 

'Carter, Charles, Apr. 4, 1865, Pontiac Co. K. 1st CI. Age 18 

Cartee, Frank, Sept. 14, 1864, Pontiac Co. A. 1st CI. Age 19 

•Carter, Henry, Feb. 2, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st CI. Age 19 

-Carter, James, Jan. 27, 1864, Detroit Co. H. 1st CI. Age 19 

Carter, James, Jan. 8, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st CI. Age 21 

Carter, William H., NoV. 15, 1863, Ypsilanti Co. F. 1st CI. Age 18 

Casby, Lafayette, Apr. 10, 1865, Ogden 1st CI. Age 26 

Casey, Martin V., t)ec. 28, 1863, Detroit Co. I. 1st CI. Age 18 

Chambers, tfeorge W., Sept. 16, 1863, Detroit. . .Co. C 1st CI. Age 25 

Chambers, James, Dec 17, 1863, Kalamazoo Co. F. 1st CI. Age 24 

Chancellor, James, Jan. 3, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st CI. Age 19 

Chandler. Charles, Sept. 29, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st CI. Age 23 

Chandler, Moore, Nov. 3, 1863, Detroit Co. C 1st CI. Age 26 

Charles, Sanford M., Feb. 13, 1865, Bellevue. .Co. B. 1st CI. Age 36 

Charlton, Sampson, Dec. 2, 1863, Detroit Co. K. 1st CI. Age 44 

Charris, Eugene, A\ig. 19, 1864, Walton Co. I. 1st CI. Age 16 

Childers, Washington, Dec. 31, 1863, Detroit Co. G. 1st CI. Age 22 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 227 

Chin, Charles, Nov. 4, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Chinn. Charles A., Nov. 4, 1863, Grand Rapids 1st C.I. Age 19 

Christian, Richard. Aug. 17, 1864, Ash Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Christopher. Isaac. Sept. 1, 1864, St. Joseph Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 34 

Cicero. William. Sept. 30, 1864. Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Cisco. Amos, Feb. 23, 1865, Grand Rapids Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 38 

Clark, Alexander, Dec. 31, 1863, Detroit Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 24 

Clark, Benjamin, Dec. 24, 1863, Marshall Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 27 

Clark, Cary, Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 20 

Clark, George A., Feb. 23, 1865, Jackson Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 33 

Clark, Henry, Aug. 5, 1864, Jackson Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 20 

Clark, John H., Dec. 24, 1863, Marshall Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 33 

Clark, Michael, Nov. 4. 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 44 

Clark, Michael, Sept. 16, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.l. Age 18 

Clark, Robert. Dec. 29, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Clark, William, Oct. 28, 1863, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Clay, Henry, Mar. 30, 1865, Jackson Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Clayborne, Andrew, Sept. 9, 1864, Kalamazoo. . .Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Clemins, John, Feb. 18, 1864, Detroit Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Clock, Joseph, Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 25 

Close, George W., Oct. 21, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Cobb, Alexander, Oct. 17, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 37 

Coffin. John, Oct. 28, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 39 

Coker, James, Oct. 16, 1863, Calvin Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 24 

Coker, Michael, Oct. 18, 1863, Calvin Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 39 

Colbert, Edward, Sept. 28, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 35 

Cole, Francis, Dec. 8, 1864, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Coleman, Benjamin, Sodus 1st C.I. Age 27 

Coleman, John W., Dec. 15, 1863, Madison Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Coleman. Morris, Oct. 21, 1863. Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 38 

Coleman, William W., Dec. 22, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 21 

•Collins, Benjamin, Dec. 14, 1863, Port Huron.. Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 35 

Collins, Lott A., Feb. 19, 1864, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 26 

Collins, William, Mar. 15, 1865, Jackson Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 20 

Combs, Augustua, Dec. 30, 1863, Waterford 1st C.I. Age 19 

Conner, John, Aug. 29, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Conner, William, Dec. 11, 1863, Vandalia Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 26 

Connor, Aldrick, Oct. 19, 1863, Detroit Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Conway, David R., Jan. 20, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 29 

Conway. George A., Jan. 20, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 20 

Cook. Alexander D., Oct. 8, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 29 

Coombs, Alfred, Mar. 10, 1865, Jackson Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Cooper, Benjamin, Oct. 27. 1863, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 26 

Cooper, Daniel, Dec. 5. 1863, Detroit Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 42 

Cooper, Moses, Oct. 24, 1864, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 24 

Cooper. Richard. Jan. 8. 1864, Richmond Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 25 

Cooper, Stephen, Jan. 14. 1864, York Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 34 

iCoj)ley, Calvin M., Aug. 17, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 19 



228 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Copley, John A., Aug. 20, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 26 

Copley, William S., Aug. 16, 1864, Kalamazoo. . .Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Corins, Benjamin, Jan 21, 1864 1st C.I. Age 18 

Corner, John, Aug. 29, 1864, Kalamazoo 1st C.I. Age 22 

Cousins, Benjamin, Niles Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 20 

Cousins, David W., Dec. 4, 3 863, Vandalia Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 28 

Cousins, Elzy, Dec. 26, 1863, Porter Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 35 

Cox, Newell Co. A. 1st C.I. 

Craig, Lewis, Aug. 1, 1864 Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 29 

Craig, Prince Albert, Oct. 1, 1864, Detroit 1st C.I. Age 19 

Craig, or Craid, Wm., Nov. 21, 1864, Kalamazoo. Co. C. 1st CI. Age 25 

Creggs, William B., July 14, 1864, Detroit 1st C.I. Age 26 

Crockett, Charles H., Sept. 12, 1864, Lansing. . .Co. F. 1st CL Age 18 

Crockett, David, Sept. 12, 1864, Lansing Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 28 

Crockett, Eli, Feb. 10, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 28 

Cromwell, Peter, Dec. 3, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Crooke, Charles, Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Crosby, Bateman, Mar. 17, 1865, Detroit Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 38 

Crosby, Harrison, Jan. 4, 1864, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 30 

Crosby, Othello, Oct. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Cross, Joseph, Feb. 26, 1864, Ypsilanti Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Cross, Richard. Oct. 3, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Crow, Harvey, Howard 1st C.I. Age 40 

Crowder, Edward, March 7, 1865, Niles Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Crummell, James M., Nov. 28, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Crump, Henry, Nov. 22, 1864 Co. C. 1st CL Age 38 

Cummings, John, Dec. 23, 1863, Lodi Co. G. 1st CI. Age 40 

Curry, John, Feb. 22, 1864, Detroit Co. F. 1st CI. Age 36 

Curtis, Bishop E., Aug. 24, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. H. 1st CI. Age 24 

Curtis, George H., Dec. 4, 1863, Detroit Co. B. 1st CL Age 25 

Curtis, James B. F., Feb. 16, 1864, Flint 1st CL Age 24 

Dabney, Johnson H., Aug. 25, 1864, Pontiac 1st CL Age 19 

Dale, Marcus, Sept. 25, 1863, Detroit Co. C 1st CL Age 29 

Daly, Henry, Dec. 11, 1863, Mt. Clemens Co. F. 1st CL Age zl 

Daniels, Wright, Aug. 22, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. F. 1st CI. Age 24 

Davis, Aaron, Sept. 3, 1864, Grand Rapids Co. G. 1st CL Age 19 

Davis, Charles, Oct. 21, 1863, Detroit Co. C 1st CL Age 26 

Davis, Charles, Oct. 18, 1864 Co. H. 1st CL Age 35 

Davis, Charles H., Sept. 16, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st CL Age 29 

Davis, Claiborne, Sept. 29, 1864, Detroit Co. A. 1st CI. Age 36 

Davis, Delos, Dec. 11, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 1st CI. Age 20 

Davis, Giles, Dec. 21, 1863, Detroit Co. G. 1st CL Age 19 

Davis, Henry, Jan. 16, 1864, Pontiac Co. K. Ist CL Age 30 

Davis, John, Sept. 25, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st CL Age 19 

Davis, John, Dec. 21, 1863, Lodi 1st CI. Age 44 

Davis, Joseph, Aug. 16, 1864, Pontiac 1st CI. Age 20 

Davis, Nathan, Mar. 1, 1864. Detroit Co. E. 1st CL Age 18 

Davis, Reason, Sept. 16, 1863, Detroit Co. C 1st CL Age 33 



FREEDMENS PROGRESS 229 

Davis, Thomas J., Feb. 20, 1865, Ypsilanti Co. B. 1st CM. Age 44 

Darls, William, Jan. 18, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 44 

Davis, William L., Nov. 8, 1863, Adrian Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Day, Chauncey, Sept. 29, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 23 

Dean, George, Aug. 16, 1864, Detroit Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Dean, Sidney. Jan. 21, 1864, Leroy Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 23 

Delaney, Isaac, Dec. 21, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Delany, John. Oct. 23, 1S63, Del rolt Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 29 

Dengerfield, Edward, Oct. 14, 1863. Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Dennis, Joshua, Feb. 15, 1864, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 35 

Dennis, Stephen, Oct. 26, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Derry, Landon, Jan. 20, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 36 

Devenport, Aaron, Dec. 8, 1863. Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 21 

DeVolt, William, Sept. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Dickerson, Andrew, Sept. 29, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 24 

Dickinson, Joseph, Dec. 26, 1863, Lodi Co. G. 1st C.l. Age 26 

Dillon, George, Aug. 2, 1864, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 39 

Dixon, William, Nov. 20, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 23 

Dixon, William, Jan. 27, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Doleman. William. .Tan. 14, 1864, York Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 33 

1)00, Elijah, Aug. 20, 1864, Detroit Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Dorsey, James W., Dec. 24, 1863, Detroit Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 32 

Dotson, John, Jan. 27, 1864, Ypsilanti Co. K. 1st CJ. Age 23 

Douglas, Stephen 1st C.I. 

Douglass, James, Dec. 8, 1863, Sharon Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 23 

Douglass, Stephen A., Aug. 29, 1864, Kalamazoo. Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 29 

Dowell, George, Dec. 18. 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 26 

Doyle, James. May 6, 1864, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 36 

Dubendorf, Edward Co. I. 1st C.I. 

Dudley, Ambrose, Feb. 10, 1864, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 40 

Dudley, George A., Dec. 28, 1863, Grand Haven. Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 37 

Dudley, Greene, Mar. 28, 1865. Jackson Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Dudley, Robert. Oct. 8, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 30 

Dudley, Thomas, Nov. 13, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Dunbar, Isaac, Aug. 8, 1864, Hagerstown Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Duncan, Frederick, Feb. 5, 1864, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 40 

Duncan, James M., Mar. 8, 1864, Detroit Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 30 

Duncan, John, Aug. 22, 1864, Detroit 1st C.I. Age 21 

Dungie, John, Oct. 7, 1863, Calvin Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 30 

Dupey, Joseph, Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 25 

Dutton, Stephen, Mar. 14, 1865, Detroit Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 43 

Early, Samuel, Dec. 4, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Easley, George, Nov. 23, 1863. Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 24 

Ebo, Peter H., Mar. 6, 1865, Armada Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 34 

Edwards, Alexander, Feb. 27, 1864, Detroit Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 43 

Edwards. Michael, Feb. 19, 1864, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 40 

Edwards. William, Dec. 24, 1863. Detroit Co. B. 1st C.l. Age 37 

Eess. Jay. Nov. 5, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st (M. Age 24 



230 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Efner, Joseph H Co. C. 1st C.I. 

Egbert, Daniel, Mar. 6, 1865, Armada Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 32 

Ellicott, Harry, Dec. 28, 1863, Grand Haven Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 53 

Elliott, John, Dec. 8, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st CJ. Age 29 

Embrose, William, Feb. 15, 1865, Ypsilanti Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 32 

Emmons, Joshua, Oct. 8, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st CJ. Age 31 

English, John, Jan. 4, 1864, Detroit Co. H. 1st CJ. Age 24 

Estes, James, Oct. 21, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Evans, Daniel, Feb. 27, 1864, Columbus Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Evans, William R., Aug. 30, 1864, Jackson Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 17 

Farran, Alfred, Dec. 21, 1863, Detroit Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 44 

Farran, Andrew, Sept. 1, 1864, Buchanan Co. G. IstCJ. Age 1& 

Fassett, Henry, Dec. 26, 1863, Ann Arbor Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 20 

Faulconer, Samuel, Sept. 25, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st CJ. Age 37 

Felton, Rufus K., Jan. 21, 1864, Marshall Co. I. 1st CJ. Age 27 

Ferguson, William, Oct 8, 1863, Battle Creek. . .Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 24 
Ferguson, William H., Sept. 24, 1864, Pontiac. .Co. K. 1st C J. Age 18 

Fielder, Isaac, Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Fields, Elvin W., Jan. 26, 1864, Ann Arbor Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 29 

Finelly, Richard, Dec. 16, 1863, Niles Co. E. 1st C J. Age 26 

Finlay, James, Mar. 8, 1865, Pontiac Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 35 

Finley, Edward, Jan. 21, 1864, Niles Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 23 

Finley, William, Oct. 10, 1864, Erin 1st CJ. Age 19 

Fisher, John Henry, Aug. 15, 1864, Kalamazoo. .Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Fisher, Lewis, Jan. 8, 1864, Richmond Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 25 

Fitzgerald, Edward, Dec. 17, 1863, Kalamazoo 1st C J. Age 18 

Fixer, Luke, Mar. 2, 1865, Jackson Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Fletcher, Frederick, June 15, 1864, Cambridge 1st C.I. Age 19 

Floyd, Robert, Aug. 26, 1864, Magnolia Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 20 

Flynn, Robert, Aug. 13, 1864, Tecumseh Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 37 

Ford, Andrew, Dec. 28, 1863, Marshall Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Ford, Andrew, Dec. 11, 1863, Howard Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 39 

Ford, James H., Aug. 11, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Ford, Jerry, Sept 2, 1864, Jackson Co. C. 1st CJ. Age 23 

Ford, William, Feb. 17, 1865, Kalamazoo Co. C. 1st CJ. Age 24 

Forrest, John, Oct. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 1st C J. Age 26 

Foster, John A., Feb. 28, 1865, Putnam Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 33 

Foster, Samuel, Dec. 17, 1863, Detroit Co. H. 1st CJ. Age 19 

Fountain, Robert J., Nov. 28, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st CJ. Age 31 

Francis, Abram, Feb. 12, 1864, Almont Co. D. 1st CJ. Age 33 

Franklin, West, Jan. 4, 1864, Richmond Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Frederick, William, Sept. 2, 1864, Kalamazoo 1st C.l. Age 25 

Freeman, Fred'k A., Sept. 30, 1863, Ann Arbor. .Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Freeman, George G., Nov. 27, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st CJ. Age 27 

Freeman, Harvey B., Sept. 7, 1864, Jackson Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Freeman, Jackson, Feb. 15, 1865, Detroit 1st CJ. Age 19 

Freeman, James J., Feb. 18, 1865, Detroit Co. C. 1st C J. Age 25 

Freeman, Jerome, Sept. 20, 1864, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 19 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 231 

i-^reeman, John, Mar 17, 1865, Jackson V-a. A. 1st C.I. Age 2J 

French. Horace, Jan. 18, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Freney, Beverley, Sept. 3, 1864, Milan 1st C.I. Age 19 

Frost, James, Jan. 15. 1864, Detroit Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Fulks, Samuel, Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Gaines, Thomas S., Aug. 23, 1864, Battle Creek. Co.-B. 1st C.I. Age 17 

Gamblee, Andrew, Nov. 27, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 30 

Gardner, James W., Jan. 2, 1864, Hudson Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 29 

Garner. John Q. A., Feb. 28, 1865, Park Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Garnett, Peter, Aug. 29, 1864, Jackson Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Garrison, Henry, Nov. 30, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 28 

Gault, Cassius M. C. Apr. 1, 1865, Kalamazoo. .Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Gay. John. Nov. 14, 1863, Ypsilanti Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 34 

Gayton, Allen, Oct. 21, 1863, Kalamazoo . Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 26 

Gayton, Nicholas, Oct. 21, 1863, Kalamazoo Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Gibbons, William, Aug. 24, 1864, Kalamazoo Co..B. 1st C.I. Age 25 

Gibbs, Franklin, Oct. 21, 1863, Detroit .Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 29 

Gibney, Lewis, Sept. 1, 1864, Buchanan Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Gibney, Washington, Sept. 1, 1864, Buchanan. . .Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Gibson, Jefferson, Jan. 5, 1864, Mongua.gon Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 28 

Gibson, Marquis, Aug. 19, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 31 

Gilbert, Charles, Dec. 21, 1863, Jonesvillo Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 24 

Gillam, Andrew, Dec. 31, 1865, Cassopolis Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 1^ 

Gillmore, William, Dec. 20, 1863, Gun Plains. . .Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Givens, William, Dec. 27, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 25 

Givins, John, Jan. 10, 1864, Detroit ..Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 23 

Givins, Thomas, Jan. 22, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Godfrey, George, Dec. 28, 1863, Grand Haven. . .Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 25 

Goins, John, Aug. 28, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 25 

Coins, Daniel, Oct. 29, 1863, Ypsilanti Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Goins, George H., Oct. 23, 1863, Detroit Co.B. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Goins, Samuel, Feb. 16, 1865 Jackson Xo, C 1st C.I. Age 20 

Goins, Wesley, Oct. 20, 1863, Detroit .Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Goodman. Daniel, Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 26 

Goodwin, Aaron, Jan. 3, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Gothard, John, Dec. 8, 1863, Tec.umseh Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 20 

Grandy, Felix, Feb. 4, 1864, Detroit .Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 29 

Grandy. Isaac. Aug. 19, 1864, Detroit .Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Grant, Alonzo, Lee Co. K. 1st C.I. "Age 23 

Grant, John. Oct. 6, 1864. Detroit Co. D. 1st C.l. Age 20 

Grant. Orison. Jan. 23. 1864, Marshall . Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 46 

Grant, Valentine, Jan. 12. 1864. Marshall Co. K. 1st C.I. A.^e 43 

Grapion. King, Feb. 16, 1864, Detroit Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Grate, William T., Jan. 23, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 42 

Graves, Aaron, Nov. 3. 1863. Detroit. Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 26 

Graves, Charles. Jan. 27. 1865, Grand Rapids. ...Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 20 

Gray. John E.. Feb. 10. 1864. Ypsilanti .Co.-C. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Gray, Whalen, Dec, 1863, Detroit Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 30 



232 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Grayson, Albert O., Dec. 8, 1863, Jackson Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 25 

Grayson, Amos S., Sept. 8, 1864, Pontiac Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Grayson, Charles, Dec. 29, 1863, Grass Lake. . . .Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 23 

Grayson, Harry, Dec. 31, 1863, Battle Creek. . . .Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 31 

Grayson, Henry, Dec. 19, 1863, Ypsilanti Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Grayson, John W., Dec. 29, 1863, Grass Lake. . .Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Green, Benjamin, Oct. 19, 1863, Lansing Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Green, Henry J., Jan. 21, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Green, Isaac, Nov. 24, 1863, New Florence Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 29 

Green, James, Nov. 24, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Green, James H., Oct. 21, 1863, Flint Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 24 

Green, Jeremiah, Sept. 10, 1864, Springwells 1st C.I. Age 26 

Green, John, Nov. 25, 1863, Detroit Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Green, John, Oct. 12, 1864, Detroit Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 35 

Green, Thomas, Dec. 30, 1863, Battle Creek.... Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 27 

Green, William, Nov. 23, 1863. Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 26 

Griffin, George, Jan. 23, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.L Age 31 

Griffin, George, Sept. 5, 1864, Monroe 1st CJ. Age 18 

Oriffin, John, Dec. 9, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 32 

Griffin. John, Oct. 19, 1864. Detroit 1st C.I. Age 18 

Griffin, Oliver, Aug. 22, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 24 

Griffin, Solomon, Dec. 21, 1863, Penn Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Griggs. George H., Feb. 18, 1864, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Grigsby, Andrew, Oct. 19, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Grimes, Daniel, Mar. 30, 1865, Kalamazoo Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 36 

Grimes, William A., Dec. 8, 1863, Adrian Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 2© 

Gromer, George, Dec. 5, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 27 

Grow, Thomas, Mar. 15, 1865, Detroit Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 28 

Guess, James, Dec. 23, 1863, Detroit 1st C.I. Age 18 

Guess, Stephen, Dec. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Guy, Benjamin F., Aug. 31, 1864, Grand Rapids. Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 27 

Guy, Elijah, H., Aug. 31, 1864, Grand Rapids. . . .Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 24 

Guy, Martin L., Dec. 3, 1863, Kalamazoo Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Hackley, Asbery, Feb 15, 1864, Niles Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 26 

Hackley, Marcelus, Mar. 6, 1865, Niles Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Hailstock, Eli, Oct. 13, 1863, Dowagiac Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Hall, Charles H., Dec. 7, 1863, Kalamazoo Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Hall, Eli, Aug. 29, 1864, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Hall, George, Apr. 4, 1865, Pontiac Co. F. 1st C J. Age 18 

Hall, Nathan, Sept. 30, 1864, Pipestone Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 41 

Hall, Peter, Sept. 9, 1864, Detroit Co. E, 1st C.L Age 24 

Hall, Reuben. July 14, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Hamilton, Jacob, Oct. 9, 1863, Detroit Co. B. 1st C.L Age 34 

Hamilton, James, Dec. 28, 1863, Grand Rapids.. Co. H. 1st C.L Age 28 

Hammond, Charles, Sept. 14, 1864, Jackson Co. G. 1st C.L Age 18 

Hammond, Elias M., Feb. 4, 1864, Detroit Co. G. 1st C.L Age 30 

Hammond, Lovel, Mar. 6, 1865, Kalamazoo Co. K. 1st C.L Age 35 

Hammond, Rix v Co. I. 1st C.L Age 31 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 2311 

Hampton, Is;i;ic, Nov. 17. 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 17 

Hance, Clarkson S., Nov. 18, 1863, Cooper Co. I. Ist C.I. Age 33 

Haney, Charles A., Aug. 2, 1864 Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Hanson. Benjamin F.. Sept. 22. ISG'J, Ann Arbor. Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 31 

Hansen, Henry, Nov. 17, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 36 

Hardee, Nelson, Jan. 4, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Hardee. William, Dec. 8. 1863, Detroit Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 29 

Harper, Benjamin, Nov. 30, 1863. Ypsilanti Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 20 

Harper. John, Jan. 19. 1864, Newburg Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Harris, Andrew, Oct. 25, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 32 

Harris, Charles W., Oct. 1, 1864. Howard Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 42 

Harris. Elijah, Dec. 30, 1863, Kalamazoo Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 45 

Harris, Ezekiel. Sept. 3, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Harris, TTenry. Aug. 25. 1864 Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Harris. Henry, Jan. 6, 1864, Detroit Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 25 

Harris, Henry S., Nov. 12, 1863. Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Harris, Isham, Feb. 4. 1864, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Harris, Jacob, Aug. 24, 1864, Adrian Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 26 

Harris, James, July 22, 1864, Detroit Co. 1. 1st C.I. Age 31 

Harris, John, Aug. 31, 1864, Pontiac Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 25 

Harris, John, Mar. 25, 1865, Battle Creek Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 30 

Harris, John, Sept. 1, 1864, Pontiac 1st C.I. Age 33 

Harris, William, Dec. 7, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 20 

Harris, William, Jan. 11, 1S64, Grass Lake Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 20 

Harris, William, Calvin Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 29 

Harris, William J., Jan. 4, 1864, Trowbridge. . .Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Harrison, Charles, Jan. 3, 1864, Detroit Co. A. Ist C.I. Age 19 

Harrison, Henry, Sept. 17, 1864, Pontiac Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 28 

Harrison. Henry, Feb. 12. 1864. Jackson Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Harrison. Henry. Jan. 4, 1864, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Harrison, James, Dec. 23, 1863, Lodi Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 33 

Harrison. John, Oct. 31, 1864, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Harrison, John, Jan. 21, 1864, Marshall Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 26 

Harrison, Milford, Dec. 12, 1863, Howard Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Harrison, William, Sept. 19, 1864, Detroit Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Harrison. William H., Oct. 19. 1863. Lansing. . .Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Harrod, Leonard, Feb. 17, 1864, Grand Rapids. .Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 43 

Hart, John K., Feb. 17, 1865, Ypsilanti Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 30 

Hatchel, Franklin, Nov. 27, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 29 

Hautsch, Frederick Co. B. 1st C.I. 

Hawley, WiUiam, Oct. 22, 1863, Calvin Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 20 

Hawkins, Henry, Nov. 3, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Hawkins, John, Aug. 19, 1864, Pontiac Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Hawkins, Stephen, Oct. 14, 1864. Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 32 

Hawkins, Thomas W., Nov. 10, 1863, Detroit. . .Co. I). 1st C.I. Age 36 

Hawkins, Washington, Feb. 15, 1865, Ypsilanti. .Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 35 

Haynes, Edward. Mar. 8. 1865. Pontiac Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Hays, Arrick. Aug. 24, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. F. Ist C.I. Ago 26 



234 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 



Hays, William, Feb. 4, 1864, Ypsilanti Co. C. 1st C. 

Hays, William H., Oct. 4, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. F. 1st C. 

Haze, Payton, Feb. 16, 1864, Franklin . Co. F. 1st C. 

Hazlet, Thomas, Jan. 4, 1864, Detroit 1st C. 

Heath, Andrew, Aug. 14, 1864, Baldwin Co. K. 1st C. 

Heathcock, Barlett, Dec. 20, 1863, Kalamazoo. . .Co. G. 1st C. 

Heathcock, Berry, Dec. 29, 1863, Kalamazoo Co. G. 1st C. 

Heathcock, Edwin, Oct. 22, 1863, Battle Creek.. Co. B. IstC, 

Hedges, Spencer, Nov. 23, 1863, Kalamazoo. .. .Co. E. IstC. 

Heise, Lewis, Oct. 5, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st C, 

Hempsted, Lewis, Jan. 13, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 1st C. 

Henderson, George W., Dec. 30, 1863, Emmett. .Co. H. 1st C. 

Henderson, Hiram, Feb. 2, 1864, Salem 1st C, 

Henderson, Jethro, Dec. 17, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 1st C. 

Henderson, John, Oct. 12, 1864, Pontiac 1st C 

Henderson, Pheelan, Feb. 24, 1865, LaGrange. . .Co. C. IstC. 

Henderson, Samuel, Dec. 12, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C, 

Henderson, Squire, Oct. 21, 1863, Kalamazoo. . . .Co. B. 1st C 

Henderson, William, Jan. 4, 1864, Detroit Co. I. IstC 

Henderson, William S., Dec. 1, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C 

Henry, Anthony, Oct. 4, 1864 Co. A. 1st C 

Henry, Martin V., Dec. 2, 1863, Vandalia Co. F. 1st C 

Henry, Thomas D., Feb. 15, 1864, Detroit Co. D. 1st C 

Henry, William, Dec 22, 1863, Detroit Co. G. 1st C 

Henson, James, Oct. 22, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C, 

Herring, John, Jan. 18, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 1st C 

Herssler, Henry 1st C 

Heuston, Harvey, Oct. 2, 1863, Battle Creek Co. A. IstC 

Hicks, Edward, Sept. 9, 1864, Buchanan Co. G. 1st C, 

Hicks, George W., Jan. 4, 1864, Saginaw Co, G. 1st C 

Highwarden, Abram, Nov. 15, 1864, Ida Co. E. 1st C 

Hill, Allen, Sept. 1, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. H. 1st C, 

Hill, Anthony, Sept. 1, 1864, Penn Co. F. 1st C 

Hill, Dennis, Oct. 1, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. C. 1st C. 

Hill, George, Oct. 20, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C 

Hill, Isaac, Feb. 18, 1864, Detroit Co. F. 1st C, 

Hill, Jackson, Sept. 1, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. G. 1st C, 

Hill, James N., Sept. 22, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C, 

Hill, John, Oct. 6, 1864, Warren Co. B. 1st C 

Hill, John, Dec. 22, 1863, Jackson Co. H. 1st C. 

HilJ, Lewis, Sept. 22, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C, 

Hill, Mark, Jan. 21, 1865, Kalamazoo Co. C. 1st C. 

Hill, Milton, Jan. 30, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st C. 

Hill, Noah, Dec. 12, 1863, Lansing Co. F. 1st C. 

Hill, Stephen C.,. Feb. 25, 1863, Decatur Co. I. 1st C. 

Hines, Euclid, Jan. 11, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 1st C, 

Hines, John H., Aug. 8, 1864, Tecumseh Co. H. IstC. 

Hinton, Daniel, Jan. 6. 1864, Detroit Co. A. 1st C. 



Age 21 
Age 18 
Age 28 
Age2L 
Age 20 
Age 28 
Age 29 
Age 45 
Age 28 
Age 32 
Age 22 
Age 17 
Age 26 
Age 22 
Age 23 
Age 28 
Age 20 
Age 22 
Age 30 
Age 26 
Age 18 
Age 20 
Age 32 
Agel» 
Age 18 
Age 28 

Age 18 
Age 21 
Age 35 
Age 18 
Age 42 
Age 21 
Age 18 
Age 18 
Age 18 
Age 36 
Age 25 
Age 41 
Age 27 
Age 27 
Age 22 
Age 30 
Age 18 
Age 18 
Age 22 
Age 25 

Age 35 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



235 



Hinton, George, Dec. 14, 1863, Detroit Co. K. Ist C, 

Hinton, Richard, Oct. 28, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 1st C, 

Hiwarden, William, Oct. 19, 1863. Detroit Co. C. 1st C. 

Hix, George H., Jan. 2, 1864. ChickaniinK Co. H. 1st C. 

Hoard, Richard, Jan. 15, 1864, Marshall Co. I. 1st C. 

Hodge, Greenberry, Sept. 16. 1S63, Detroit Co. C. IstC, 

Holbert, Harry, Jan. 5, 1864, Detroit Co. H. 1st C 

Holbert, Joseph, Sept. 29, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C. 

Holburt, Simon, Jan. 5, 1864, Detroit Co. H. 1st C 

Holland, Christopher, Oct. 1, 1863, Detroit Co. B. 1st C 

Holland, Frederick, Mar. 21, 1865, Pontiac, Co. G. 1st C 

Holland, John. Sept. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C 

Holmes, David, Dec. 26, 1863, Detroit Co. G. 1st C 

Holmes, George A., Dec. 5, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C 

Holmes, John, Nov. 12, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C 

Holmes, John 1st C. 

Holmes, William. Jan. 7, 1864, Detroit 1st C 

Hood, Philander J., Aug. 17, 1864, Kalamazoo. .Co. A. 1st C 

Hopkins, Henry, Dec. 5, 1863, Ypsilanti Co. E. 1st C 

Hopkins, James, Sept. 16, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C 

Horton, Isaac, Aug. 27, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. K. 1st C 

Hostins, Charles, Jan. 19, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 1st C 

Houston, John, Dec. 26, 1863, Detroit Co. G. 1st C 

How, John C, Oct. 10, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 1st C 

Howard, Bonaparte, Jan. 20, 1864, Detroit Co. I. IstC 

Howard, Ezekiel, Oct. 3, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. F. 1st C 

Howard, James, Jan. 22, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 1st C 

Howard, James, Aug. 26, 1864, Detroit 1st C 

Howard, William, Oct. 5, 1864, Calvin Co. B. IstC 

Howard, William A., Oct. 19, 1863, Lansing Co. B. IstC 

Howland, Robert J., Dec. 27, 1863, Detroit,. . .Co. E. IstC 

Huddleston, Richard, Dec. 7, 1863, Jackson Co. F. IstC 

Hudnell, Phillip, Dec. 31, 1863, Detroit Co. G. IstC 

Huff, Samuel, Dec. 29, 1863, Detroit Co. G. IstC 

Hughes, Robert, Jan. 16, 1864, White Pigeon Co. I. 1st C 

Hull, John, Oct. 21, 1863, Kalamazoo Co. B. IstC 

Hull, Robert, Aug. 23, 1864, Detroit . 1st C 

Hungerford, Albert W., Kalamazoo Co. E. 1st C 

Hunt, Jack, Dec. 21, 1863, Detroit Co. G. 1st C 

Hunt, Jorden P., Oct. 23, 1863, Calvin . Co. D. 1st C 

Hunter, Richard, Mar. 2, 186.5. Detroit Co. C. IstC 

Hunter, Samuel, Aug. 12, 18G4, ("oruniiu 1st C 

Huster, Samuel, Dec. 17, 1863, Canibridsi' 1st C 

Hutchinson, Simon, Mar. 1, 1865, Medina Co. K. IstC 

Hyatt, James, Jan. 11, 1864, Ypsilanti Co. K. IstC 

Ingham, David, Sept. 1, 1864, Grand Rapids Co. H. IstC 

Jackson, Abraham, Aug. 16, 1864, Detroit IstC 



Age 44 
Age 32 
Age 26 
Age 27 
Age 23 
Age 44 
Age 18 
Age 29 
Age 25 
Age 19 
Age 20 
Age 20 
Age 32 
Age 31 
Age 32 

Age 27 
Age 18 
Age 18 
Age 21 
Age 27 
Age 28 
Age 28 
Age 18 
Age 43 
Age 18 
Age 39 
Age 21 
Age 18 
Age 18 
Age 21 
Age 22 
Age 21 
Age 30 
Age 25 
Age 25 
Ago 21 
Age 35 
Age 36 
Age 26 
Age 18 
Ago 26 
Age 18 
Age 39 
Age 18 
Ago 18 

Age 18 



236 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Jackson, Andrew, Oct. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 24 

Jackson, Andrew, Aug. 26, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 27 

Jackson, Cyrus, Dec. 31, 1863, Detroit Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 28 

Jackson, Daniel, Dec. 16, 1864, Jackson Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 39 

Jackson, Duff T., Mar. 17, 1865, Springwells. .Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 26 

Jackson, George, Dec. 31, 1863, Niles Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Jackson, Henry, Jan. 14, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 42 

Jackson, Jacob Henry, Feb. 23, 1865, Berrien 1st C.I. Age 42 

Jackson, James, Dec. 5, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 28 

Jackson, James, Dec. 17, 1863, Detroit.. Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Jackson, James W., Mar. 29, 1865, Jackson Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Jackson, Thomas, Dec. 24, 1864, Salem 1st C.I. Age 18 

Jackson, John, Sept. 27, 1864, Pontiac 1st C.I. Age 2g 

Jackson, John H., Oct. 1, 1863, Battle Creek... Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Jackson, Joshua, Sept. 22, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 24 

Jackson, Samuel, Oct. 22, 1863, Battle Creek Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 17 

Jackson, Simon S., Jan. 6, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Jackson, William, Dec. 30, 1863, Detroit Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 29 

Jacob, Moses, Feb. 24, 1864, Detroit Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Jacobs, George, Dec. 25, 1863, Plymouth Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 19 

James, Benjamin, Aug. 20, 1864, Seneca Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 18 

James, Jacob W., Mar. 25, 1865, Marshall Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Jasper, Hiram, Jan. 3, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Jefferson, Dallas, Feb. 5, 1864, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 20 

Jefferson, Geo. W., Feb. 29, 1864, Grand Rapids. .Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 35 
Jefferson, Reuben T., Nov. 27, 1863, New 

Florence Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 32 

Jefferson, Thoma.s, Dec. 30, 1863, Kalamazoo. .Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Jenkins, Cassius L., Oct. 27, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Jennings, Edward P., Oct. 16, 1863, Midland 1st C.I. 

Jewett, Edward S., Nov. 9, 1863, Niles.. Co. G. 1st C.I. 

Johns, Charles, Feb. 17, 1865, Coldwater Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Johnson, Alexander, Oct. 10, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 2» 

Johnson, Alexander, Feb. 15, 1865, Kalamazoo. .Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 26 

Johnson, Edward, Feb. 16, 1865, Jackson Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 32 

Johnson, Elijah, Oct. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Johnson, Elijah M., Sept. 29, 1863, Kalamazoo. .Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Johnson, Frank, 1st, Dec. 31, 1863, Detroit. . Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 30 

Johnson, Frank, 2nd, Jan. 6, 1864, Monguagon. .Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 25 

Johnson, George, Dec. 29, 1863, Detroit Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 41 

Johnson, Harrison, Dec. 26, 1863, Niles Co. G. 1st C.I. Aee 27 

Johnson, Henry, Sept. 16, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age B8 

Johnson, Henry, Oct. 19, 1863, Adrian Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 34 

Johnson, Henry, Feb. 15, 1864, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Ageli 

Johnson, Henry, July 27, 1864, Detroit 1st C.I. Age 22 

Johnson, Henry C, Oct. 1, 1863, Ann Arbor Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Johnson, Isaac, Feb. 3, 1864, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 2S 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 

Johnson, James, Oct. 19, 1863, Sumpter Co. F. 1st C. 

Johnson, James, Oct. 27, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 1st C 

Johnson, James, Dec 23, 1863, Detroit Co. H. 1st C. 

Johnson, James, July 23, 1864, Detroit 1st C, 

Johnson, James H., Jan. 6, 1864, Detroit Co. H. 1st C. 

Johnson, John, Feb. 3, 1864, Detroit Co. E. 1st C, 

Johnson, John, Oct. 3, 1863 1st C. 

Johnson, Joseph, Feb. 13. 1865, Battle Creek.. Co. C. 1st C, 

Johnson, Josephus, Aug. 16, 1864, Corunna Co. G. 1st C, 

Johnson, Josiah, Dec. 7, 1863, Detroit Co. F. IstC, 

Johnson, Lindsay, Dec. 21, 1863, Detroit Co. K. l.st C 

Johnson, Richardson, Oct. 14, 1S63, Salem Co. C. IstC, 

Johnson, Sylvester, Dec. 23, 1863, Ypsilanti Co. G. 1st C, 

Johnson, Thomas, Jan. 11, 1864, Detroit Co. F. 1st C 

Johnson, Thomas, Dec. 5, 1863, Mt. Clemens Co. F. 1st C. 

Johnson, Thomas, Jan. 11, 1864, Detroit IstC, 

Johnson, Wellington, Oct. 10, 1863, Detroit Co. A. IstC, 

Johnson, William, Mar. 17, 1865, Hudson Co. E. IstC. 

Johnson, William, Dec. 4, 1865, Detroit.. Co. E. IstC. 

Johnson, William, Dec. 30, 1863, Detroit Co. G. IstC. 

Johnson, William, Aug. 18, 1864, Kalamazoo. .. .Co. I. IstC. 

Johnson, William, Jan. 15, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 1st C. 

Johnson, William C, Apr. 1, 1865, Ypsilanti Co. D. IstC. 

Johnson, William H., Aug. 23, 1864, Detroit Co. E. IstC. 

Johnson, William N., Sept. 26, 1863, Detroit Co. A. IstC. 

Johnson, Woodford, Mar. 17, 1865, Ann Arbor.. Co. F. IstC. 

Johnston, Charles, May 23, 1S64, Detroit Co. I. IstC. 

John.ston, Robert, IVIay 26, 1864, Detroit Co. 1. 1st C. 

Jones, Alexander, Sept. 2, 1864, St. Joseph. .. .Co. G. IstC. 

Jones, Benjamin, Dec. 1, 1863, Detroit Co. B. 1st C, 

Jones. Benjamin, Dec. 1, 1863, Grand Haven.... IstC. 

Jones, Calvin, Dec. 20, 1863, Detroit Co. G. 1st C, 

Jones, Charles, Oct. 3, 1864, Grand Rapids Co. K. IstC. 

Jones, Edward, Nov. 9, 1863, Adrian .Co. D. 1st C. 

Jones, George, Oct. 12, 1863, Detroit Co. A. IstC. 

Jones, Henry, Nov. 7, 1863, Adrian Co. D. ]stC. 

Jones, John, Dec. 9, 1864, Detroit Co. D. 1st C. 

Jones, John, Nov. 23, 1864, Calvin 1st C. 

Jones, John L., Dec. 9, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C. 

Jones, Robert, Feb. 15, 1865, Kalamazoo IstC, 

Jones, Stephen, Jan. 13, 1864, Augusta Co. I. 1st C 

Jones, Sylvan, Jan. 13, 1864, Augusta 1st C 

Jones, Thomas, Oct. 10, 1863, Detroit Co. B. IstC, 

Jones, Thomas, Oct. 26, 1864, Detroit 1st C, 

Jones, William, Feb. 21, 1865, Jackson Co. D. 1st C. 

Jones, William A., Jan. 4. 1864, Detroit IstC. 

Jones, William R., Feb. 20, 1865, Ypsilanti Co. G. lat C, 



237 


I. AgeSf 


I. Age 35 


1. Age 28 


I. Age 22 


I. Age 25 


I. Age 23 


I. Age 25 


I. Age 43 


I. Age 42 


I. Age 18 


.1. Age 45 


I. Age 37 


I. Age 18 


I. Age 23 


I. Age 43 


I. Age 23 


I. Age 18 


I. Age 18 


I. Age 45 


I. Age 28 


I. Age 23 


I. Age 27 


I. Age 43 


I. Age 30 


I. Age 43 


I. Age 32 


I. Age 21 


I. Age 25 


I. Age 18 


I. Age 25 


I. Age 25 


I. Age 42 


I. Age 19 


I. Age 35 


I. Age 26 


I. Age 29 


I. Age 35 


I. Age 33 


I. Age 24 


I. Age 38 


.1. Age 45 


I. Age 43 


I. Age 18 


I. Age 26 


I. Age 18 


I. Age 26 


I. Age 44 



238 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Jones, Wilson, Jun. 21, 1864, Bridgewater 

Jordan, James, Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 

Jordan, John, Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 

Jordon, Edward, Jan. 11, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 

Jordon, George, Jan. 13, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 

Judson, Doctor S., Dec. 23, 1863, Marshall Co.I. 

KaufEman, Isaac N., Oct. 11, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 

Kelley, James E., Jan. 4, 1864, Pontiac Co. I. 

Kenny, John, Jan. 27, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 

Kerns, Samuel H., Dec. 7, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 

Kersey, Edward, Oct. 8, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 

Kidd, Pleasant, Mar. 2, 1865, Jackson Co. E. 

King, Cyrus, Sept. 7, 1864, Erie Co. G. 

King, Elijah, Jan. 30, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 

King, Henry, Jan. 3, 1865, Detroit Co. D. 

King, Morris, Jan. 5, 1864, York Co. I. 

King, Solomon, Oct. 9, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 

King, William, Jan. 27, 1864, Ypsilanti Co. K. 

Kirkley, Dennis, Aug. 5, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. I. 

Knapp, Porter, Jan. 19, 1864, Pittsfield 

Knox, James, Nov. 17, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 

Kryzler, Thomas, Oct. 3, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 

Lake, Henry, Jan. 24, 1864, Ypsilanti Co. K. 

Lamb, Lemuel, Jan. 10, 1864, Detroit Co. L 

Lancaster, Smith, Oct. 10, 1864, Camden 

Lane, William, Dec. 19, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 

Lang, John, Jan. 23, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 

Lawrence, Alfred, Dec. 12, 1863, Howard Co. G. 

Lawrence, Jerry, Dec. 24, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 

Lawson, Edwin, Jan. 27, 1864, Detroit Co. B. 

Lawson, John, Dec. 30, 1863, Detroit Co. G. 

Leake, Frederick, Feb. 10, 1864, Ypsilanti Co. C. 

Lee, John, Jan. 3, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 

Lee, Robert, Aug. 27, 1864, Detroit Co. F. 

Lee, William H., Nov. 9, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 

Leftridge, Horace, July 14, 1864, Detroit Co. H. 

Lett, Emanuel, Feb. 16, 1864, Waverly Co. G. 

Lett, George W., Oct. 5, 1864, Greenwood .Co. I. 

Lett, John, Oct. 10, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 

Lett, John, Jan. 21, 1864, Sodus Co. G. 

Lett, Jonathan, Sodus 

Lett, Joseph, Jan. 11, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. H. 

Lett, Samuel, Aug. 31, 1864, Grand Rapids Co. G. 

Lett, Samuel, Oct. 5, 1864, Berlin Co.I. 

Lett, William, Aug. 20, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 

Lett, Zachariah, Dec. 14, 1863, Vandalia. Co. F. 

Letts, Charles R.. Oct. 10, 1863, Detroit Co. B. 



IstC.l 


. Age 35 


IstC.l 


[. Age 33 


IstC.l 


[. Age 30 


1st C.l 


[. Age 28 


1st c.l 


[. Age 17 


1st C.l 


[. Age 22 


IstC.l 


[. Age 38 


1st C.l 


[. Age 26 


IstC.] 


[. Age 19 


1st C.] 


[. A^e 18 


1st C.l 


[. Age 18 


IstC.] 


[. Age 20 


1st C.l 


[. Age 36 


1st C.] 


[. Age 20 


1st C.l 


[. Age 18 


IstC.] 


[. Age 19 


1st C.] 


[. Age 20 


IstC.] 


[. Age 19 


IstC.] 


[. Age 38 


1st C.] 


[. Age 24 


1st C.] 


[. Age 18 


1st C.] 


[. Age 35 


1st C.] 


[. Age 18 


IstC.] 


[. Age 18 


IstC.] 


[. Age 42 


1st C.] 


[. Age 25 


1st C.l 


[. Age 40 


1st C.] 


[. Age 20 


1st C.] 


[. Age 18 


IstC.] 


[. Age 18 


1st C.] 


[. Age 25 


1st C.l 


[. Age 25 


IstC.] 


[. Age 18 


1st C.] 


[. Age 29 


1st C.] 


[. Age 23 


IstC.] 


[. Age 23 


IstC. 


[. Age 29 


IstC. 


I. Age 26 


1st C.] 


[. Age 29 


1st C.l 


[. Age 23 


IstC. 


I. Age 22 


IstC.] 


[. Age 17 


IstC.] 


[. Age 26 


IstC. 


[. Age 22 


1st C.l 


. Age 43 


IstC.l 


[. Age 43 


IstC.l 


[. Age 32 



FREEDMENS PROGRESS 239 

Letts,' Henry, Feb. 18, 1865, Grand Rapids Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Lewis, Calvin, Oct. 5, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Lewis, Cassius M., Mar. 2, 1865, Lafayette Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 27 

Lewis, David, Dec. 14, 1863, Raisin Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 23 

Lewis, George, Sept. 3, 1864, Bloomfield 1st C.I. Age 27 

Lewis, Henry, Aug. 24, 1864, Jackson 1st C.I. Age 32 

Lewis, John, Jr., Aug. 23, 1864, Pontiac Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Lewis, Robert E., Mar. 23, 1865, Ypsilanti Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 40 

Lewis, Thomas, Feb. 27, 1864, Detroit Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Lewis, Washington, July 25, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Lewis, William B., Mar. 25, 1865, Ypsilanti Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Lieber, Albert, Jan. 20, 1864 Co. I. 1st C.I. 

Liger, John, Jan. 24, 1S65, Emmett 1st C.I. Age 23 

Lightfoot, Samuel, Oct. 19, 1863, Detroit Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Limus, John, Nov. 30, 1863, Detroit Co. B. 1st C.L Age 17 

Lindsay, Arad E Co. D. 1st C.I. 

Linn, Lewis, Jan. 4, 1864, Detroit Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 39 

Linsey, William, Jan. 4, 1864, Chickaming Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 47 

Littletou, Willis, Sept. 6, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 28 

Livar, Charles, Feb. 28, 1864, Detroit Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 42 

Lockredge, Smith L., Oct. 7, 1863, Kalamazoo. .Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 37 

Logan, John J., Dec. 31, 1863, Jackson Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Logan, Thomas H., Dec. 31, 1863, Jackson Co. H. 1st C.L Age 18 

Long, Frederick, Dec. 24, 1863, Ypsilanti Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 35 

Long, Green, Dec. 12, 1863, Jackson Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 38 

Love, Abraham, Jan. 21, 1864, Niles. Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Lowe, Edward, Oct. 22, 1863, Ypsilanti Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 24 

Lucas, Noah, Jan. 3, 1864, Overisal Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Lucas, William, Jan. 26, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Lumpkins, George, Jan. 22, 1864 Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 24 

Lyle, Cephas, Apr. 11, 1864, Annapolis Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 25 

Lyons, George, Jan. 23, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 19 

McConnell, James, Nov. 6, 1863, Adrian Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 19 

McCoy, David, Aug. 22, 1864, Jackson 1st C.I. Age 35 

McCoy, Thomas, Dec. 30, 1863, Detroit Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 45 

McCullar, Achilles, Aug. 11, 1864, Kalamazoo. . .Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 36 

McGary, George, Oct. 8, 1863, Schoolcraft Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 38 

McGee, Jonathan, Apr. 1, 1865, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 35 

McGinnis, Tobias, Nov. 3, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 19 

McGinnis, William, Nov. 3, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 25 

Mcintosh, Henry, Dec. 30, 1863, Detroit Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Mcintosh, John, Dec. 14, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 21 

McLain, Samuel, Sept. 1, 1864, Buchanan Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 33 

McQuorn, Charles. Oct. 22, 1863, Freedom Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 20 

McRay, Sandy, Dec. 14, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 20 

Madden, Thomas, Oct. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Madison, Joseph, Sept. 1, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 24 

Madry, Hezekiah, Nov. 4, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st CI. Age 33 



240 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Madry, Jesse W., Nov. 4, 1863, Detroit Co. D. Isl C.I. Age 23 

Mallory, Lee, Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 20 

Mallory, Samuel, Dec. 8, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 1st C.I, Age 35 

Manly, Andrew, Oct. 21, 1863, Lowell Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 44 

Manly, James W., Oct. 21, 1863, Lowell Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 29 

Mann, William, Feb. 17, 1864, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 20 

Manning, John, Sept. 1, 1864, Grand Rapids Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 27 

Manuel, Martin, Dec. 31, 1863, Chickaming Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Manuel, Miles, Dec. 1, 1863. Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 24 

Marcy, Richard, Dec. 20, 1863, Detroit Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Marshall, Ephriam, Oct. 3, 1864 Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 40 

Martin, Cyrus F., Dec. 15, 1864, Brookfield Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 16 

Martin, Henry, Nov. 24, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 42 

Marshall, Joseph, Aug. 15, 1864, Pontiac Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Mason, Abraham, June 9, 1864, Raisin 1st C.I. Age 38 

Mason, William, Dec. 22, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 48 

Mason, William, Dec. 22, 1863, Detroit Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 44 

Mathew, Henry A., Sept. 5, 1864, Cassopolis. . .Co. F. 1st C.L Age 25 

Mathews, Benjamin, Sept. 26, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 23 

Mathews, Francis, Sept. 25, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age bO 

Mathews, John H., Sept. 23, 1864, Calvin Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 25 

Mathews, Lee, Dec. 11, 1863, Detroit 1st C.I. Age 24 

Mathews, Allison L., Sept. 23, 1864, Calvin Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 27 

Matthews, William 1st C.I. 

Mattock, Hawley, Feb. 16, 1865, Pokagon Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 36 

Maurimus, Robert, July 25, 1864, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Maxwell, Foster H., Nov. 14, 1863, Kalamazoo. .Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 24 

Maxwell, George W., Oct. 10, 1863, Detroit Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Maxwell, Thomas, Feb., 1865, Berrien 1st C.I. Age 37 

May, John, Nov. 5, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 26 

Maybee, John, Sept. 16, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Mays, Richard, Jan. 3, 1865, Portage Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 23 

Mead, Peter E., May 17, 1861 Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 29 

Means, Frederick, Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 27 

Merriman, Reuben, July 28, 1864, Whitford Co. K. 1st C.I. Age IS 

Mershall, John, Feb. 27, 1865, Detroit Co. E. 1st CJ. Age 18 

Micking, Joshua, Jan. 11, 1864, Greenfield l.st C.I. Age 20 

Miles, Charles, Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 23 

Miller, Alexander, Oct. 1, 1863, Kalamazoo 1st C.I. Age 34 

Miller, James L., Mar. 6, 1865, Lafayette Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 40 

Miller, John, Aug. 10, 1864, Pontiac 1st C.I. Age 32 

Miller, Joseph, Dec. 15. 1863, Jackson Co. F. 1st C.L Age 22 

Miller, Joseph, Mar. 8, 1865, Jackson 1st C.I. Age 23 

Miller, Joseph, Mar. 8, 1865, Jackson 1st C.I. Age 22 

Miller, Michael, Dec. 21, 1863, Detroit Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 27 

Miller, Needham, Sept. 1, 1864, St. Joseph Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 25 

Miller, Thomas, Aug. 26, 1864, Magnolia Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Milliken, William, Nov. 25, 1863, Kalamazoo Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 45 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 241 

Mills, Alexander, Oct. 9, 1863. Detroit Co. C. 1st ( .1. 

Mills, John, July 25, 1864, Kalamazoo 1st (M. 

Mills, Samuel, Nov. 4, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. 

Miner, George, Feb. 22, 1864, Detroit Co. F. 1st C.I. 

Miner, Henry, Aug. 20, 1864, Detroit Co. G. 1st C.I. 

Mitchel, Allen, Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. 

Mitchell, Abner, Mar. 6, 1865, Niles Co. D. 1st C.I. 

Mitchell, John, Dec. 29, 1863, Kalamazoo Co. G. 1st C.I. 

Mitchell, Levi, Jan. 2, 1864, Niles Co. B. 1st C.I. 

Mitchell, Thomas, Fabius Co. B. 1st C.I. 

Mitchum, John, Feb. 25, 18G5, Berrien Co. K. 1st C.I. 

Moffatt, Jasper, Aug. 30, 1864, Flint Co. C. 1st C.I. 

Monroe, Silas, Oct. 15, 1864, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. 

Montgomery, Caleb, Nov. 10, 1864, Pontiac Co. K. 1st C.I. 

Moiltgomery, Joseph, Feb. 18, 1865, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. 

Montgomery, William, Jan. 25, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. 

Moor, Charles, Oct. 13, 1864, Pontiac 1st C.I. 

Moore, Charles, Nov. 17, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. 

Moore, George, Nov. 16, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. 

MoofR, George, Jan. 4, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 1st C.I. 

Moore, George, Jan. 12, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. 

Moore, George H., Oct. 28, 1863, Ypsilanti Co. C. 1st C.I. 

Moore, James, Nov. 3, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. 

Moore, Kirby, Nov. 18, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. 

Moore, Moses, Dec. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. I. 1st C.I. 

Moore. Noah, Oct. 7, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. 

Mooi , Thomas, Feb. 14, 1865, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.l. 

Moore, Thomas, Nov. 12, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. 

Moran, Charles A., Feb. 11, 1864, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. 

Moran, John, Sept. 5, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. B. 1st C.I. 

Moran, Robert, Dec. 18, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 1st C.I. 

More, E. S., Jan. 13, 1864, Detroit 1st C.I. 

More, Samuel, Dec. 1, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. 

Morgan, Alexander, Oct. 9, 1863, Kalamazoo. .. .Co. C. 1st C.I. 

Morgan, George, Oct. 19, 1863, Lansing Co. C. 1st C.I. 

Morgan, Joseph H., Dec. 10, 1863, Ypsilanti Co. E. 1st C.I. 

Morgan, Lewis, Sept. 30, 1863, Jack.son Co. B. 1st C.I. 

Morgan, William H., Oct. 20, 1863, Kalamazoo. .Co. B. 1st C.I. 

Morley, Foster, Oct. 8, 1864, Grand Rapids Co. C. 1st C.I. 

Morris, George, Aug. 5, 1864 Co. E. 1st C.I. 

Morris, King, Jan. 5, 1864, York 1st C.I. 

Morris, Ryal, Jan. 12, 1864, Detroit Co. H. 1st C.I. 

Moss, Richard, Feb., 1865, Berrien 1 st C.I. 

Mossett, Charles, Nov. 30, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. 

Mow, Robert, Jan. 4, 1864, Detroit Co. H. 1st C.I. 

Mullevy, William Co. A. 1st C.I. 

Mumford, James, Sept. 1, 1864, Kalamazoo. .. .Co. JiJ. 1st C.I. 

Murdock, Milton, Oct. 5, 1863, Battle Creek Co. B. 1st C.I. 



Age 34 


Age 35 


Age 35 


Age 22 


Age 19 


Age 38 


Age 19 


Age 19 


Age 24 


Age 25 


Age 18 


Age 18 


Age 19 


Age 18 


Age 25 


Age 34 


Age IS 


Age 25 


Age 22 


Age 26 


Age 35 


Age 24 


Age 19 


Age 25 


Age 19 


Age 22 


Age 23 


Age 3S 


Age 18 


Agelg 


Age 35 


Age 36 


Age 19 


Age 31 


Age IK 


Age 21 


Age 37 


Age 30 


Age 20 


Age 18 


Age 19 


Age 34 


Age 43 


Age 20 


Age2& 


Age 18 


A. go 4'> 



242 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Murphy, Percival, Jan. 15, 1864, Calvin Co. K. 1st C.I. 

Murphy, William E., Apr. 1, 1865, Kalamazoo. .Co. G. 1st C.I. 

Murphy, William J., Oct. 27, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. 

Murray, Harrison, Nov. 20, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. 

Murray, John, Jan. 26, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. 

Murray, John L., Dec. 1, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. 

Myers, Simon,- Oct. 21, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 1st C.I. 

Nash, Anthony, Feb. 25, 1865, Niles ....Co. A. 1st C.I. 

Neal, Elisha, Aug. 1, 1864 Co. E. 1st C.I. 

Nelson, Harrison, Jan. 4, 1864, Ogden Co. I. 1st C.I. 

Nelson, Henry, Dec. 9, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. 

Nelson, William R., Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. 

Nettle, Daniel, Feb. 10, 1865, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. 

Neve, George, Jan. 23, 1864, Brownstown. . . . 1st CI. 

Newell, George, Aug. 8, 1864, Livonia 1st C.I. 

Newman, William H., Oct. 7, 1863, Calvin Co. B. 1st C.I. 

Newsom, Edward, Mar. 17, 1864, Sandstone. .. .Co. H. 1st C.I. 

Newsom, John, Nov. 17, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. 

Newsome, Eli, Apr. 1, 1865, Kalamazoo. ...... .Co. E. 1st C.l. 

Newton, William, Dec. 22, 1864, Pontiac Co. K. 1st C.I. 

Nicholson, Alfred, Aug. 15, 1864, Kalamazoo. .. .Co. D. 1st C.I. 

Nickleson, Jonathan, Nov. 20, 1863, Kalamazoo. Co. D. 1st C.I. 

Nickleson, Milton, Nov. 20, 1863, Kalamazoo. .Co. D. 1st C.I. 

Nims, William P., Feb. 14, 1865, St. Joseph Co. E. 1st C.I. 

No:an, John, Nov. 4, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. 

Norman, Michael, Sodus 1st C.I. 

Norman, William, Aug. 31, 1864, St. Joseph Co. I. 1st C.I. 

Norman, Willis, Nov. 24, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. 

Norton, Henry, Sept. 23, 1864, Calvin Co. I. 1st C.I. 

Nuson, Eli, Dec. 5, 1863, Raisin Co. E. 1st C.l. 

Ogden, Robert, Oct. 8, 1863, Detroit ....Co. A. 1st C.I. 

Oliver, Jesse, Dec. 7, 1863, Ypsilanti Co. F. 1st C.I. 

Oliver, John, Dec. 14, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 1st C.I. 

Olmsted, Benjamin, Jan. 23, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 1st C.I. 

O'Neil, Jackson, Sept. 8, 1864, Ann Arbor Co. A. 1st C.I. 

O'Neil, Joseph, Oct. 19, 1863, Marshall Co. A. 1st C.I. 

Osborn, George S., Sept. 12, 1864, Jackson Co. E. 1st C.I. 

Outland, Bias, Feb. 15, 1865, Kalamazoo Co. E. 1st C.I. 

Overman, George W., Nov. 25, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 1st C.I. 

Overton, William, Feb. 16, 1865, Grand Rapids. Co. E. 1st C.I. 

Owens, Albert, Dec. 3, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. 

Owens, William, Sept. 7, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. A. 1st C.I. 

Oxendine, Caswell, Fabius Co. D. 1st C.I. 

Packard, Charles F Co. F. 1st C.I. 

Page, Anderson, Jan. 25, 1864, Richmond ..Co. K. 1st C.I. 

Page, William, Jan. 15, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 1st C.I. 

Pankey, Ned, Feb. 12, 1864, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 19 



Age 39 


Age 18 


Age 45 


Age 22 


Age 21 


Age 34 


Age 28 


Age 31 


Age IS 


Age 19 


Age 25 


Age 23 


Age 37 


Age 19 


Age 19 


Age 24 


Age 29 


Age 20 


Age 16 


Age 28 


Age 24 


Age 19 


Age 17 


.\ge 20 


Age 44 


Age 26 


Age 22 


Age 21 


Age 42 


Age 18 


Age 28 


Age 35 


Age 44 


Age 19 


Age 18 


Age 18 


Age 18 


Age 22 


Age 19 


Age 32 


Age. 25 


Age 18 


Age 20 


Age 35 


Age 21 



FREEDMENS I'KOCKESS 243 

Paris, Henry, Jan. 21, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Parker, Robert, Feb. 4, 18G4, Detroit Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 42 

Parrott, Nelson, Jan. 4, 1864, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 26 

Patterson, George W., Mar. 6, 1865, Niles Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Patterson, John, Dec. 28, 1863, Sturgis Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 45 

Patterson, Samuel, Oct. 22, 1863, Kalamazoo. .Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Patterson, William, Feb. 17. 1864, Detroit Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 39 

Patton, Jeremiah, Feb. 10, 1865, Ypsilanti Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 41 

Payne, Alexander, Dec. 1, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Payne, David, Feb. 5, 1864, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 44 

Payne, Gilbert, July 29, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Payne, Henry, Oct. 21, 1863, Detroit Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 24 

Payne, Washington, Sept. 29, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 40 

Payton, Harrison, Jan. 5, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 31 

Peak, Henry, Dec. 4, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 28 

Peak, Lorenzo G., Aug. 18, 1864, Jackson Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 30 

Peak, William H., Jan. 28, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 48 

Pearce, Samuel, Sept. 21, 1864, Ecorse 1st C.I. Age 19 

Pepper, Thomas, Sept. 5, 1864, Greenfield Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 20 

Perdew, James, Dec. 5, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 23 

Perdue, James, Aug. 29, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 29 

Perdue, Noah, Oct. 22, 1863, Kalamazoo Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 23 

Perkins, Henry, Sept. 25, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 28 

Perry, Anthony, Mar. 28, 1865, Macon Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Perry, Eli, Aug. 29, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 17 

Perry, Thomas, July 24, 1864, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 24 

Perynce, Henry 1st C.I. 

Peyton, Richard, Aug. 27, 1864, Detroit Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 26 

Phillips, Henry, Aug. 13, 1864, Medina 1st C.I. Age 23 

Philips, Richard, Jan. 5, 1864, Hartland Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Phoenix, Jeremiah, Sept. 22, 1864. Pontiac Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 34 

Pierce, Albert, Mar. 18, 1864, Detroit Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 27 

Pine, William, Sept. 23, 1864, Jackson Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Piatt, James W., Dec. 13, 1863 Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 33 

Plowden, William P., Dec. 13, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Points, Charles, Aug. 15, 1864, Lansing Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Points, Henry L., Dec. 4, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 29 

Poke, James, Aug. 9, 1864, Monroe 1st C.I. Age 21 

Poll, Alexander, Oct. 14, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 23 

Poll, Marvin, Oct. 14, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Pollard, Henry, Nov. 28, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 43 

Pollard, William, Feb. 2, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 31 

Porter, Boyd, Feb. 2, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 23 

Porter, Isaac, Jan. 4, 1864, Detroit Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 34 

Porter, James, Oct. 6, 1864 Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 20 

Porter, John, Dec. 22, 1863, Ypsilanti Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Porter, Joseph, Jan. 18, 1865, Pontiac 1st C.I. Age 18 

Portor. William, Dec. 1, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 27 



244 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Porter, William, Feb. 14, 1865 Co. K. 

Posey, Abner, Nov. 18, 1864 

Powell, Elijah, Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 

Powell, Elijah, Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co, E. 

Powell, Thomas H., Aug. 30, 1864, Jackson Co. H. 

Powers, James, Nov. 20, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 

Powers, William P., Dec. 28, 1863, Niles Co. G. 

Prater, William, Aug. 30, 1864, Jackson Co. H. 

Preston, Richard, Jan. 19, 1865, Jackson Co. E. 

Price, John, Sept. 26, 1863, Ypsilanti Co. A. 

Price, John, Oct. 19, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 

Pritchard, Isaiah, Jan. 14, 1864, Ypsilanti Co. K. 

Queen, Augustus, Aug. 30, 1864, Jackson Co. B. 

Queen, Charles F., Oct. 16, 1863, Summit Co. B. 

Ralls, Andrew, Mar. 4, 1865, Pontiac Co. B. 

Ramsey, Joseph, Dec. 11, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 

Randall, George, Dec. 10, 1863, Jackson Co. K. 

Randall, Henry, Sept. 23, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 

Randolph, George, Jan. 3, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 

Rann, Lorenzo, Aug. 22, 1864, Seneca Co. K. 

Ratliff, Albert J., Nov. 18, 1863, Ypsilanti Co. F. 

Redman, Willis, Oct. 1, 1864 Co. C. 

Reed, Alonzo, Jan. 6, 1864, Detroit Co. E. 

Reed, Alvin, Jan. 30, 1865, Grand Rapids Co. E. 

Reed, Elijah, Jan. 30, 1865, Grand Rapids Co. F. 

Reed, Elisha, Jan. 30, 1865, Grand Rapids.... 

Reed, George, Feb. 3, 1865, Pontiac Co. E. 

Reed, Jeremiah, Jan. 30, 1865, Grand Rapids Co. E. 

Reed, John, Detroit 

Reed, Stephen, Sept. 14, 1864, Jackson 

Reed, Walter, Jan. 2, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 

Reynolds, Nelson, Nov. 4, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 

Rhoderic, David, Jan. 8, 1864, Detroit Co. H. 

Rice, Calvin, Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 

Rice, James, Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 

Rice, Pink, Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 

Rice, William H., Nov. 3, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 

Rice, Wilson, Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 

Richards, Richard, Oct. 30, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 

Richardson, George, Dec. 14, 1863, Detroit Co. F, 

Richardson, George, Dec. 5, 1863, Detroit Co. K. 

Richardson, William E., Oct. 28, 1863, Detroit. .Co. C. 

Richmond, Willis, Oct. 6, 1864 Co. E. 

Ricketts, Luther B Co. H. 

Ridgley, William, Sept. 3, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. H. 

Riley, William, Oct. 16, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 

Risby, William, Jan. 16, 1865, Detroit Co. E. 

Rivers, Miner, Dec. 26, 1863, Niles Co. G. 



1st C.I. 


Age 30 


1st C.I. 


Age 26 


1st C.I. 


Age 22 


1st C.I. 


Age 27 


1st C.I. 


Age 34 


1st CI. 


Age 21 


1st C.I. 


Age 23 


1st C.I. 


Age 21 


1st C.I. 


Age 23 


1st C.I. 


Age 25 


1st C.I. 


Age 26 


1st C.I. 


Age 20 


1st C.I. 


Age 18 


1st C.I. 


Age 19 


1st C.I. 


Age 34 


1st C.I. 


Age 28 


1st C.I. 


Age 22 


1st C.I. 


Age 40 


1st C.L 


Age 23 


1st C.I. 


Age 22 


1st C.I. 


Age 18 


1st C.I. 


Age 22 


1st C.I. 


Age 18 


1st C.I. 


Age 22 


1st C.I. 


Age 19 


1st C.I. 


Age 27 


1st C.L 


Age 18 


1st C.L 


Age 28 


1st C.I. 


Age 20 


1st C.L 


Age 28 


1st C.L 


Age 18 


1st C.L 


Age 27 


1st C.L 


Age 22 


1st C.I. 


Age 26 


1st C.L 


Age 27 


1st C.L 


Age 25 


1st C.L 


Age 44 


1st C.L 


Age 34 


1st C.L 


Age 19 


1st C.L 


Age 21 


1st C.L 


Age 40 


1st C.L 


Age 33 


1st C.L 


Age 19 


1st C.L 




1st C.I. 


Age 33 


1st C.I. 


Age 33 


1st C.I. 


Age 43 


1st C.I. 


Age 34 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 245 

Rix, William A., Dec. 18, 1863, Marshall Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Roberts, Altimore, Sept. 16, 1864, Redford 

Roberts, Bryant W., Aug. 25, 1864, Kalamazoo. .Co. E. 

Roberts, Charles, Nov. 3, 1863, Detroit Co. B. 

Roberts, Emery, Oct. 19, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 

Roberts, Horace, Nov. 27, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 

Roberts, Isaac, Jan. 27, 1865 Co. K. 

Roberts, James, Nov. 3, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 

Roberts, John, Aug. 18, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. F. 

Roberts John, Aug. 19, 1864, Raisin Co. I. 

Roberts, Jonathan P., Dec. 10, 1863, Detroit. .Co. E. 

Roberts, William, Aug. 22, 1864, Detroit 

Roberts, William G., Aug. 30, 1864, Adrian Co. F. 

Robertson, Alexander, Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 

Robertson, Richard, Apr. 13, 1864, Annapolis. .Co. K. 

Robins, John, Feb. 17, 1865, Battle Creek Co. F. 

Robinson, Alexander, Oct. 14, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 

Robinson, Charles, Dec. 3, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 

Robinson, Elisha S., Oct. 30, 1863, Lowell Co. G. 

Robinson, Frank, Nov. 4, 1864, Detroit Co. E. 

Robinson, Harvey, Sept. 23, 1864, Jackson Co. E. 

Robinson, Henry, June 28, 1864, Gun Plains. . . . 

Robinson, Homer, Dec. 15, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 

Robinson, James, Mar. 28, 1865, Jackson Co. C. 

Robinson, James, Dec. 3, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 

Robinson, Thaddeus, Dec. 15, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 

Robinson, Thomas, Aug. 10, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 

Robinson, Wesley, Nov. 5, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 

Robinson, William, Dec. 23, 1864, Detroit Co. F. 

Rolland, George W., Oct. 30, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 

Roper, William, Feb. 26, 1864, Detroit Co. F. 

Roodman, Stephen, Feb. 10, 1864, Detroit Co. C. 

Ross, James H., Dec. 29, 1863, Parma Co. H. 

Ross, William, Feb. 11, 1864, Detroit Co. C. 

Rouse, Jordan, Nov. 3, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 

Russell, Henderson, Dec. 30, 1863, Kalamazoo. .Co. G. 

Russell, Jacob, Dec. 30, 1863, Kalamazoo Co. G. 

Russell, James, Mar. 3, 1865, Pontiac Co. B. 

Russell, John Co. B. 

Russell, John, Dec. 30, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. G. 

Russell, Robert, Aug. 2, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. A. 

Russell, Robert R., Dec. 1, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 

Rutherford, Joseph, Jan. 4, 1864, Marshall Co. H. 

Sal.spaugh, Amos, Oct. 22, 1863, Detroit Co. B. 

Sancton, Robert, Jan. 16, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 

Sand, Nathan, Feb. 22, 1864, Battle Creek Co. P\ 

Sanders. Albert, Aug. 23, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. H. 

Sanders, Elijah, Aug. 30, 1864, Constantine Co. H. 



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246 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Sanders, Hamilton, Aug. 20, 1864, Kalamazoo. .Co. B. 
Sanders, Jason J., Aug. 22, 1864, Kalamazoo. . . .Co. H. 

Sanders, Peter, Dec. 9, 1863, Porter Co. H. 

Sandy, William, July 25, 1864, Detroit Co. E. 

Sasser, Robert, Aug. 14, 1864, Baldwin Co. K. 

Sasser, Wesley, Aug. 14, 1864, Baldwin Co. K. 

Saunders, Backus, Apr. 13, 1865, Detroit 

Saunders, John, Oct. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. B. 

Saunders, John J., Nov. 24, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 

Sawyer, Thomas, Oct. 14, 1864, Detroit Co. G. 

Scipio, Peter, Aug. 22, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 

Scott, Alexander, Dec, 1863, Ypsilanti Co. G. 

Scott, Andrew, Oct. 8, 1863, Battle Creek Co. B. 

Scott, Daniel, July 25, 1864, Detroit Co. E. 

Scotland, Samuel, Jan. 5, 1865, Washington.... 

Scott, Franklin D., Aug. 18, 1864, Pontiac Co. K. 

Scott, J. Cooper, Jan. 2, 1864, Marshall Co. H. 

Scott, John A., Apr. 5, 1865, Pontiac Co. D. 

Scott, Lee, Nov. 19, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 

Scott, Logan M., Nov. 3, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 

Scott, Moses, Nov. 10, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 

Scott, Preston, Jan. 11, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. H. 

Scott, Robert, Feb. 8, 1865, Kalamazoo Co. F. 

Scott, Walter, Dec. 26, 1863, Detroit Co. G. 

Scott, William, Oct. 28, 1863, Detroit Co. G. 

Scott, William, Jan. 16, 1864, Troy Co. I. 

Scott, William M Co. G. 

Scroggins, Alexander, Jan. 13, 1864, Ypsilanti. .Co. K. 

Seymour, Thomas, Nov. 3, 1863, Ecorse Co. C. 

Seton, Joseph, Oct. 18, 1863, Calvin Co. B. 

Shaffer, Daniel, Dec. 14, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 

Shamberg, James, Dec. 21, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 

Sharp, Joseph, Mar. 9, 1865, Kalamazoo Co. I 

Sharpe, Clayburn, Dec. 14, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 

Shaw, Thomas, Sept. 9, 1864, Fairfield Co. E. 

Shelby, Henry, Nov. 26, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 

Shelby, Spencer, Aug. 1, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. G. 

Shepard, Edward, Jan. 15, 1864, Marshall Co. I. 

Shepard, Henry, Feb. 27, 1864, Penn Co. G. 

Shields, Martin, Mar. 6, 1865, Hudson Co. C. 

Shorter, Lloyd, Dec. 17, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 

Shorter, William, Dec. 26, 1863, Detroit Co. G. 

Shorter, William, Sept. 7, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. I. 

Silence, David, Jan. 19, 1864, Filmore Co. I. 

Sillwood, Silas A., Feb. 16, 1864, Detroit Co. C. 

Simmon, William H., Feb. 13, 1864, Janesville. .Co. D. 
Simmons, Charles, Mar. 27, 1865, Knlamazoo. .Co. B. 
Simmons, Thomas, Jan. 18, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 26 



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FREIZDMEN'S PROGRESS 

Simmons. William, Nov. 17, 1863, Calvin Co. G. 

Simms, Allen, Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 

Simms, Amos, Feb. 6, 1864, Detroit Co. A. 

Simms, John, Nov. 30, 1863, Detroit 

Simons, James, Oct. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. B. 

Simons, William H.. Nov. 17, 1863, Calvin Co. D. 

Simpson, Henderson, Feb. 13, 1865, Battle Creek Co. F. 

Simpson. Henry A., Dec. 4, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 

Simpson, Peter, Nov. 3, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 

Simpson, William H., Oct. 27. 1863, Detroit. .. .Co. C. 

Sinclair, John F., Dec. 21, 1863, Jonesville Co. H. 

Sisco, Albert, Aug. 10, 1S64, Kalamazoo Co. H. 

Sisco, David D., Jan. 16, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 

Slaughter, lames. Oct. 28, 1863, Detroit Co. G. 

Sledge, Richard, Jan. 16, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 

Sleight. William E Co. D. 

Small, Harrison, Aug. 18, 1864, Medina Co. G. 

Smith, Abram, Dec. 22, 1864, Pontiac Co. I. 

Smith, Alexander, Aug. 29, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. F. 

Smith. Arthur W., Jan. 21, 1864, Detroit Co. F. 

Smith, Benjamin, Oct. 10, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 

Smith, Charles H., Oct. 10, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 

Smith, Elie, Nov. 30, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 

Smith, Francis, Oct. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. B. 

Smith, George, Aug. 29, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. F. 

Smith, George C, Oct. 23, 1863, Coldwater Co. B. 

Smith, Greyson, Feb. 26, 1864, Detroit Co. F. 

Smith, Henry, Dec. 11, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 

Smith, Henry, Dec. 5, 1863, Kalamazoo Co. F. 

Smith, Isaac, Mar. 9, 1865, Pontiac Co. F. 

Smith, Jacob, Oct. 22. 1863, Detroit Co. F. 

Smith, Jacob, Oct. S, 1864, Detroit 

Smith, James, Oct. 21, 1863, Detroit Co. B. 

Smith. James, Dec. 14, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 

Smith. James, Feb. 4, 1865, Bloomfield Co. I. 

Smith, James, Aug. 31, 1864, Flint 

Smith, John, Aug. 23, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 

Smith. .John, Nov. 23, 1864, Pontiac 

Smith, .lohn E., Feb. 28, 1864, Detroit Co. G. 

Smith, .Joseph, Mar. 14, 1865, Hudson Co. H. 

Smith, Robert, Aug. 20, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. F. 

Smith. Samuel. Aug. 29, 1864. Kalamazoo Co. F. 

Smith. Samuel, Feb. 18, 1864, Detroit Co. G. 

Smith, Simon, Sept. 21, 1864, Detroit Co. A. 

Smith, Thomas, Sept. 5. 1864, Greenfield 

Smith, William, Dec. 30, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 

Smith. William, Dec. 17, 1863, Kalamazoo 

Smith, William H., Oct. 11, 1864, Detroit Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 32 



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Age 18 


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248 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 



Smith, William P., Dec. 9, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 

Snelling, Samuel, Aug. 29, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. B. 

Sniveley, Jeremiah, Jan. 8, 1864, Detroit |Co. H. 

Snider, Benjamin, Jan. 4, 1865, Pontiac Co. K. 

Southers, James, Jan. 4, 1864, Marshall Co. H. 

South worth, Geo. A., Apr. 22, 1861, Kalamazoo. .Co. I. 

Sparks, Alexander, Jan. 12, 1864, Detroit Co. H. 

Sparks, Thomas, Sept. 28, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 

Speed, John, Dec. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. H. 

Speirs, William W 

Spence, Ambrose, Dec. 22, 1863, Plymouth Co. C. 

Spencer, William, Feb. 15, 1864, Pontiac Co. C. 

Spriggins, Thomas, Aug. 25, 1864, Grand Rapids Co. A. 
Stafford, James R., Aug. 24, 1864, Kalamazoo. .Co. K. 
Stafford, Jeremiah, Jr., Feb. 10, 1865, Jackson. .Co. K. 

Stanton, Daniel, Jan. 22, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 

Starks, Daniel, Nov. 2, 1863, Detroit Co. H. 

Starks, George, Dec. 25, 1863, Plymouth Co. G. 

Starks, Joseph, Jan. 27, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 

Steel, Jacob, Pipestone Co. H. 

Steele, William, Dec. 21, 1863, Detroit Co. G. 

Stephens, David, Oct. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. B. 

Stephenson, Martin, Mar. 8, 1864, Detroit Co. E. 

Stephenson, Martin, Royal Oak 

Sterling, Martin, Dec. 14, 1863, Ypsilanti Co. F. 

Sterling, William, Oct. 7, 1863, Detroit Co. K. 

Stevens, Isaac, Nov. 5, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 

Stevens, John, Sept. 1, 1864, St. Joseph Co. G. 

Stevens, William, Sept. 29, 1864 

Steward, James, Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 

Stewart, Augustus, Nov. 4, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 

Stewart, Bradford, Sept. 2, 1864, Pontiac 

Stewart, Beverly, Dec. 11, 1863, Kalamazoo Co. F. 

Stewart, George W., Nov. 20, 1863, Calvin Co. B. 

Stewart, Hezekiah, Oct. 22, 1863, Ann Arbor Co. A. 

Stewart, Jacob, Aug. 8, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. G. 

Stewart, James, Sept. 28, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 

Stewart, James, Oct. 28, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 

Stewart, James M., Oct. 18, 1863, Calvin Co. B. 

Stewart, Jesse, Jan. 13, 1864, Ypsilanti Co. K. 

Stewart, John, Oct. 7, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 

Stewart, John T., Oct. 21, 1863, Calvin Co. B. 

Stewart, Littel B., Calvin Co. B. 

Stewart, Rufus, Dec. 31, 1863, Detroit Co. G. 

Stewart, Sylvester, Dec. 28, 1863, Detroit Co. G. 

Stewart, Thomas, Oct. 16, 1863, Calvin Co. B. 

Stockend, Henry, Dec. 9, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 

Stokes, Jackson, Feb. 15, 1864, Detroit Co. D. 



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Age 19 


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Age 27 


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Age 32 


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Age 32 


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Age 26 


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Age 17 


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Age 17 


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Age 35 


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Age 41 


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Age 22 


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Age 28 


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Age 16 


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Age 28 


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Age 22 


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Age 21 


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Age 21 


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Age 21 


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Age 34 


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Age 28 


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Age 31 


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FREEDMENS rilCXJltESS 249 

Stowers, David, Feb. 2, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 

Stowers, Elijah, Feb. 11. 1865, Jackson Co. F. 

Streight, William P Co. I. 

Strother, David, Dec. 29, 1863. Battle Creek Co. H. 

Strummel, .James M., Nov. 28, 1863, Detroit 

Smnmerville, Jack, Feb. 16, 1864, Detroit Co. E. 

Summit, Benjamin, Nov. 16. 1863, Detroit Co. D. 

Summer, Thomas, Aug. 27, 1864, Kalamazoo 

Swanagan, Amos, Jan. 24, 1865, Grand Rapids, .Co. F. 

Swift, Jerry, Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 

Swift, Joseph, Jan. 21, 1864, Detroit Co. D. 

Talbot, William H., Oct. 5, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. K. 

Tallafearo, William P Co. E. 

Tasker, Reuben, Oct. 8, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 

Tate, John, Jan. 14, 1865, Jackson Co. G. 

Taylor. Eli, Dec. 22, 1863, Ann Arbor Co. K. 

Taylor, Frank, Aug. 16, 1864, Monroe Co. B. 

Taylor. Henry, Feb. 10, 1864, Detroit Co. E. 

Taylor, Henry, Jan. 21, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 

Taylor, Jesse, Jan. 5, 1865, Grand Rapids Co. G. 

Taylor, John, Aug. 9, 1864, Jackson Co. G. 

Taylor, John, Feb. 11, 1865, Pontiac Co. I. 

Taylor, John, Feb. 2, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 

Taylor, John E., Feb. 6, 1864, Detroit Co. B. 

Taylor, Jordan, Jan. 27, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 

Taylor, Primiis, Aug. 8, 1864, Jackson Co. K. 

Taylor, William, Feb. 21, 1865, Detroit Co. D. 

Taylor, William, Dec. 23, 1864, Pontiac 

Tennett, Thomas, Oct. 6, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 

Tennis, William, Mar. 21, 1865, Jackson Co. G. 

Thermon, Flemming, Jan. 13, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 

Thomas, Alfred E., Sept. 7, 1864, Jackson Co. I. 

Thomas, Benjamin, Jan. 31, 1865, Pontiac Co. K. 

Thomas, Edward, July 30, 1864, Tecumseh Co. H. 

Thomas, George, Mar. 27, 1865, Liberty Co. E. 

Thomas, George, Dec. 24, 1863, Ypsilanti Co. G. 

Thomas, Henry, Sept. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 

Thomas, Henry, Mar. 30, 1865, Pontiac Co. E. 

Thomas, James, Dec. 10, 1863, Jack.son Co. F. 

Thomas, John, Feb. 21, 1864, Detroit Co. F. 

Thomas, John H., Aug. 23, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. C. 

Thomas, Joseph, Oct. 18, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 

Thomas. Robort. Feb. 13, 1864. Janesville Co. D. 

Thomas, William, Sept. 16, 1864, Detroit Co. B. 

Thomas, William, Dec. 19, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 

Thomas, William, Apr. 8, 1865, Erie 

Thompson. Edward. July 30, 1864, Kalamazoo. .Co. I. 
Thompson. Ezekiel, Nov. 3. 1863. Detroit Co. C. 



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Age 20 


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Age 34 


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Age 32 


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Age 42 


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Age 35 


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Age 28 


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Age 28 


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Age 40 


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Age 35 


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9.- 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 



Thompson, George, Jan. 26, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 

Thompson, Henry, Jan. 23, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 

Thompson, James, Dec. 11, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 

Thompson, John, Dec. 10, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 

Thompson, John, Aug. 13, 1864, Corunna Co. G. 

Thompson, John, Jan. 19, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 

Thompson, John, Sept. 8, 1864, Forester 

Thompson, John F 

Thompson, Primus, Mar. 22, 1865, Detroit Co. F. 

Thompson, Samuel B., Mar. 10, 1865, Pontiac. .Co. C. 

Thompson, Stephen, Aug. 17, 1864, Adams Co. C. 

Thompson, William, Oct. 10, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 

Thornton, George, Mar. 2, 1865, Kalamazoo. .. .Co. H. 

Thornton, Henry, Sept. 29, 1864 Co. G. 

Thurston, John, Nov. 29, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 

Tillman, Harrison, Oct. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. B. 

Todd, Jeremiah, Dec. 23, 1863, Marshall Co. C. 

Tolbert, Albert, Dec. 17, 1863, Kalamazoo Co. F. 

Torrick, Henry, Dec. 1, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 

Townsend, Andrew, Sept. 27, 1864, Kalamazoo.. 

Tribue, James, Jan. 9, 1864, Detroit Co. H. 

Trice, Eli, Feb. 7, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 

Troutman, Simon, Jan. 12, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 

Tucker, George, Feb. 22, 1864, Battle Creek Co. F. 

Tucker, William, Oct. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 

Tucker, William P., Dec. 31, 1863, Detroit Co. G. 

Turmin, James, Oct. 10, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 

Turner, George, Sept. 16, 1863, Detroit Co. B. 

Turner, Henry, Dec. 16, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 

Turner, John, Oct. 12, 1864 

Turner, Taylor, Apr. 11, 1864, Annapolis Co. K. 

Tuttle, Jonathan B., Dec. 7, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 

Twist, Oliver, Feb. 15, 1865, Detroit Co. G. 

Tyler, Heinrick, Dec. 4, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 

Valentine, Robert, Jan. 4, 1864, Richmond Co. H. 

Valentine, Shadrick, Sept. 2, 1864, Grand Rapids 
Varnum, William, Dec. 30, 1863, Battle Creek.. Co. H. 

Vaughn, James, Calvin Co. D. 

Vendyke, Lewis, Dec. 11, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 

Veney, Samuel, Sept. 16, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 

Vick, Hiram, Feb. 9, 1865, Jackson Co. G. 

Vick, Jonah, Jan. 6, 1865, Jackson Co. G. 

Vincent, Andrew, Jan. 28, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 

Vincent, William, Feb. 18, 1864, Clay Co. G. 

Vincin, George, Feb. 24, 1865, Berrien Co. F. 

Vineyard, Andrew, Jan. 21, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 

Wade, Berry, Oct. 21, 1863, Calvin Co. B. 

Wade, John, Jan. 4, 1864, Detroit Co. H. 



1st C.I. 


Age 35 


1st C.I. 


Age 22 


1st C.I. 


Age 27 


1st C.I. 


Age 21 


IstCJ. 


Age 19 


1st C.I. 


Age 27 


1st C J. 


Age 29 


1st C.I. 




1st C.I. 


Age 31 


1st C.I. 


Age 35 


1st C J. 


Age 27 


1st C.I. 


Age 18 


IstCJ. 


Age 24 


1st C.I. 


Age 38 


1st C.I. 


Age 19 


1st C.I. 


Age 22 


IstCJ. 


Age 39 


1st C.L 


Age 19 


1st C J. 


Age 44 


1st C.I. 


Age 20 


IstCJ. 


Age 30 


IstCJ. 


Age 32 


1st C J. 


Age 18 


IstCJ. 


Age 23 


1st C.I. 


Age 26 


1st C J. 


Age 22 


1st C J. 


Age 35 


1st C.I. 


Age 20 


1st C.I. 


Age 28 


1st C.I. 


Age 30 


1st C.I. 


Age 18 


1st C.I. 


Age 22 


IstCJ 


Age 19 


1st C.I. 


Age 26 


1st C.I. 


Age 36 


1st C J. 


Age 32 


1st C.I. 


Age 30 


1st C J. 


Age 39 


1st C.I. 


Age 23 


1st C.I. 


Age 24 


1st C.I. 


Age 20 


1st C.I. 


Age 18 


1st C J. 


Age 22 


IstCJ. 


Age 26 


1st C.I. 


Age 22 


1st C.I. 


Age 23 


1st C J. 


Age 21 


1st C.I. 


Age 18 



FKEEDMEN'S PliO(;RF:SS 251 

Waldron, John T., Jan. 16, 1864, Detroit Co. K. l.st C.I. Age 19 

Walker, Daniel, Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. 1). l.si C.I. Age 43 

Walker, Frank, Sept. 16, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 35 

Walker, Jacob, Oct. 10, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Walker, Richard, Jan. 14, 1864, Richmond Co. K. 1st C.l. Age 21 

Walker, Wilson, Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 36 

Wallace, James H., Sept. 5, 1864, Monterey Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Wallace, John, Mar. 6, 1865, Kalamazoo Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Wallace, Zachariah, Feb. 15, 1865, Monroe Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 36 

Walton, James, Sept. 29, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 37 

Walton, James, Dec. 31, 1864, Climax Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 28 

Walls, Jesse A., Dec. 11, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 26 

Wanyer, Francis R., Nov. 27, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Wanyer, Lois P., Nov. 27, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 23 

Wanzer, Charles, Oct. 17, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Wanzer, Joseph, Nov. 3, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 25 

Ward, Harry, Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 41 

Ward, James R., Dec. 2, 1863, Ypsilanli Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 28 

Ward, John W., Sept. 29, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Ware, Edward, Jan. 3, 1864. Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Waring, William, Mar. 21, 1864, Detroit 1st C.I. 

Washington, Albert C, Jan. 5, 1864, Detroit Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Washington, Andrew, Feb. 29, 1864, Grand 

Rapids Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Washington, George, Nov. 21, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 49 

Washington, George, Sept. 20, 1864, Pontiac Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Washington, George, Jan. 27, 1864, Ypsilanti. . .Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Washington, George, Aug. 19, 1864, Kalamazoo. Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Washington, George, Jan. 9, 1864, Detroit Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 26 

Washington, George, Dec. 18, 1863, Detroit Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 24 

Washington, George 1st C.I. 

Washington, George E., Dec. 22, 1863 Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Washington, George F., Dec. 26, 1863, Richmond Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Washington, Hanson, Nov. 3, 1863, Detroit Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Washington, Horace, Sept. 7, 1864, Jackson Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 38 

Washington, Jackson, Feb. 15, 1865. Detroit Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 20 

Washington, Lewis, Sept. 16, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 34 

Washington, Thomas, Oct. 22, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 30 

Washington, William, Feb. 15. 1865, Ypsilanti. .Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 25 

Washington, William E., Oct. 27, 1863, Detroit. Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Washington, William H., Dec. 5, 1863, Detroit. .Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 30 

Washington, William H., Oct. 6. 1863, Detroit.. Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 23 

Watson, Hezekiah, Sept. 16, 1864, Springwells. .Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 22 

Watson, John. Oct. 22, 1863, Ionia Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 32 

Watters, Weston, Oct. 1, 1863. Battle Crook Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 36 

Watts, Albert, Dec. 25, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 23 

Watts, Albert L., Oct. 29, 1863. Boston 1st C I. Age 22 

Watts, Alexander, Feb. 9. 1864, Ypsil.inti Co. C. 1st C.I. Age 35 



252 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Watts, Spencer, Jr., July 28, 1864, Detroit Co. A. 

Weaver, Thomas, Oct. 5, 1863, Battle Creek Co. A. 

Weaver, William P., Dec. 30, 1863, Ypsilanti Co. H. 

Webb, Charles, Allegan 

Webb, George, Aug. 2, 1864, Detroit Co. C. 

Webster, George W., Aug. 31, 1864, Jackson Co. K. 

Welcome, Harrison, Oct. 8, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 

Wells, Alexander, Feb, 23, 1865, Livonia Co. K. 

Wells, Frederick, Nov. 3, 1863, Detroit Co. C. 

Wells, Jesse, Oct. 22, 1863, Kalamazoo Co. B. 

Wesley, John, Dec. 31, 1863, Detroit Co. H. 

Wesley, John, Sept. 15, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 

Wesley, Michael, Oct. 21, 1863, Kalamazoo Co. B. 

Wesley, William, Aug. 15, 1864, Detroit Co. F. 

West, Green, Oct. 21, 1863, Kalamazoo Co. B. 

West, Joseph, July 29, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 

West, William, Aug. 19, 1864, Canton Co. K. 

Wheeler, James, Dec. 29, 1863, Wayne Co. H. 

Wheeler, Square, Dec. 4, 1863, Detroit. Co. E. 

Wheeler, William, Mar. 14, 1865, Pontiac Co. A. 

Wheeler, William, Feb. 12, 1864, Jackson Co. C. 

White, Alfred, Aug. 24, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. B. 

White, Alonzo, Sept. 28, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 

White, Christopher, Aug. 25, 1864, Kalamazoo. .Co. K. 

White, George G., Feb. 18, 1865, Detroit Co. G. 

White, Henry, Dec. 13, 1863, Cassopolis Co. H. 

White, Jefferson, Nov. 30, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 

White, Jesse J., Nov. 24, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 

White, John, Dec. 7, 1863, Detroit Co.E. 

White, John, Aug. 23, 1864, Detroit 

White, John E., Oct. 17, 1864 

White, Joseph, Jan. 13, 1865, Oronoko Co. E. 

White, Joseph, Feb. 24, 1864, Detroit Co.E. 

White, Philip, Nov. 17, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 

White, Stephen, Oct. 10, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 

White, Thomas, Jan. 26, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 

White, William, Dec. 14, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 

White, William B., Oct. 7, 1863, Calvin Co. B. 

White, Wright, Feb. 17, 1865, Kalamazoo Co. H. 

Whittemore, John, Oct. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. B. 

Wiggins, John C, Jan. 23, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 

Wilkinson, Henry, Oct 11, 1864, Detroit Co. H. 

Wilkinson, John, Feb. 13, 1865, Kalamazoo Co. H. 

William, Norman, Dec. 22, 1863, Battle Creek.. Co. G. 

Williams, Albert, Sept. 8, 1864, York Co.E. 

Williams, Bufort, Jan. 6, 1864, Detroit Co. H. 

Williams, David, July 24, 1864, Co. C. 

Williams, Frank, Sept. 2, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. I. 



1st C.l 


[. Age 18 


1st C.l 


[. Age 24 


1st C.l 


[. Age 27 


1st C.] 


.. 


1st C.l 


[. Age 21 


1st C.l 


[. Age 20 


1st C.l 


. Age 21 


1st CI 


[. Age 38 


1st C.l 


[. Age 18 


IstC.] 


[. Age 22 


1st C.] 


[. Age 23 


1st C.] 


[, Age 29 


1st C.] 


[. Age 19 


IstC.] 


[. Age 25 


1st C.] 


[. Age 20 


1st C.] 


[. Age 23 


1st C.] 


[. Age 38 


IstC.] 


[. Age 40 


1st C.l 


[. Age 42 


1st C.] 


[. Age 43 


1st C.l 


[. Age 21 


1st C.] 


[. Age 28 


IstC.] 


[. Age 44 


IstC.] 


[. Age 25 


1st C.] 


[. Age 21 


IstC.] 


[. Age 20 


IstC.] 


[. Age 42 


1st C.] 


[. Age 25 


1st C.] 


[. Age 32 


IstC.] 


[. Age 29 


IstC.] 


[. Age 21 


1st C.] 


[. Age 18 


1st C.] 


[. Age 29 


1st C.] 


[. Age 20 


1st C.] 


[. Age 36 


1st C.] 


[. Age 35 


1st C.] 


[. Age 22 


1st C.] 


[. Age 30 


IstC.] 


[. Age 40 


1st C.l 


[. Age 39 


IstC.] 


[. Age 25 


IstC.] 


[. Age 18 


IstC.] 


[. Age 36 


1st C.] 


[. Age 25 


1st C.] 


[. Age 24 


1st C.l 


[. Age 22 


IstC.] 


[. Age 29 


1st C.l 


[. Age 25 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 253 

Williams, Gabriel, Jan. 26, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 

Williams, George W., Oct. 21, 1863, Calvin Co. B. 

Williams, Harrison, Mar. 16, 1865, Detroit Co. C. 

Williams, Henry, Sept. 13, 1864. Detroit Co. E. 

Williams, Henry, Sept. 13, 1864, Hamtramck. .Co. F. 

Williams, Henry, Feb. 28, 1865, York Co. H. 

Williams, Henry, Aug. 26, 1864, Jackson Co. I. 

Williams, Isaac, Dec. 16, 1863, Lodi Co. F. 

Williams, Isaac, Aug. 18, 1864, Detroit 

Williams, James, Sept. 29, 1864, Raisinville 

Williams, John, Aug. 27, 1864, Dover 

Williams, John, Sept. 5, 1864, Detroit Co. A. 

Williams, John, Oct. 17, 1864 Co. A. 

Williams, John, Dec. 3, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 

Williams, John, Feb. 16, 1865, Jackson Co. H. 

Williams, John, Feb. 27, 1865, Jackson Co. I. 

Williams, John C, Nov. 17, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 

Williams, John H., Jan. 12, 1864, Detroit Co. H. 

Williams, Jonathan, Dec. 4, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 

Williams, Reuben, Mar. 9, 1865, Jackson Co. K. 

Williams, Richard, Jan. 4, 1864, Dowagiac Co. I. 

Williamson, Harvey T., Feb. 5, 1864, Detroit Co. A. 

Willis, George W., Oct. 15, 1865, Detroit Co. H. 

Willis, John, Jan. 21, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 

WiUis, Robert, Oct. 13, 1864, Pontiac 

Willson, David, Oct. 28, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 

Wilson, Abraham, Dec. 17, 1863, Detroit Co. F. 

Wilson, Albert, Mar. 22, 1865, Marshall Co. B. 

Wilson, Edward, Feb. 15, 1865, Ypsilanti Co. H. 

Wilson, George, Oct. 1, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 

Wilson, George, Apr. 12, 1865, Erie 

Wilson, George, Aug. 25, 1864, Kalamazoo 

Wilson, Giles B., Calvin Co. K. 

Wilson, James, Feb. 28, 1865, Kalamazoo 

Wilson, Joel, Dec. 24, 1863, Detroit Co. I. 

Wilson, John, Jan. 11, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 

Wilson, John, Dec. 22, 1863, Ypsilanti Co. G. 

Wilson, John W., Oct. 28, 1863, Detroit Co. A. 

Wilson, Jonas, Oct. 21, 1863, Detroit Co. B. 

Wilson, Nathaniel, Oct. 18, 1863, Calvin Co. C. 

Wilson, Orin, Aug. 25, 1864, Kalamazoo Co. K. 

Wilson, Robert, Oct. 8, 1864 Co. F. 

Wilson, Robert, Oct. 8, 1864 

Wilson, Theodore, Jan. 3, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 

Wilson, Thomas, Jan. 2, 1864, Niles Co. B. 

Wilson, Thomas, Dec. 30, 1863, Detroit Co. H. 

Wilson, Thomas, Jan. 28, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 

Wilson, William, Jan. 15, 1864, Detroit Co. I. 



1st C.I. 


Age 30 


1st C.I. 


Age 27 


1st C.I. 


Age 30 


1st C.I. 


Age 22 


1st C.I. 


Age 18 


1st C.I. 


Age 25 


1st C.I. 


Age 22 


1st C.I. 


Age 23 


1st C.I. 


Age 24 


1st C.I. 


Age 26 


1st C.I. 


Age 26 


1st C.I. 


Age 24 


1st C.I. 


Age 19 


1st C.I. 


Age 25 


1st C.I. 


Age 33 


1st C.I. 


Age 18 


1st C.I. 


Age 20 


1st C.I. 


Age 33 


1st C.I. 


Age 43 


1st C.I. 


Age 37 


1st C.I. 


Age 24 


1st C.I. 


Age 39 


1st C.I. 


Age 19 


1st C.I. 


Age 22 


1st C.I. 


Age 20 


1st C.I. 


Age 30 


1st C.I. 


Age 32 


1st C.I. 


Age 41 


1st C.I. 


Age 35 


1st C.I. 


Age 35 


1st C.I. 


Age 27 


1st C.I. 


Age 18 


1st C.I. 


Age 28 


1st C.I. 


Age 21 


1st C.I. 


Age 18 


1st C.I. 


Age 31 


1st C.I. 


Age 33 


1st C.I. 


Age 25 


1st C.I. 


Age 21 


1st C.I. 


Age 36 


1st C.I. 


Age 17 


1st C.I. 


Age i,z 


1st C.I. 


Age 19 


1st C.I. 


Age 19 


1st C.I. 


Age 42 


1st C.I. 


Age 18 


1st C.I. 


Age 19 


1st C.I. 


Age 30 



254 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Wilson, William H., Dec. 10, 1863, Ypsilanti Co. H. 1st C.I. Age 40 

Winborn, George W., Howard 1st C.I. Age 28 

Wines, Edward, Sept. 23, 1864, Howard Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 41 

Winslow, Oliver, Dec. 14, 1863, Ypsilanti Co. F. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Wise, Jesse, Dec. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 35 

Wood, Andrew, Dec. 21, 1863, Frankenmuth 1st C.I. Age 18 

Wood, John W., Oct. 19, 1863, Calvin Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Woodford, Russell, Jan. 5, 1864, Troy Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 44 

Woodford, Thomas, Jan. 29, 1864, Kalamazoo. .Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 28 

Woodruff, Benjamin A., Feb. 14, 1865, St. Joseph Co.H. 1st C J. Age 19 

Woods, Henry, Oct. 22, 1863, Detroit Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 28 

Woods, Robert, Aug. 9, 1864, Mendon Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Woods, William H., Jan. 2, 1864, Detroit Co. K. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Woodson, Roderic W., Dec. 8, 1863, Detroit Co. E. 1st C.I. Age 25 

Wright, Cortes, Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 23 

Wright, John, Jan. 13, 1864, Niles Co. I. 1st C J. Age 21 

Wynn, Waltham G., Sept. 22, 1863, Detroit 1st C.I. Age 25 

Yarbra, Jacob, Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Yarbra, Jerry, Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 18 

Yarbra, Nelson, Nov. 23, 1863, Detroit Co. D. 1st C.I. Age 21 

York, David, Oct. 22, 1863, Ypsilanti Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 18 

York, George, Oct. 20, 1863, Ypsilanti Co. B. 1st C.I. Age 15 

Young, David, Mar. 20. 1865, Marshall Co. A. 1st C.I. Age 44 

Young, Fletcher, Jan. 19, 1865, Jackson Co. I. 1st C.I. Age 21 

Young, William, Dec. 29, 1863, Detroit Co. G. 1st C.I. Age 19 

Bradley, Robert, Aug. 13, 1864, Vicksburg 3rd U. S. C. C. Age 25 

Griffin, Andrew, Aug. 13, 1864, Vicksburg 3rd U. S. C. C. Age 21 

Howard, Henry, Aug. 13, 1864, Vicksburg 3rd U. S. C. C. Age 27 

Jackson, Andrew, Aug. 15, 1864, Vicksburg 3rd U. S. C. C. Age 19 

James, Dick, Aug. 11, 1864, Vicksburg 3rd U. S. C. C. Age 22 

Jones, Jefferson, Aug. 15, 1864, Vicksburg 3rd U. S. C. C. Age 30 

Marion, Samuel, Aug. 11, 1864, Vicksburg 3rd U. S. C. C. Age 18 

Marshall, John, Aug. 13, 1864, Vicksburg 3rd U. S. C. C. Age 18 

Medleton, Samuel, Aug. 15, 1864, Vicksburg 3rd U. S. C. C. Age 27 

Morgan, Sam, Aug. 15, 1864, Vicksburg 3rd U. S. C. C. Age 31 

Peterson, Austin, Aug. 13, 1864, Vicksburg 3rd U. S. C. C. Age 18 

Rogers, Silas, Aug. 13, 1864, Vicksburg 3rd U. S. C. C. Age 18 

Spencer, Berry, Aug. 13, 1864, Vicksburg 3rd U. S. C. C. Age 18 

Taff, Hewitt, Aug. 13, 1864, Vicksburg 3rd U. S. C. C. Age 18 

Warren, Richard, Aug. 11, 1864, Vicksburg 3rd U. S. C. C. Age 19 

Williams, Aaron, Aug. 15, 1864, Vicksburg 3rd U. S. C. C. Age 18 

Alexander, Prince, Aug. 15, 1864, Vicksburg. .5th U. S. C. H. A. Age 18 

Brown, Fred, Aug. 13, 1864, Vicksburg 5th U. S. C. H. A. Age 18 

Brown, Henry, Aug. 13, 1864, Vicksburg 5th U. S. C. H. A. Age 18 

Ervin, William, Aug. 13, 1864, Vicksburg 5th U. S. C. H. A. Age 45 

Framcles, Simpson, Aug. 13, 1804, Vicksburg. .5th U. S. C. H. A. Age 24 

Gallway, William, Aug. 13, 1864, Vicksburg. . .5th U. S. C. H. A. Age 21 

Haythorn, Henry, Aug. 13, 1864, Vicksburg 5th U. S. C. H. A. Age 18 



FREEDMENS PROGRESS 



Hill, Frank, Aug. 10, 1864, Vicksburg 5th U. S. C. H. A 

Howell, John, Aug. 11, 1864, Vicksburg 5th U. S. C. H. A 

Hutchinson, Andrew, Aug. 13, 1864, Vicksburg. 5th U. S. C. H. A 

Marshall, Peter, Aug. 10, 1864, Vicksburg 5th U. S. C. H. A 

Morrison, Eli, Aug. 12, 1864, Vicksburg 5th U. S. C. H. A 

Palmore, Richard, Aug. 10, 1864, Vicksburg. .5th U. S. C. H. A 
Woodward, Benj., Aug. 10, 1864, Vicksburg. . .5th U. S. C. H. A 

Foster, Ebenezer, Aug. 13, 1864, Decatur 9th U. S. C. H. A 

Fowler, Galpln, Aug. 13, 1864, Decatur 9th U. S. C. H. A 

Good, Horace, Aug. 13, 1864, Decatur 9th U. S. C. H. A 

Burnham, John, Apr. 13, 1865, Grand Rapids. .13th U. S. C. A 

Freeman, Walter, Apr. 8, 1865, Dover 13th U. S. C. A 

Hackley, Calvin, Pipestone 13th U. S. C. A 

Hicks, Colonel, Mar. 18, 1865, Volinia 13th U. S. C. A 

Higgins, Henry, Apr. 11, 1865, Kalamazoo 13th U. S. C. A 

Hill, Gamaliel, Mar. 18, 1865, Kalamazoo 13th U. S. C. A 

Jones, Charles, Apr. 5, 1865, Grand Rapids 13th U. S. C. A 

Marks, Moses, Apr. 6, 1865, Jackson 13th U. S. C. A 

Murray, Daniel, Apr. 4, 1865, Detroit 13th U. S. C. A 

Noble, Alfred, Newark 13th U. S. C. A 

Palmer, George W., Apr. 7, 1865, Ann Arbor 13th U. S. C. A 

Ray, Jacob, Mar. 31, 1865, Pontiac 13th U. S. C. A 

Richardson, Thomas, Mar. 31, 1865, Pontiac 13th U. S. C. A 

Robison, Captain, Apr. 4, 1865, Grand Rapids. .13th U. S. C. A 

Sherman, Joseph, Mar. 23, 1865, Detroit 13th U. S. C. A 

Simmons, Kirk, Brady 13th U. S. C. A 

Simons, Solomon, Mar. 24, 1865, Detroit 13th U. S. C. A 

Vessey, George, Apr. 5, 1865, Flint 13th U. S. C. A 

Vond, William, Sparta 13th U. S. C. A 

Weaver, Charles, Schoolcraft 13th U. S. C. A 

Works, George M., Pipestone 13th U. S. C. A 

Bell, Henry, July 30, 1864, Washington 31st U. S. C. 

Clark, Simeon, Mar. 31, 1865, Detroit 38th U. S. C. 

Clark, Thomas, Mar. 31, 1865, Detroit 38th U. S. C. 

Hicks James, Lockport 38th U. S. C. 

Jacksoii, Lewis, Mar. 28, 1865, Detroit 38th U. S. C. 

Johnson, John, Mar. 28, 1865, Jackson 38th U. S. C. 

McWeter, Squire, Mar. 31, 1865, Detroit 38th U. S. C. 

Smith, Frank, Aug. 11, 1864, Vicksburg 49th U. S. C. 

Butler, John. Aug. 11, 1864, Vicksburg 53rd U. S. C. 

Corin, Robert 54th U. S. C. 

Howe, Zimri H., Mar. 26, 1864, Memphis 55th U. S. C. 

Coats, Noyce 58th U. S. C. 

Russell, Clark G., Mar. 21 "864, Memphis 61st U. S. C. 

Taylor, J. R 123rd U. S. C. 

Abram, William, Aug. 12, 1864, Vicksburg. . .('apt. Powell's C. 

Davis, Charles, Aug. 12, 1864, Vicksburg Capt. Powell's C. 

Stokes, Benjamin, Aug. 11, 1864. Vicksburg. Capt. Powell's C. 
Wright, Alfred. Aug. 12, 1864, Vicksburg. . . .("apt. Powfll's C. 



Age 22 
Age 18 
Age 19 
Age 19 
Age 23 
Age 17 
Age 34 
Age 43 
Age 35 
Age 18 
Age 26 
Age 34 
Age 29 
Age 30 
Age 18 
Age 24 
Age 37 
Age 30 
Age 41 
Age 34 
Age 18 
Age 30 
Age 29 
Age 30 
Age 18 
Age 26 
Age 38 
Age 42 
Age 43 
Age 22 
Age 25 
Age 18 
Age 39 
Age 21 
Age 22 
Age 20 
Age 18 
Age 19 
Age 21 
Age 22 

Age 30 
Age 43 
Age 19 
Age 46 
Age 23 
Age 36 
Age 22 
Age 19 



256 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




Two Veterans of the Civil War, James McConnell. of Detroit, and Arthur L. 

Hammond, of Saginaw. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



257 




Thaddeus W. Taylor. 



258 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

RESOLUTIONS Adopted by the Freedmen's Progress Com- 
mission at its fourth meeting held at Bethel A. M. E. Church in 
the City of Detroit, County of Wayne, State of Michigan, on 
Saturday, the 24th day of July, A. D. 1915: 

WHEREAS, Thaddeus W. Taylor, this day deceased, was 
one of Michigan's most progressive, successful and public spir- 
ited Afro-American citizens, and had attained great popularity 
because of his unselfish endeavors in aid of the public good, and 
especially in combating evil directed against that class of Michi- 
gan's population of which he was a factor; and 

WHEREAS, An all wise Providence has seen fit to remove 
him from his earthly labors to his heavenly reward in the flower 
of his manhood and in the midst of his career as a successful 
business man and citizen; and 

WHEREAS, The said Thaddeus W. Taylor has been a con- 
stant, faithful father and husband to his family and a most 
affable, lovable and steadfast friend to his companions, therefore 
be it 

RESOLVED, That we, the FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS COM- 
MISSION OF THE STATE OF MICHIGAN, deeply deplore the 
seemingly untimely demise of our illustrious friend and brother 
and share with the public and with his family the great sorrow 
his loss entails, and we deeply sympathize with his family and 
friends the great bereavement they sustained by reason of his 
death at so early a period in his splendid career; and be it 
iurther 

RESOLVED, That these resolutions be spread upon the 
minutes of this COMMISSION, and that engrossed copies thereof 
be presented to the family of the said Thaddeus W. Taylor, and 
that copies of said resolutions be given to the press. 

OSCAR W. BAKER, 

President of the Commission. 
FRANCIS H. WARREN, 

Secretary of the Commission. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 259 

CHAPTERS ON 

OCCUPATIONS 

AND 

MORTALITY 



Statistical Tables Showing 
How the Negro Inhabitants 
of the State Maintain 
Themselves. .'. .*. .". .*. 

The Number and Causes 
of the Deaths Among 
Them with a Foreword by 



ROBERT A. PELHAM 



260 MICHIGAN MANUAL 



As has been seen (page S6), Mr. Robert A. Pelham, the author and 
compiler of the subsequent chapters on "Occupations" and "Mortality" 
of Michigan Afro-Americans, is a native of Detroit, Michgan, and al- 
though he is employed by the Census Department at AVashington, he 
remains a legal citizen of this state though a resident of the nation's 
capital. — Editor 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 261 



FOREWORD 



EXPLANATORY OF SUBSE- 
QUENT CHAPTERS WITH ILLUS- 
TRATIONS ( — ) NOTES OF PRO- 
GRESSIVE'CITIZENS(-)AND CUR- 
RENTNEWSPAPER COMMENT. 



The presentation in the chapters on "Occupations," and "Mortal- 
ity," of the Negro population of Michigan, is mainly a summary of 
data compiled for the Michigan Freedmen's Progress Commission, 
from the official records of the Bureau of the Census, Department of 
Commerce, through the courtesy of Director Sam. L. Rogers and 
Chief Clerk, William L. Austin. 

The statistical tables and all the clerical work — including tabula- 
tion, compilation, computation, typewriting, etc., has been done by a 
corps of Negro clerks, employees in the Bureau of the Census — 
their regular assignments having efficiently fitted them for this class 
of work. As the labor was performed mostly outside of regular 
office hours, voluntarily, and could not have been accomplished without 
such aid, thanks are hereby tendered Miss Agnes L. Gatewood, of 
Alabama; Messrs. Oliver H. Campbell, of Mississippi; Lawrence B. 
Curtis, and Jackson L. Davis, of Louisiana; Eugene H. Moody, of 
Arkansas; William L. Hawkins, of Wisconsin; and John II. Polk 
of Dallas, Texas. To Mr. Polk the writer is especially indebted for 
valuable aid and assistance. 



262 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 



*>0 



(Tbe Guide Post 

CONDUCTED BY 

iWilliam L Chenm^ 



A Conquering Race. 

HE world is accustomed to 
marvel at the progress 
made by the Japanese and 
by the Germans during- the last 
half century and rightly. But 
here in the United States a 
race has moved forward no less 
triumphantly. The drama of the 
American Negro's advancement, it is 
true, has not been accompanied by a 
military glamour with its martial mu- 
sic, nor has it had the literary stimulus 
of a great racial consciousness. 

But for all the quietness and unob- 
trusiveness of this upward movement, 
the victories of the Negro have an im- 
mense meaning for the welfare of the 
world. The Negroes have succeeded in 
the arts of peace. Individually, genera- 
tion by generation, they have become 
more fit for the great struggle of con- 
temporary life. They have accomplished 
the miracle of lifting a people en 
masse. * * * 

These bare figures, however, recount 
a record of progress made possible only 
by tremendous efforts. Within sixty 
years of freedom the Negro has 
achievements to his credit of which 
any race might be proud. — Extract from 
Chicago. Herald, April 23, 191.5. 



Based on a more extend- 
ed yet similar presentation 
compiled in part by the 
writer, and bearing the of- 
ficial seal of the Federal 
Government, (1) unbiased 
minds throughout the 
country, if not the world, 
have recognized therein 
elements of material 
growth and upward prog- 
ress in the life of the 
American Negro (2) that 
will help to dispel some of 
the false impressions and 
erroneous conclusions 
with which an unreason- 
able prejudice has sur- 
rounded the race. 

The theories and specu- 
lations as to the Negro's 
ability and capability have 
been many and varied. His 
physical defects, his moral 
weaknesses, his fancies 
and foibles, his "race 
traits and tendencies" have 
been so long discussed and 
so satisfactorily (?) deter- 
mined by a host of writers, 
with pet theories as to the 
race's inherent shortcom- 
ings that it has been with 
pleasure as well as a sense 
of duty and deep concern 
that the writer has devoted 
more than the allotted time to help put in convenient form, for refer- 
ence, some part of a decade's portion of the story of the race's achieve- 
ments, so eloquently outlined by the "Guide Post" author in the Chi- 
cago Herald, and so generously acknowleded by the diplomatic writer 
of "Views and Reviews" in the New York Age. 



(1) "Negroes in the United Statees," issued by the llurcau of the 
Census, Department of Commerce, April, 1915. 

(2) Evening Post (New York City), May 18, 1815 — The upward move- 
ment of the race decade after decade, has been such as to justify t'le most 
I)ersi.stent and hopeful efforts to promote its material, moral and intel- 
lectual advancement. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



263 



No racial movement in the world today is more interesting, or 
absorbing, and certainly no study is more important than that which 
vitally concerns not only ten millions of this country's citizens, known 
as Negroes, but the entire one hundred millions of American citizens 
— citizens of one country, one language and one flag. 

The data statistically arranged, as indicated, were gathered in 
the field under sanction of Federal law, collated under Federal super- 
vision; and presented here under State authority. The authenticity of 



V 



lew an 



dR 



eviews 



BY 



JAMES W. JOHNSON, Contributing Fditor 
"A RECENT PUBLICATION." 

The general opinion is that statistics make very dry reading, 
but it is certain that a perusal of Bulletin 129 will prove not only 
interesting but inspiring to all intelligent colored Americans. 

The book is a matter of additional pride because colored men 
were assigned to the work of compiling the data. Secretary Red- 
field is to be commended for this action. It is also gratifying to 
note that throughout, whenever we are referred to as a race, the 
word Negro is printed with a large "N." The Department of 
Commerce deserves credit for setting such a precedent. * * * 

We thank Secretary Redfield for authorizing "N" in the Bul- 
letin, and request that he have the order cover his entire Depart- 
ment. 

We recommend a perusal of "Negi'oes in the United States" to 
all our readers, and assure them that they will not find it dry. 
From the figures on "Mortality" and "Home Ownership" they will 
gain more solid encouragement than from the majority of books 
written in behalf of the race during the past ten years. 

We congratulate Mr. Pelham and his colored associates on 
the work they have done and the service they have rendered. — 
From the New York Age, Jun 17, 1915. 

H-x Consul to Michigan. 



the figures and the accuracy of the tables are guaranteed. From these 
tables each individual can draw his own deduction as has the writer. 
That the American Negro has fully demonstrated his capacity 
to develop and in fact live in contact with a civilization representative 
of the highest, and improve is one deduction that can be easily made. ' 

(T) Elmira (N. Y.) Gazette and Gon.'va (.NT. Y.) Tiints. April L'l — 
Here are a few facta. They arc well wortli iliKistinf^. anil stnrinK away 
for future con.sideration. They are important a.-^ido frmn the purposi* 
they will serve in correcting unfortunate nii.sapprehen.sions roKardlnR 
the Nef?ro character derived from certain fiction and moving picture 
representations. 



264 MICHIu^N MANUAL 

Theory after theory built upon speculation as to the race's ability 
to meet the inexorable demands of civilization have crumbled and 
fallen ' and today instead of 4,000,000 there are 10,000,000 struggling 
black men, who "ask not for favors, because they are Negroes, but for 
justice because they are men." 

The advancement of the Negro race in America, in fifty years, 
Is the marvel of the world. ^ No people in a similar interval of time ' 
ever made such wonderful progress upward and onward in the ways of 
civilization. Every authentic investigation of the American Negro's 
condition evidences his physical fitness, his mental progress and his 
moral uplift. 

■ Writing along this line, * Professor Kelly Miller, of Howard 
University, says in his graphic protrayal of the race's climbing:"^ 

The eternal inferiority of the race was assumed as a part of the 
cosmic order of things. History, literature, science, speculative con- 
jectures, and even the Holy Scriptures were ransacked for evidence 
and argument in support of this theory. It was not deemed inconsistent 
with Divine justice and mercy that the curse of servitude to everlast- 
ing generations should be pronounced upon a race because their 
assumed progenitor utilized as an object lesson in temperance the 
indulgent proclivity of an ancient patriarch. Science was placed under 
tribute for the support of the ruling dogma. The Negro's inferiority 
was clearly deduclble from physicial peculiarities. In basing the 
existence of mental, moral, and spiritual qualities upon the shape and 
size of the skull, facial outline, and cephalic configuration, the anti- 
Negro scientists out-distanced the modern psychologists in assuming a 
mechanical equivalent of thought. 

But in spite of scientific demonstration, learned disquisitions, pro- 
hibitive legislation, and Divine intendment, the Negro's nobler nature 
persisted in manifesting itself. The love, sympathy, and tender 
fidelity, and vicarious devotion of the African slave, the high spiritual 
and emotional fervor manifested in the weird wailings and lamenta- 
tions of the plantation melodies, the literary taste of Phylis Wheatly, 
the scientific acum.en of Benjamin Banneker, the persuasive eloquence 
of Frederick Douglass, were but faint indications of the smothered 
mental, moral, and spiritual power. The world has now come to rec- 
ognize that the Negro possesses the same faculties, powers, and 
susceptibilities as the rest of mankind, albeit they have been stunted 
and dwarfed by centuries of supression and ill usage. The Negro, too, 

(1) Columbia (S. C.) State, May 19, 1915 — It covers all the various 
phases of that question and disposes of a great many theories that have 
been unduly accepted and predictions that have been made as to the 
future of the Negroes. 

(2) "Wilkcsbarrc (Pa.) Record, April 14, 1915 — What has been ac- 
complished in this comparatively short time in spite of the handicaps 
is a source of wonderment. It is a most remarkable transformation. 

(3) New Haven (Conn.) Union, April 16, 1915 — In 50 years' rise 
from slavery in not much over a century of life in civilized environment, 
what race of men can show any such development. 

(4) Petersburg (Va.) Index-Appeal, April 14, 1915 — Such figures. 
• • • are calculated to affect very materially the ideas entertained con- 
cerning the Negro by those whites who do not come in contact with 
them. 

(5) Boston Christian Science Monitor, April 24, 1915-— When he 
contrasts what he was • * • with what he is now, he patiently renews 
his climb upward. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 265 

Is gradually awakening to a consciousness of this great truth. The 
common convergence of religious and secular thought is toward the 
universal fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man. This uni- 
versality of kinship implies commonality of powers, possibilities, and 
destiny. 

It is a matter of prime importance for the Negro to feel and to 
convince his fellow men that he posses.ses the inherent qualities and 
therefore the inherent rights that belong to the human race.* 

A quarter of a century ago "Satchell" (Charles S. Morris) then 
a well-known journalist, wrote, and the writer, as editor of the De- 
troit Plaindealer, published the following article, which is as true 
and appropriate today as when first published in 1890: 

I apprehend that some opposition will develop to a separate de- 
partment. The colored people are getting tired of "side shows and 
appointed places;" but it is for those who object to this plan to 
show us a way of displaying our achievements that is open to fewer 
objections. "We are Americans, and should be treated as such," is 
manly; it sounds well, but it does not meet the practical question In 
the case. 

Odium and contempt cling to us as a race, and only as a race 
can we wipe it out. There are too many "special departments" set 
apart to injure us for us to object to one that will benefit us. It will 
be time enough for us to cease to demand credit for our progress 
as a race when others cease to lay all the shortcomings of individuals 
at the door of the race. We don't draw the color line, but we can 
obliterate it, and it v/ould be supreme folly for us to attempt to 
Ignore it. We would only be Americans, but the American people per- 
mit us only to be Negroes. It is, therefore, our business to do all we 
can to make the Negro worthy of respect. We can't do this by allow- 
ing our enemies to blister us with slanders, displaying all our weak- 
nesses, while we help them by concealing all our progress. 

Should not this great people in whose midst we dwell, whose 
civilization is our civilization, whose religion is our religion, whose 

material wealth we have done much to augment, whose national life we 
have given blood and men to preserve— should not they, knowing how 
centuries have wronged us, how nations have robbed us, how history 
has libelled us, how today the world misjudges and despairs of us, 
how we suffer from industrial atrocities in the North and oppression 
in the South, should they not give us this magnificent opportunity to 
vindicate ourselves of the odious and crushing slanders that are 
heaped upon us?* 

When it is realized how far the American Negro has climbed in 

fifty years of freedom it is no wonder that there is a growing confi- 
dence in his future and that the Legislatures of such States as Michigan, 
Illinois, Ohio, in 1915, and New York and Pennsylvania, in 1913, 
representing the advanced thought of this great country, should seek 
to know more of the actual facts ' regarding the race's upward 
tendency. - 

In Michigan as throughout the entire country the American Negro 
has demonstrated his appreciation of freedom, has shown splendid 
capacity of brain and wonderful endurance of strength and muscle. 
Though circumscribed by prejudice and rebuffed at every turn, he is 

• From Servitude to Service, Old South I-.ecturcs: 1905. 

• From the Detroit Plaindealer; 1890. 



266 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

contributing his quota to the destiny of the Republic. Grasping oppor- 
tunities here and there — opportunities that come far too seldom, the 
Negro laborer, the Negro artisan, the Negro professional man, as well 
as the Negro author, inventor and mechanic are factors in moulding 
thought and promoting ideas. '■ 

In Michigan as elsewhere, the census data reveal authors, actors, 
editors, musicians, inventors, civil engineers, teachers, lawyers, and 
doctors, as well as capable business men, skilled mechanics, thrifty 
farmers, and sturdy laborers, who by dint of hard work, growing 
efficiency and character and reputation, have a standing in their own 
communities, with homes and home life, like unto the more favored 
citizen, whose lack of "color" gives him an open sesame in every 
walk of life. 

The human hand is a wonderful organ; and taking the two hands 
together, they are admirably adapted to every kind of action and 
industry, which the strength and condition of man are capable of en- 
gaging in. The hand may be trained but unless it gets the necessary 
practice it can not produce the best results. This fact is best and 
most widely illustrated, daily, throughout the entire country, by the 
usual batting and fielding practice indulged in by the most adept parti- 
cipants in the National game of baseball, and the warming up methods 
used to get the pitcher in condition to speed the ball over the home 
plate. 

This homely application, illustrative of the practice necessary to 
accomplish best results-coordinate the eye, the hand and the brain-re- 
calls some expert testimony, proof positive, of the peculiar circum- 
stances that surround the race and the line of demarcation across 
which the more capable have great difficulty in crossing. 

Under date of .June 10, 1911, the Detroit Informer under the cap- 
tion "If Mendez Was White," gave expression to the thought that if 
Mendez, the "Black Diamond," a noted pitcher, was white he could 
command and receive a bonus of $50,000 to sign a major league con- 
tract. And now four years later a major league manager is quoted by 
the daily press in almost the identical language of the editorial as 
indicated in the following paragraphs: 

NEGROES AS BASEBALL PLAYERS. 

John McGraw, the "Giant" leader, having the courage to bespeak 

his convictions, is quoted under date of June 12, 1915, as saying: 

"If Donaldson were a white man, or if the unwritten law of 
baseball didn't bar Negroes from the major league.s, I would 
give $50,000 for him — and think I was g|etting- a bargain." 
Donaldson, of whom McGraw is testifying, is one of a trio of 

great hurlers lost to the national game by the drawing of the color 

line. He is a member of a serai-pro team in Kansas City, and recently 

(1) New York Press, March IS and Washington Times, IMarch 16, 
1915 — They are encourag-ing skill among the rising generations, so they 
themsclves may produce the things they want, and their increased 
efficiency as a race promotes ambition and stimulates effort. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 267 

pitched thirty innings without allowing a hit or a run— a record with- 
out parallel. Just before establishing his record of pitching thirty 
innings without being hit, he struck out twenty-flve men in a twelve- 
inning game— an average of better than two strikeouts per inning. 

Frank Wickware is another Negro pitcher who would rank with 
Walter Johnson, Joe Woods, and Grover Alexander if he were a 
white man. Wickware performed some marvelous pitching feats in 
and around Schenectady, New York, and has since moved on to 
Chicago where he has become a sensation among the semi-pros. 

In Cuba there is a Negi'o pitcher by the name of Mendez. He'.s 
known as "the black Matty." and his work has been almost as brilliant 
as that of the "Bix Six," of the Giants. 

McGrav/ is not only noted for having the courage of his convic- 
tions but also the courage to put those convictions into action. Some 
years ago, acting as he states he would like to act, in the case of 
Donaldson, he hired and attempted to play Grant, the high-class second 
baseman on his team. 

It may seem an idle dream, but in the liglit of past events, some 
Donaldson, Wickware, Foster, "Joe" Williams, Monroe. Grant, "Home 
Run" Johnson, or Wiley, may be called upon to help win a pennant in 
major league baseball, as the Negro troops were called upon to help 
put down the rebellion after having been at first scorned as soldiers. 

The conditions in major league baseball today are much the same 
as they were in other "war times." No Negroes were wanted on the 
firing line in the early 60's but like "Bill" Buckner, trainer of the 
White Sox, they were welcome in other capacities. 

There were McGraws in those days — men who knew what could 
be achieved by enlisting the loyal black men in the armies of the 
North — like Governor Andrews of Massachusetts and Colonel Shaw 
of the 54th Massachusetts Regiment. It took much blood and treasure 
to break down the barriers of prejudice raised against the Negro as a 
soldier, but break down they did as outlined here: 

PARKER BON— TRAINED SOLDIER. 
At the breaking out of the war of the rebellion, colored men 
were among the first to respond to the call for volunteers and though 
not accepted as soldiers, they wore taken as cnolcs and waitors. Upon 



(1) Seattle (^Vash.) Times, April 2fi, 1915 — The race i.s advaniinc 
at a more rapid ratio than a few years ago was deemed possible. 

(1) World (New York City), April 13, 191.'') — These facts have per- 
hops a casual interest as supplemcntins: and eorrectinp ideas vC Ncpro 
character derived from movintr picture repiesentations. 

(2) Gloucester (Mass.) Times, April IC, 191.'') — There Is present In 
many parts of the country a reRrcttable tendency to form impressions 
of the Negroes as a whole from the irresponsible and indolent mem- 
bers of that race, of which specimens are generally to be found. Any 
race would fare ill if such a test were ai)plied. It is well that ociasion- 
ally the facts regarding the progress of the colored people on a lar^e 
scale should be put before us in order that these false impressions may 
have a corrective. The record of the past is the best prophesy of the 
progress of the future. 



268 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

the formation of Michigan State Volunteers, Parker Bon went to Fort 
Wayne to cook for the officers' mess, and while serving in that 
capacity he spared no pains in gaining all the knowledge of military 
tactics that could be obtained from personal observation of the 
maneuvers of the soldiers at the Fort and close study of the best 
authors upon military movements. When the United States govern- 
ment concluded to accept the services of colored men, Colonel Barnes 
was commissioned to raise a regiment to be known as the 1st Colored 
Regiment State Troops, or the 102nd U. S. C. T. and shortly recruits 
began pouring into Detroit from all parts of the state and sister states. 
It became necessary to select some efficient person to superintend the 
drilling of recruits, and upon the officers of that regiment making 
inquiries among the colored citizens, a petition was prepared by Mr. 
George De Baptiste and signed by Messrs. Lambert, CuUen, Hodge 
and others praying Colonel Barnes to appoint as drill master Mr. 
Parker Bon. He was sent for, examined by a board, proclaimed 
efficient, and urged to enlist. After enlisting, he was promoted with 
the rank and pay of sergeant major of the regiment. The 102nd was 
first assigned to the 9th Army Corps under General Burnside, and 
later transferred to General Rufus Saxton's Division. At the cessa- 
tion of hostilities Mr. Bon was honorably discharged and received 
many recognitions of his faithfulness as an officer and soldier. Enter- 
ing civil life again he took up the business of dealer in old paper, an 
occupation which brought him considerable money. Mr. Bon was born 
In Cincinnati in 1837, and came to Detroit in 1856. 

The fact that Negroes are not found in larger numbers in cer- 
tain vocations does not furnish a very accurate index of the capability 
of the race; and certainly should not tend to prove non-adaptability of 
this element of our cosmopolitan population to succeed along such 
lines. The peculiar circumstances which surround the race should 
be taken into account. However, despite these peculiar circumstances 
and in defiance of the spirit of prohibition, here and there, we find 
Negroes in almost all the vocations and avocations of life, and these 
few demonstrate, beyond a doubt, that the "black" hand can be 
trained to make progress in the useful arts and in the .sciences. • 

Considering the obstacles and the unwritten laws which tend to 
shut the door of opportunity in most of the higher vocations, the 
Negro race is steadily advancing; and, though slowly, yet steadily and 
valiantly beating down the artificial barriers, set up In unreasonable 
prejudice and maintained in selfish aggrandizement. The fact that 
the race has produced its Banneker, its Tanner, its Granville Wood, its 
Dunbar; is proof that there is neither patent nor latent defects in the 
organism of the "black" hand nor the composition of the "black" 
brain. 



(1) ]3o.ston (iMa.s.s.) Post, April 16, 1915 — A race that can accomplish 
so much ♦ • * in 50 yoars from slavery has a risht to feel that its good 
as well as its bad dualities — and what race has not some of the latter? — 
deserve public att<>ntion and appreciation. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



269 




Dr. S. L. Carson, Assistant Surgeon at Frccdmen's Hospital at Washington, a Product 

of Ann Arbor. 



270 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

OUR PROFESSIONAL PIONEERS. 

Among the first of the professional callings to be entered by race 
representatives were the teaching corps and the medical branches. To 
the former Detroit early gave sanction and approval and from 1868 
to 1915, the pioneer, Miss Fannie M. Richards, who taught the writer 
his a, b, c's, was an efficient teacher in the primary grades in the 
Public Schools of Detroit. In the latter class was the elder Joseph 
Ferguson, who fifty years ago had the confidence and support of his 
fellov/ townsmen and administered not only to the sick and afflicted 
of his own race, but served as City Physician for the Second, Third, 
Fourth and Fifth wards in Detroit for several years, in the early '70's. 
Great credit is due these pioneers for "making good" when failure 
would have spelled not only failure but "Negro incapacity" as well. 
Miss Richards, who was retired on pension during the past year, has 
lived to see the illiteracy of the race reduced from 29.5 to 3.5 in her 
home city, and the teaching corps increase from 1, in a separate school, 
to 17 in the mixed schools. 

Dr. Joseph Ferguson, himself the first physician in Detroit and 
the first to receive an official appointment as such, and instrumental 
in the appointment of his eldest son, John C, as the first letter carrier 
in Detroit and afterwards a prominent physician in Richmond, Va., 
did not live to see his second son, William W., the first member of a 
Michigan legislature and the owner of a large printing plant in 
Detroit. 

Following where Dr. Ferguson lead, the Negro physicians of Mich- 
igan have won and hold a high place. Mastering not only the rudi- 
ments but the full scientific scope of the learned professions, in many 
cases they are reaping just and merited material reward. No more 
apt illustration can be cited than the following: 

CARSON— SKILLFUL SURGEON. 
Dr. Simeon L. Carson, one of nine children, was born in North 
Carolina. His father moved to Ann Arbor when he was two weeks 
old. He is truly an educational product of Ann Arbor, having received 
his academic education from Ann Arbor High School, and his degree 
in Medicine from the University of Michigan. Three months after 
receiving his "M. D.," he was appointed a physician in the Indian 
Service. In 1909, after passing another examination with high rating, 
he was appointed Assistant Surgeon in Chief of Freedmen's Hospital, 
at Washington, D. C. Dr. Carson holds the world's time record for 
the operation of Caesarian section— having performed this delicate 
operation complete in 14 minutes. He holds an enviable reputation 
for successful abdominal operations in local anesthesia, and has as- 
sisted in their work, such noted surgeons as Dr. John B. Deaver, of 
Philadelphia; Dr. John T. Finney, of Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, Md.; 
Dr. Horsley, of Richmond, Va. He married Miss Carol Clark, of De- 
troit, Mich., and a fascinating gir) and boy are the light of his fine 
home in Washington, D. C. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 271 

Michigan's great educational institution— broad alike in its curri- 
culum and its policy of administration— has also given to the educa- 
tional world many men and women of the race who have gained and 
maintain high places in the world of pedagogy. The following par- 
agraphs are instances in point: 

Mrs. Emily Harper-Williiams, born in Detroit, graduated from 
Detroit High School, and in 1896 from the University of Michigan. 
She taught school in Washington, D. C, until her marriage to Prof. 
W. T. B. Williams, of Hampton Institute, which place has since been 
her home. 

Mrs. Mabel Harper-Keemer, graduated from Detroit High School 
and attended the University of Michigan, from which she went to 
Washington to teach in the public schools, which position she held 
till her marriage to Dr. E. B. Keemer, Professor of Pharmacy at How- 
ard University School of Medicine. They have three exceptionally 
bright children. 

Edwin Harper, born in Detroit, studied law in Prof. Augustus 
Straker's office, and is now City Milk Inspector of Chicago. Has fam- 
ily of five children. The eldest. Miss Emily, graduated in June from 
High School and expects to enter Howard University this fall. 

Mrs. Gertrude Harper-Webb, born in Detroit, graduated from De- 
troit High School, and later entered Provident Hospital, Chicago, to 
study the profession of nursing, from which institution she graduated 
in 1899. She was head nurse of Frederick Douglas Hospital, in Phila- 
delphia, and later served three years in the Government Hospital at 
Blackfoot, Idaho. She married Mr. Charles L. Webb, court reporter, 
of Chicago, Illinois. They make Washington, D. C, their home. 

The "spirit of Michigan" is nowhere better exemplified than in the 
administration of its great educational institution. Merit there gets 
the stamp of approval, no matter what the color of the student's skin 
nor the texture of his hair. Negroes who lead their classes in "the 
U. of M.," are recommended as fit and able not only as bread winners, 
but as vindicators of the wisdom of their training. 

Si quaeris exemplum amcenum circumspice. 

PELHAM— CIVIL ENGINEER. 

Detroit, Journal, February 6, 1895. 

The funeral of Fred B. Pelham took place this afternoon from the 
home of his parents, 223 Alfred street. Rev. John M. Henderson, of 
New York, who was a friend of the young man, conducted the serv- 
ices. 

Mr. Pelham occupied a high place in the life of the colored people 
of the city by reason of his great natural abilities and attainments. 
He was born here 30 years ago, and went through the public schools. 
From the high school he went to the University of Michigan. He 
developed there a pronounced aptitude for matliematics and as a re- 
sult was graduated in 1887 from the engineering course at the head 
of his class. Upon his graduation, Prof. Greene very warmly recom- 



272 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 




^% "I 





-1 ■ ..--..>/« 



Fred B. Pelham, Civil Engineer. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 




274 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 







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FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



275 



mended him to the Michigan Central Railroad Company and predicted 
high honors for him in his profession. The railroad company gave 
him a position as assistant civil engineer, which he held up to the 
time of his death. During his service with the Michigan Central 
Company, he built some 20 bridges along the road. One bridge at 
Dexter, Michigan, is a skew arch bridge. There is only one like it In 
the country. It was planned and constructed by Mr. Pelham. Mr. 
Pelham also did considerable work for the Detroit Citizens' Street Rail- 
way Company. Ex-Manager J. D. Hawks speaks very highly of Mr. 
Pelham's assistance in changing some of the curves of the tracks. 
Among the officers and employes of the railroad company Mr. Pelham 
was a favorite for his quiet and gentlemanly demeanor, and his thor- 
ough self-reliance on his own mental equipment. Chief Engineer 
Torrey and Henry Russel, the attorney for the road, were among his 
sincerest friends. 

Mr. Pelham was a member of the Michigan Engineering Society, 
of the Michigan Central branch of the Y. M. C. A., of the Maccabees 
and a teacher in the Bethel A. M. E. Church Sunday school. 

Dr. Fred P. Barrier, of Alexandria, Va , son of Mrs. Delia A. Bar- 
rier, of Detroit, after his graduation from the Detroit High School, 
took a course in dentistry at the Howard Medical School, and is now 
superintendent of the dental infirmary of that well known medical in- 
stitution and a lecturer on dental anatomy. As an evidence of his 
ability to "make good" it can be noted that, accompanied by his wife, 
formerly Miss Tancil, of Alexandria, Va., he motored in his Michigan 
made "Reo" from Washington, D. C, to Detroit and Chicago, in Aug- 
ust, 1915, to attend the exhibition and the National Medical Associa- 




Joscph H. Dickinson. 



276 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

tlon convention in the latter city, and visit tiome folks. Accompany- 
ing him also were Miss Harriett Barrier, his sister, and Robert A, Pel- 
ham his uncle, also on his way to attend the Michigan exhibit at 
Chicago. 

MICHIGAN LEADS IN INVENTIONS. 

In the field of invention Michigan Negroes have not only kept 
abreast of the general advancement of the race along this line, but 
have set the pace and can rightly lay claim to the most prolific 
Negro inventor, Mr. Elijah McCoy, whose name more than that of any 
other race representative appears on specifications in the patent oflBce. 
Mr. McCoy, as will be seen by reference to the accompanying list of 
Michigan inventors, has to his credit in the neighborhood of 50 pat- 
ents. The first, dated July 15, 1872, and the last to come to notice, 
April 20, 1915. 

To Mr. Henry E. Baker, of Washington, D. C, a special examiner 
In the patent oflBce, the thanks of a grateful people are due for the 
compilation from the records, after much research, a list of more than 
1,000 Negro inventors. In a pamphlet entitled "The Colored In- 
ventor, A Record of Fifty Years," Mr. Baker says of another Michigan 
man: 

"Another very interesting' instance of an inventor whose 
genius for creating new things is constantly active, producing 
results that express themselves in terms of dollars for himself 
and others, is that of Mr. Joseph Hunter Dickinson, of New Jer- 
sey. Mr. Dickinson's specialty is in the line of musical instru- 
ments, particularly the piano. He began more than fifteen 
years ago to invent devices for automatically playing the piano, 
and is at present in the employ of a large piano factory, where 
his various inventions in piano-player mechanism are eagerly 
adopted in the construction of some of the finest player pianos 
on the market. He has more than a dozen patents to his credit 
already, and is still devoting his energies to that line of inven- 
tion. 

"The company with which he is identified is one of the very 
largest corporations of its kind in the world, and it is no 
little distinction to have one of our race occupy so significant 
a relation to it, and to hold it by the sheer force of a trained 
and active intellect." 

Mr. Dickinson was born June 22, 1855. He attended school in 
Detroit. At the age of 15 he enlisted in the United States Revenue 
Service. At 17 he entered the employ of the Clough & Warren Organ 
Company at Detroit. In 1880, he married Miss Eva Gould, of Lexing- 
ton, Michigan, and two years later formed a partnership with his 
father-in-law, known as the Dickinson-Gould Organ Company, for the 
manufacture of parlor and chapel organs. This firm sent to the New 
Orleans Exposition a large organ as an exhibit of the Negro in man- 
ufacturing. Prior to this, for the Centennial Exposition, in 1876, Mr. 
Dickinson helped to construct a large combination organ for the 
Clough & Warren Organ Company, which received a diploma and 
medal. He also built and finished two organs for the royal family of 
Portugal. His early specialty was a pipe organ of a new method, 
and he superintended the construction of a number of them; the 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 277 

Christian Church. St. Matthews P. E. Church, and the Church of the 
Sacred Heart, all of Detroit, installed organs of this type, constructed 
under his supervision. >.iui,ieu 

Mr. Dicldnson also served two terms in the Michigan Legislature 
as a representative from the Detroit district. 




Senator William Alden Smith. 



278 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

"SENATORIAL COURTESY" IN MICHIGAN. 

Mr. Turner Byrd, Jr., of Williamsville, Cass county, is of record 
as the first Negro in Michigan to take out letters patent. Inventing 
a rein holder, for harness, he obtained a patent on the same, February 
6, 1872. Within a few days after this patent was granted, another 
was issued to a Cass county citizen, Mr. Thomas Jefferson Martin, of 
Dowagiac, for an improvement in fire extinguishers. Mr. Martin was 
one of the stalwart pioneers and race leaders in Michigan. As chair- 
man of the first convention of colored men, held at Battle Creek, in 
1860, Mr. Martin gave early evidence of his sterling qualities of mind 
and heart. No race movement was without his support and the young 
men gladly took counsel at his words. Dowagiac is the birth-place 
of the Hon. William Alden Smith, now United States Senator. Upon 
his return to celebrate in the town of his birth just after his first elec- 
tion as senator, Mr. Smith paid Mr. Martin a high compliment, and 
at the same time gave an apt illustration of the "spirit of Michigan" 
as exemplified in "old Cass." When met at the train by the committee 
and his former townsmen, he requested the first hour to himself. He 
at once disappeared. Questioned later as to where he spent the hour, 
he replied: "With my good friend Thomas Jefferson Martin." Dur- 
ing the Senator's boyhood days, Mr. Martin's shop was located across 
the street from the town hall, and "William Smith" was always wel- 
come to stand inside, view "the celebrities" and listen to the music 
of the bands of the traveling shows that visit the town. And in his 
exalted position he did not forget the friend of his childhood, Thomas 
Jefferson Martin. 

The Negro in Michigan, like the Negro in the West, emigrated 
from the South, and his ancestry is of southern parentage. The Negro 
population of America today is more dense in the Southern states, 
though through emigration that portion of the north and west has 
very materially increased during the past fifty years. During that 
period, however, the general increase in population of the western 
country has been of so rapid a nature and so cosmopolitan in its 
complexion, that though the Negro has emigrated in considerable 
numbers, the number has not been sufficiently large to show a very 
great increase in the general ratio, and yet this goodly number of pio- 
neers in the Great Republic of the West has been steadily forging 
ahead and has entered, by slow and steady blows, a wedge in the 
obstruction— "American prejudice"— making it possible for others of 
the race to follow into that section and find an environment still more 
favorable to race development and their status as American citizens. 



OCCUPATIONS 

The Gainful Pursuits Engaged In 



BY 



Michigan Afro- Americans 

The statistics of occupations shown here relate to gainful workers 
10 years of age and upward. The term "gainful work" includes all 
workers, except women doing housework in their own homes, without 
salary or wages, and having no other employment, and children work- 
ing at home merely on genenil housework on chores, or at odd times, 
or other work. The statistics shown in General Tables I and II were 
enumerated at the Thirteenth Census taken by the Bureau of the 
Census, as of April 15, 1910. The inquiry with respect to occupations, 
among other returns, required statements as to the "trade or profes- 
sion of or particular kind of work" done by each person engaged in 
gainful labor; and the "general nature of industry, business, or estab- 
lishment," in which the person worked. 

The questions concerning occupations were five of the 32 item.'^ 
of inquiry included in tlie population schedule to be answered, so far 
as practicable, for each person. From decade to decade, since the firsi 
Federal census of occupations in 1820, it is claimed that there ha.s 
been a gradual improvement in the occupation returns and that the 
improvement in the returns for 1910, as compared with those in 1900. 
was far greater than at any preceding decade. 

Chapter I, Volume IV, Population, Occupation Statistics, 1910, 
stated under the head of "Enumeration": "The occupations of the 
Negroes of the South were less carefully returned by the enumerators 
than were the occupations of the whites. In general, there was too 
great a tendency among the enumerators to return a gainful occupa- 
tion for every Negro, especially for every woman and child. While it 
is well know-n that the Negro women and children in the South work 
in the fields much more than do white women and children in any 
section of the country, still the returns showed that frequently "gain- 
ful" occupations were returned for Negro women and chi'dren in the 
South v/lio. elsewho'-p. wonH "ot bivo boon considered painfully em- 
ployed. ♦ * * For these reasons, probably too many Negro persons 
are reported as gainfu'ly employed." 



280 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 



In 1890 the card system of tabulation was adopted by the Bureau 
of the Census. Under this system, by which the population and mor- 
tality statistics are tabulated, the various details as to color, age, sex, 
parentage, occupations, etc., are transferred from the schedule to a 
card 6%x3% inches in size, by means of a mechanical punch, the 
position of the hole on the card indicating the particular fact to be 
recorded. The cards thus punched are first run through a verification 
machine which throws out all inconsistencies and also provides a 
count for subsequent checking purposes; next they are separated into 
classes of groups by an automatic sorting machine which will take 
care of 300 cards a minute; then, depending upon requirements, they 
are run through a machine which counts them at the rate of 500 a 
minute; and, finally, they are run through an electric tabulating ma- 
chine, capable of handling from 350 to 400 cards a minute, which not 
only counts the cards themselves, but records each of the items of 
information indicated on them. 

It is worthy of note here that of the Negro clerks assigned to duty 
on these machines in 1910, several "starred." Miss Eva B. Price, of 
Georgia, now the wife of a successful physician of Reedsville, N. C, 
held the record for the punching machine, while Messrs. Chas. C. 
Gibson, of New York, and Thomas H. Hutchins and Charles W. White, 
both of Arkansas, were among the most adept operators of the sorting 
machines. 















A CENSUS CARD. 




















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The position of the dark spots in the printed outline of a census 
card shown here indicates that the person to whom the card refers 
resided in Maynard, Mass.; was a son of the head of the family in 
which he lived; mulatto; 20 years of age; native; single; spoke Eng- 
lish; was out of employment on April 15, 1910; was out of employ- 
ment between 7 and 13 weeks in 1909; could read and write; did not 
attend school; and was not a veteran of the Civil War. The four spots 
in a row at the upper right hand of the card indicating the punch 
symbols, 0-0 O-O, for agricultural laborer. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 281 

OCCUPATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES. 
Of the total number of 7,317,922 Negroes 10 years of age and over 
enumerated at the Thirteenth Census, 5,192,535, or 71 per cent, were 
reported as gainfully employed. Of the Negro males 10 years of age 
and over, 87.4 per cent were gainfully employed, and of the Negro 
families 54.7 per cent. 

PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS OF NEGRO MALES AND FEMALES 
IN THE UNITED STATES: 1910. 

Tabic 1 Per cent 

Sex ond Occupation. Number. Distribution. 

Males 3,178,554 100.0 

Farm laborers 981,922 30.9 

Farmers 793,509 25.1 

Laborers — Building: and hand trades 166.374 5.2 

Laborers — Saw and planing mills 91,181 2.9 

Laborers — Steam railroad 86,380 2.7 

Porters, except in stores 51,471 1.6 

Draymen, teamsters, and expressmen 50,689 1.6 

Coal mine operatives 39,530 1.2 

Laborers, porters, and helpers in stores 36,906 1.2 

Waiters 35.664 1.1 

Laborers — Road and street building and repairing- 33,914 1.1 

Cooks 32,453 1.0 

Deliverymen — Stores 30,511 1.0 

Carpenters 30,464 1.0 

Janitors and sextons 22,419 0.7 

Barbers, hairdressers, and inanicurists 19,446 0.6 

Retail dealers 17,659 0.6 

Clergymen 17,427 0.5 

Longshoremen and stevedores 16,379 0.5 

Laborers — Brick, tile, and terra-cotta factories. . 15,792 0.5 

Firemen (except locomotive and fire department) 14,927 0.5 

Lumbermen and raftsmen 14,005 0.4 

Laborers — Blast furnaces and rolling mills 13,519 0.4 

Hostlers and stable hands 12,965 0.4 

Laborers — Public service 12,767 0.4 

Brick and stone masons 12,401 0.4 

Garden laborers 11.801 0.4 

Laborers — Domestic and personal service 10,380 0.3 

All other occupations 500,699 15.8 

Females 2,013,981 100.0 

Farm laborers 967,837 48.1 

Laundresses (not in laundry) 361.551 17.9 

Cooks 205,939 10.2 

Farmers 79,309 3.9 

Dressmakers and seamstresses (not in factory).. 38,148 1.9 

Teachers (school) 22,441 1.1 

Nurses (not trained) 17,874 0.9 

Chambermaids 14.071 0.7 

Laundry operatives 12.196 0.6 

Housekeepers and stewardesses 10,021 0.5 

All other occupations 284.594 14.1 

Table 1 consists of a list of 28 leading occupations for Negro 
males and of 10 for Negro females, in descending order of their 
numerical importance. The table includes all the occupations giving 
employment to as many as 10,000 Negroes of either sex 10 years of 
age and over, and the males in the occupations in the list form 84.2 
per cent of all the gainfully employed Negro males, while the Negro 
females included constitute 85.9 per cent of the total for that sex. 

Included in the persons gainfully employed and shown in the 
table as "all other occupations" are 404 photographers, 361 males 



282 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

and 43 females; 68 female clergymen; 779 lawyers, 2 of whom 
are females; 146 editors, 134 males and 12 females; 478 dentists, 452 
males and 26 females; 3,077 physicians, 2,744 males and 333 females; 
2433 trained nurses, 275 males and 2,158 females; 3,374 professional 
musicians, 2,769 males and 605 females; 56 architects, 53 males and 3 
females; 116 chemists, 112 males and 4 females; 242 professors in col- 
leges and universities, 169 males and 73 females; 6,991 male school 
teachers. In 1910 thv^^^e engaged in professional service were 1.3 per 
cent of all Negro persons engaged in gainful occupations. 

The occupation returns for 1910 also showed 26,295 Federal, state, 
county, city and town officials and employees and persons engaged in 
the national defense and in the maintenance of law and order. This 
class, included in "all other occupations" in the accompanying table, 
constituted 0.5 per cent of all Negro persons engaged in gainful occu- 
pations. 

In 1910 Negroe,j constituted 10.2 per cent of all persons in the 
United States 10 years of age and over, and were 13.6 per cent of all 
of those who were engaged in gainful occupations. Compared with the 
results shown for 1900, there was a slight decrease in the per cent 
distribution both for the Negro population ten years of age and over 
and for those engaged in gainful occupations. This decrease, how- 
ever, may be accounted for by taking into account the great number 
of immigrants coming into the country during the decade. On the 
other hand, there was a considerable increase in the proportion whfch 
the persons of both bexes and of each sex engaged in gainful occupa- 
tions constituted of all persons of the same sex or class 10 years of 
age and over, in 1910 and 1900, respectively. The increase for both 
sexes was 8.8 per c«at; for males, 3.3 per cent, and for females, 14.0 
per cent. In other words a larger proportion of Negro persons 10 
years of age and ov^r was engaged in gainful occupations in 1910 than 

in 1900. 

MICHIGAN STATISTICS. 

Prior to 1910 . le classification of occupations was under five 
general heads, namely, agricultural pursuits, manufacturing and 
mechanical pursuits, trade and transportation, professional service, 
and domestic service. To provide a more accurate and comprehensive 
classification these i^eneral heads or divisions were increased, as 
shown in General Jtible I, namely, agricultural, forestry, and animal 
husbandry; extraction of minerals; manufacturing and mechanical 
industries; transportation; trade; public service; professional service; 
domestic service, and clerical occupations. 

The changes made necessary by this re-classification preclude the 
actual comparison of the figures shown in General Tables I and II for 
1910 with the totals in similar tables for 1900. 

A careful study of Table 2 indicates a decrease in the number, as 
well as in the per cent of Negroes engaged in domestic and personal 
service in Michigan, accounted for by the fact of their employment in 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 283 

larger numbers in those industries and occupations which require 
more or less skill, offer larger remuneration, and afford greater oppor- 
tunities for advancement. 



NUMBER AND PROPORTION OF NEGROES IN THE GENERAL 
DIVISIONS OF OCCUPATIONS: 1910 AND 1900. 



Table 2 The State Detroit Grand Rapids 

Division. No. Pet. No. Pet. Xo. Pet. 

All occupations 8,G44 100.0 3,310 100.0 358 100.0 

Agriculture, forestry and 

animal industry 1.385 ICO 7 0.2 2 0.6 

Extraction of minerals... 50 0.6 1 0.3 
Manufacturing- and me- 
chanical pursuits 1.985 23.0 C30 19.1 93 26.0 

Transportation 581 6.7 292 8.8 29 S.l 

Trade 366 4.2 208 6.3 13 3.6 

Public service 66 0.8 34 1.0 2 0.6 

Professional service 294 .•!.4 14'J 4.5 13 3.6 

Domestic service 3,799 43.9 1,910 r.7.7 19S 55.3 

Clerical occupations 118 1.4 80 2.4 7 1.9 

All occupations 7,188 100.0 2,07 1 100.0 294 100.0 

Agricultural pursuits ... 1,328 18.5 4 0.2 1 0.3 

Professional service 186 2.6 SO 3.9 9 3.1 

Domestic and personal 

service 4,235 58.9 1,492 71.9 230 78.2 

Trade and transportation 637 8.9 284 13.7 30 10.2 
Manufacturing and me- 
chanical puisuits Sri2 II 1 211 10. .J 24 ^.2 

A study of the population and of the occupation returns for the 
state of Michigan for the years 1900 and 1910 develops the following 
facts : 

1. An increase of 1,299 in number of the Negro inhabitants of the 
state for the decade 1900-1910, distributed by sex as follows: Males, 
787; females, 512. 

2. An increase for the decade of 1,418 in the number of Negro 
persons 10 years of age and over; 822 of such increase being males, 
and 596 being females. 

3. An increase of 1,456 in the number of Negro persons 10 years 
of age and over engaged in gainful occupations: 1.001 males, 455 
females. 

4. That in 1910, both as regards the number of persons 10 years 
of age and over in the general Negro population and the number of 
such persons engaged in gainful occupations the returns showed a gain 
for both of substantially 5 per cent. 

5. That, for the state, for both sexes, 59.4 per cent of all Negro 
persons 10 years of age and over are engaged in gainful occupations; 
the percentage for each sex being 84.3 for males and 31.li for females. 

While the returns show a relatively small increase in the general 
Negro population of the state, an analysis of the occupation returns 
develops the fact that the Michigan Negro not only has hold his own 
but has accomplished a considerable and substantial gain, particularly 
in those div'sions of occupations requiring more or less skill. 



284 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

The returns also show that it is in the larger cities and industrial 
centers, where competition is keenest and the conditions of labor the 
most exacting, that the Negro has made his greatest gains. The facts 
brought out by the returns would also seem to warrant the statement 
that as regards the per cent distribution for the various divisions of 
occupation those of the Negro show a uniformly increasing tendency 
toward an approximation of those shown for the state as a whole. 

A study of the occupation statistics of the United States (1) cov- 
ering the thirty-year period, 1880-1910, discloses the fact that there 
has been a steady decline in the proportion of persons engaged in agri- 
cultural pursuits and in domestic and personal service, with a corre- 
sponding increase in the number and proportion of persons engaged 
in trade and transportation and in manufacturing and mechanical pur- 
suits, the increase in professional service being, obviously, less, but 
relatively as great. The same tendency obtained for the population of 
Michigan, there being but slight difference between the rate of decline 
for the Negroes and that for the whites. Therefore, it will be observed 
that the changes which have taken place among the Negro population 
gainfully employed have been in almost every respect similar to those 
which have occurred throughout the United States as a whole. 

Further study of the occupation statistics published by the Bureau 
of the Census brings out the fact that the percentage (84.3) of Negro 
males 10 years of age and over gainfully employed is exceeded only 
by the percentage (90.4) shown for foreign born males 10 years of age 
and over and gainfully employed, the percentages (75.7 and 74.9, 
respectively) for both those of native white of native parentage and 
native white of foreign or mixed parentage being considerably less 
than that for the Negroes. A like condition obtains in the case of 
Negro and white females 10 years of age and over gainfully employed. 

With the exception of one state. South Dakota (31.1), Michigan 
shows a smaller proportion of Negro women engaged in gainful occu- 
pations — the per cent being 31.2 — than any other state in the Union. 

Table 3 shows the total Negro population of the State, Detroit, 
Grand Rapids and the balance of the state for 1900 and 1910, with the 
number of Negroes 10 years of age and over in the state and the 
named subdivisions, engaged in gainful occupation, together with the 
per cent such persons 10 years of age and over engaged in gainful 
occupations bear to the total population and to the population 10 years 
of age and over. 



(1) See Vol. IV, Population, Occupation Statistics, 13th Census, is- 
sued by the Bureau ol' the Census. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



285 



TABLE 3 


ensus 


1 Negro pop- 
Total Negro 1 ulation 10 


Persons 10 years of age and over 
engaged in gainful occupations. 


Area, Sex and C 






Per cent of 
Negro pop- 
ulation 10 


year. 




population . 


years of age 




Per cent of 








and over. 


Nuinljir. 


total Negro 
1 population. 


years of 

age and 

over. 


The State 














Both sexes 
















1910 


17,11.'-) 


14.5,-)7 


S.044 


50.5 


59 4 


Male 


1900 


15,810 


13,139 


7,188 


45.4 


54.7 




1910 


9,007 


7,727 


6,511 


72 3 


84.3 


Female 


1900 


8,220 


6,905 


5,510 


67.0 


79.8 




1910 


S,108 


6,830 


2,133 


26.3 


31 2 




1900 


7,590 


6,234 


1,0S7 


22.1 


26.9 


Detroit 














Both sexes 
















1910 


5.741 


5,068 


3,310 


57.6 


65 3 


Male 


1900 


4,111 


3.494 


2,074 


50.4 


59.3 




1910 


2,98.5 


2,643 


2.350 


78.7 


88 9 


Female 


1900 


2,014 


1.701 


1.471 


73.0 


86.5 




1910 


2,750 


2.425 


900 


34.8 


39 


Grand Rapids 


1900 


2,097 


1,793 


603 


28.7 


33.0 


Both sexes 
















1910 


665 


584 


358 


53.8 


61.3 


Male 


1900 


604 


532 


294 


48.7 


55.3 




1910 


347 


307 


277 


79.8 


90.2 


Female 


1900 


298 


261 


210 


70.5 


80.4 




1910 


318 


277 


81 


25.5 


29.2 




1900 


306 


271 


84 


27.4 


31. U 


Balance of State 














Both sexes 
















1910 


10,709 


8,905 


4,970 


40.5 


55.9 


Male 


1900 


11,101 


9,113 


4,820 


43.4 


52.0 




1910 


5,675 


4,777 


3,884 


OS. 4 


81.3 




1900 


5,908 


4,943 


3.829 1 


64.8 


77.5 


Female 
















1910 


5.034 


4,128 


1.092 


21.7 


20 t 




1900 


5.193 


4.170 


901 


19 1 


23.7 



Table 4 shows for the cities in the state with 25,000 to 100,000 
population, the total Negro population for 1910, the number of Negroes 
10 years of age and over, and the per cent such person bears to the 
total Negro population and the Negro population 10 years of age and 
over. 



286 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 



TABLE 4 


Total Negro 

population 

1910. 


Negro pop- 
ulation 10 

years of age 

and over. 

1910. 


Persons IC 
engaged i 


) years of age 
n gainful occ 

Per cent of 
total Negro 
population. 


; and over 
-upations. 


Area and Sex. 


Number. 


Per cent of 
Negro pop- 
ulation 10 
years of 
age and 
over. 


Battle Creek 

Both sexes 

Male 

Female 


575 
283 
292 


484 
236 
248 


303 
198 
105 


52.7 
69.9 
35.9 


62.6 
83.9 
42.3 


Bay City 


160 
80 
80 


135 
71 
64 


78 
63 
15 


48.8 
78.8 
18.8 


57.8 


Male 

Female 


88.7 
23.4 


Flint 

Both sexes 


397 

217 

. 180 


338 
187 
151 


175 

149 

26 


44.1 
68.7 
14.4 


51.8 


Male 

Female 


79.7 
12.2 


Jackson 

Both sexes 

Male 

Female 


354 
188 
166 


323 

177 
146 


220 

157 

03 


62.1 
83.5 
37.9 


68.1 
88.7 
43.2 


Kalamazoo 

Both sexes 

Male 

Female 


685 
360 
325 


585 
309 
276 


372 
255 
117 


54.3 
70.8 
36.0 


63.6 
82.5 
42.4 


Lansing 

Both sexes 


354 
174 
180 


300 
141 
159 


160 

117 

43 


45.2 
67.2 
23.9 


53.3 


Male 

Female 


82.9 
27.0 


Saginaw 

Both sexes 

Male 

Female 


313 

164 
149 


281 
146 
SI5 


184 
130 
54 


58.8 
79.3 
36.2 


65. 5 
89.0 
40.0 



Dividing these breadwinners into two well-defined classes — (1) the 
productive or sustaining class, and (2) the regulating or governing 
class — we have the following table, numbered 5: 



Table 5 

Division. Total 

All pursuits S.644 

Sustaining- pursuits 8,166 

Agrricultural, forestry, and animal husbandry 1,385 

Extraction of minerals 50 

Manufacturinpr and mechanical pursuits 1,0.S5 

Transportation 581 

Trade 366 

Domestic and personal service 3,799 

Rcffulating- pursuits 478 

Professional service 294 

Public service 66 

Clerical occupations 118 



Males 


Females 


6,511 


2,133 


6,13.S 


2,031 


1,333 


52 


.'■lO 




1,779 


206 


580 


1 


348 


18 


2,045 


1,754 


376 


102 


217 


77 


66 




93 


25 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 287 

In 1900 to every 83 Negroes engaged in the sustaining class there 
was 1 in the governing class, as against 20 to 1 among the whites in 
the entire country. In 1910, in Michigan, the total number of gainful 
workers in the state was divided as follows: 926.815 in tho productive 
class and 186,183 in the regulating class, or 83.3 per cent in the former 
and 16.7 in the latter. 

Michigan's Negro "breadwinners," numbering 8,644 persons, had 
8,166 or 94.5 per cent in the .sustaining clas.s and 478 or 5.5 per cent in 
the governing class. A substantial gain and one calculated to lend 
ecouragement and hope to the entire race in their onward progress. 

If statistics were available to indicate the non-successful, of all 
classes, in the "higher callings," it would develop that there are no 
more failures among Negroes in those pursuits, than among the rep- 
resentatives of the other elements of our cosmopolitan population. 

The figures, however, show that the race, neither in Michigan or 
elsewhere, has its quota in the professional pursuits; that there is still 
room at the top; and that the higher education of aspiring and capable 
young men and women of the race is justified. 

In agriculture, as in many of the trades and professions, Michigan 
Negroes have demonstrated their ability to control the forces of 
nature. With 640 farms operated by them in the state, the 1,385 per- 
sons engaged in agricultural pursuits (Occupation, General Tables I 
and II) are distributed over the state, by counties, as shown in Table 6: 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 



TABLE 6 



COUNTY. 



Total. 



Allegan . 
Antrim . 
Barry. . 

Bay 

Benzie. . 



Berrien ... 
Branch. . . , 
Calhoun. . . 

Cass 

Charlevoi.x . 



Cheboygan 
Chippewa. . 
Clinton . . . . 
Crawford. . 
Delta 



Eaton 

Emmet 

Genesee 

Gladwin 

Grand Traverse . 



Gratiot . . 
Hillsdale. 
Huron. . . 
Ingham . . 
Ionia. . . . 



Iosco 

Isabella. . . . 
Jackson . . . . 
Kalamazoo. 
Kalkaska. . 



Kent 

Lapeer.. . 
Leelanau. . 
Lenawee. . 
Livingston. 



Manistee.. 
Mecosta. . 
Midland. . 
Missaukee. 
Monroe. . . 



Montcalm. 
Muskegon . 
Newaygo. . 
Oakland. . 
Oceana. . . 



Ontonagon . 
Osceola. . . . 
Oscoda. . . . 
Ottawa. . . . 
Saginaw. . . 



St. Joseph. 
Sanilac. . . . 
Shiawassee . 
Tuscola . . . . 



Van Buren . 
Washtenaw. 

Wayne 

Wexford. . . 



Number 
of farms. 



640 



48 
3 
4 
3 

7 

23 
3 

11 

171 

4 

2 
1 
6 
1 
1 

3 
1 
2 
4 
2 

11 
2 
1 
5 
1 

1 
27 
5 
5 
1 

12 
1 
5 
3 
1 

5 
35 
19 

1 
10 

25 
5 
2 
3 
3 

1 
3 
1 
1 
1 

3 
2 
1 
2 

78 
26 
30 



FARM ACREAGE. 



Total 



45,331 



2.986 
268 
340 
145 
780 

1,313 

149 

554 

13,515 

243 

80 

80 

542 

120 

10 

276 

40 

80 

380 

224 

729 
42 
40 

419 
80 

120 

2,471 

202 

245 

40 

522 

16 

514 

111 

7 

365 

2,773 

1,291 

38 

861 

1,667 

134 

273 

29 

100 

80 
200 
320 

50 
5 

148 

200 

10 

60 

4.990 

1.712 

1,7.')7 

585 



Improved. 



32,260 



2,270 
185 
250 
131 

458 

1,137 

121 

430 

10,420 

140 

50 

20 

182 

48 

3 

180 
40 
80 

141 
64 

569 
35 
25 

337 
66 

30 

1,550 

180 

222 

40 

361 

16 

235 

103 

7 

128 

1.599 

729 

5 

605 

1.168 
85 
50 
29 
68 

8 
30 
80 
50 

5 

114 

180 

10 

36 

1. 000 

1,546 

1.499 

110 



VALUE OF 

FARM LAND, 

BUILDINGS, 

ETC. 



$2,113,942 



134,357 

9.135 

13.975 

12.100 

23.478 

106.165 
7.460 

20.020 
661.808 

17.610 

2.050 

2.050 

18,210 

3,150 

700 

13.400 
1,540 
3,400 
7,250 
2,225 

36.630 
2.830 
1.275 

22.715 
3,425 

210 
68,140 
16,775 
21,450 

900 

43,450 
1.600 
8.500 
6.800 
2.200 

11,826 
62.930 
51.515 
400 
75.275 

60.715 

15.041 

1.775 

3,670 

5.675 

1.60<> 
2,660 
1.3;iO 
2.200 
600 

7.988 

6.200 

650 

1.750 

287.725 

11G.080 

95.245 

4,110 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



289 



The table also shows the farm acreage, the improved acreage, and 
the total value of the land, buildings, implements and machinery. 
Cass County, with 1,444 Negro inhabitants in UtlO, lead with 171 farms, 
valued at $661,808. The farmers in this county raising annually corn, 
wheat, oats, clover, hay, potatoes, beans, etc., to the value of nearly 
$100 000. Horses, cattle, sheep and swine proving an annual asset of 
nearly that amount, and their dairy products, poultry and wool returns 
adding materially to the revenues of the county. 







'I c a 
Map Showing: Cass County, Michigan 




^ ^ 



Agriculture is accounted the greatest of the arts because it favors 
and strengthens population, creates and maintains manufacturies. and 
gives employment to navigation and material to commerce. It is, there- 
fore, with some pride of state as well as of race that I can call atten- 
tion today, that in Michigan the state of my adoption during the past 
forty years, a colony of Negroes have amply demonstrated their fitness 
to tickle the soil, and by dint of hard toil and many sacrifices, have 
proven fallacious the theory that the Negro cannot maintain himself in 
the west and northwest. 

If you would look upon a fair picture of rural simplicity, fair 
women, brave men, happy homes, varied products, the charm of 
country life, and get relief from the stifling atmosphere of the cities, 
go with me to Cass County, Michigan, and 1 will show you a land that 
has been preserved and fortified by the practice of agriculture. Where 
health, wealth and prosperity have crowned with success the efforts 
of a number of Negroes who, with a self-reliance that fails not, dared 



290 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

to brave the difficulties and hardships, together with the snow and ice 
of Michigan, in search of liberty and broader opportunities. 

The Negroes who first settled in Cass county were attracted to 
Calvin township by the friendliness of the whites who were opposed 
to slavery. It is a matter of record that in 1847, Sampson Saunders, a 
planter of Virginia, died, and by a provision of his will gave freedom tu 
his slaves, some forty in number, and appropriated $15,000 of liis 
•estate for the purchase of lands in some free state upon which they 
were to enter at once. This bequest was fulfilled by the purchase of 
land in Cass County. Later one Kinchen Artis, a Negro quaker, also 
led a small colony of Negroes into that county where they also pur- 
chased land. It is said his colony of 20 families or about 100 persons, 
controlled altogether about $4,000 when they entered upon the wild 
land of Michigan. Among the early settlers were Green Allen, who 
came from North Carolina, and William Allen, from Ohio, who are now 
living, and counted among the prosperous citizens of the county.' 

The following list of patents granted to Michigan Negroes show 
that the state takes high rank as to inventors. McCoy leading not only 
his state, but the entire country in point of number of patents. Cass 
county citizens took the lead, the patent to Turner Byrd, jr., of Wil- 
liamsville, February 6, 1872, being closely followed by one to Thomas 
Jefferson Martin, March 26, 1872. Mr. Dickinson, a Michigan man now 
residing in New Jersey, also holds a high rank as an inventor. 

iR. A. Pelham in A. M. E. Zion Quarterly Review, April, 1901. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



291 



KTEGRO IXVEXTORS IX MICHIGAN TO WHOM PATENTS HAVE 

BEEN ISSUED. 



Name. 

Bailiff. C. O 

Byrd, Jr., Turner. 



Date of Patent. 



Dammond. W. H. 
Dickinson, J. H. . 



Dickinson, Samuel 
McCoy, Elijah. . . . 



Oct. 


11. 


1898 


Feb. 


6. 


1872 


March 19 


1872 


April 


30, 


1872 


Dec. 


1, 


1874 


Dec. 


29. 


1903 


May 


2. 


1899 


July 


15, 


19U2 


Sept. 


20 


1904 


Oct. 


11, 


1904 


May 


8, 


1906 


•May 


5 


1908 


March 23 


1909 


March 23 


1909 


March 23 


1909 


June 


29, 


1909 


June 


11 


1912 


Feb. 


2 


1915 


Feb. 


2 


1915 


July 


15 


1872 


Aug. 


6 


1872 


May 


27, 


1873 


Jan. 


20, 


1874 


May 


12, 


1874 


Feb. 


1. 


1876 


July 


4 


1876 


March 28 


, 1882 


July 


18 


1882 


Jan. 


9 


1883 


June 


16 


1885 


Feb. 


8. 


1887 


April 


19, 


1887 


May 


24, 


1887 


May 


29, 


1888 


May 


29 


1888 


Sept. 


29, 


1891 


Dec. 


29 


1891 


March 


L 1 


1892 


April 


5 


1892 


June 


6 


1S93 


Sept. 


13 


1898 


Oct. 


4, 


1898 


Nov. 


15 


1898 


June 


27 


1899 


March 27 


, 1900 


Dec. 


18 


1900 


Feb. 


21 


1905 


June 


16 


1908 


Nov. 


10 


1908 


Feb. 


9 


1909 


July 


11 


1911 


March 26 


, 1912 


July 


f» 


1912 


May 


14 


1914 


June 


30 


1914 


Sept. 


8 


1914 


Feb. 


9 


1915 


April 


20 


1915 



292 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 



Name. Date of Patent. 

McCoy and Hodg-e Nov. 18, 1884 

Dec. 24, 1889 

McCoy and Wheeler June 4, 1907 

Martin, Thoma.s J March 26, 1872 

Newsome, Simeon May 22 1894 

Pelham, Robert A Dec. 19] 1905 

Reynolds, Humphrey H April 3, 1883 

Oct. 7, 1890 

Richardson, Albert C March 14, 1882 

Feb. 17, 1891 
Nov. 13, 1894 
Feb. 28, 1899 
Dec. 12, 1899 

Stewart, Bnos \V May 3, 18S7 

Nov. 22, 1887 

Stewart. T. W Dec. 27. 1887 

June 13, 1893 

Stewart & Johnson June 20, 1893 

Trade Mark 
Looker. Oscar L Oct. 30. 1900 




Madame Azafia Hackley. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



293 



By way of comparison as to the advance the race has made along 
occupational lines, the following table compiled from unofficial records 
in the Congressional Library at Washington reveals an interesting 
insight into the occupations of the race in Detro it in 1870: 

NEGROES ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS IN DETROIT 
AS LISTED IN THE DETROIT CITY DIRECTORY FOR 1870. 



Agriculliire tl 

Farmers 4 

Gardeners 2 

Manufac. and Mechanical lOt! 

Baker 1 

Brick and stone masons. ... ft 

Builder 1 

Carpenters 12 

Cig'ar makers 1 

Confectioner 1 

Coopers 7 

Currier and tanner 2 

Dressm'k'rs & seamstresses 10 

Engineers 4 

Fireman 1 

Painter 1 

Plasterers 15 

Sawyers 3 

Ship carpenter 1 

Shoemakers 3 

Stripper (tobacco) 2 

Tailors 3 

Tobacconists 4 

Whitewashcrs 25 

Trade 32 

Clerks (in stores) 3 

Fruit dealer 1 

Grocer 1 

Hucksters and veg-etable 

dealers 3 

Meat market 1 

Intellis'ence office 1 

Peddlers 3 

Porters (in stores) l!i 

Transportation 47 

Hack driver 1 

Hostlers 3 

Sailors 27 

Livery stable 1 

Teamsters and draymen.... 15 

Domes, and personal service.. 321 

Barbers 71 

Bartenders 4 

Bell boy 1 

Billiard parlor or saloon. . . 8 

Boarding- house keeper 1 

r'arpot .'^liaker 1 



Caterer 1 

Coachmen 3 

Cooks 34 

Hairdressers 2 

Janitors 5 

Laborers 102 

Laundresses 2 

Laundryman 1 

Lunchroom keeper 1 

Sleeping car janitor 1 

Stewards 5 

Waiters 59 

Warehousemen 2 

Washerwomen 17 

Professional service 12 

Artist 1 

Dumas Watkins. 
Clerprymen 3 

J. S. Booth. 

Hezekiah Harper. 

Joseph Hurlburt. 
Drugrgist 1 

S. C. ^Vatson. 
Horse trainer 1 

Eugene Tunison. 
Music teacher 1 

Charles Thompson. 
Physicians 2 

B. L. Clark. 

Joseph Ferguson. 
Teachers 3 

Mrs. J. Cook. 

Miss Sarah Webb. 

Miss Fannie Richards. 

Public service 3 

City scavenger 1 

John Logan. 
Inspector (Custom service) . 1 

John D. Richards. 
Letter carrier (P. O. ) 1 

John C. Ferguson. 

Clerical service 3 

Messengers - 

Stephen Copper. 

.Tohn L,. Martin. 
Traveling agent 1 

liarvcy Webb. 



The table is not in any respect comparable with the figures for 
1900 and 1910. The directory only showing "breadwinners," that were 
heads of families and certain other persons of age, and not all the 
persons 10 years of age and over engaged in gainful occupation. 
Enough is shown, however, to indicate the early entry into the higher 
pursuits, the list showing artists, dru.ggists, music teachers, physicians, 
teachers, traveling agents, and a few in public service. Including an 
inspector in the customs service and a letter carrier. The names of 
the individuals holding these places are shown in the table. About the 
first public positions held by a Negro in Detroit were those of city 



294 ICHIGAN MANUAL 

scavenger and city chimney sweep. William Jones appearing as the 
former in 1865 and William Stokes as the latter in 1870. The colored 
school in 1865 being taught by John Whitbeck, principal, and Miss S. 
Brown, assistant, both white teachers. 

In 1870, however, while "Colored School No. 1"' was taught by 
Preston Whitbeck, the son of the elder Whitbeck, and Miss G. Foote, 
also white; "Colored School No. 2" was taught by Miss Fannie M. 
Richards, mention of whom is made in "Foreword," and "Colored 
School No. 3" by Mrs. J. Cook and Miss Sarah Webb. 

Later in 1870, after a legal contest, and a decision upholding the 
contention of the colored citizens, the "Colored Schools" were abol- 
ished in Detroit and Miss Fannie Richards, one of the three colored 
teachers, retained in the service, notwithstanding the fact, that her 
brother and all her relatives had taken an active part in "pushing the 
mandamus case" in the courts against the School Board. 

General Tables I and II show in detail the number of males and 
females engaged in 1910 in each of 428 specified occupations and occu- 
pation groups for the State, cities having 25,000 or more inhabitants 
and the balance of the state. 

The statistics in the General Tables for 1910 (pp. 301-311) show a 
decided gain in many of the higher pursuits, but as the figures are now 
five years old it is well to state that they do not represent actual con- 
ditions today. Apparent changes show an increase in all the profes- 
sional and clerical occupations. 

"A Negro has now been to the North Pole, and there are famous 
Nefero painters, musicians, novelists, botanists, legists, philologists, 
philosophers, mathematicians, engineers, and general officers whose 
work is done in the white world and in emulation with the first talent 
of Europe and America. Here on the French Rivera, where this paper 
is being finished, Negro chauffeurs are much en evidence because of 
their skillful and careful driving. The ten million Negroes in the 
United States occupy in that country a position of capital importance 
in industry and agriculture." Thus spoke the eminent British scien- 
tist. Sir Harry H. Johnston, G. C. M. G., K. C. B., D. Sc, at the First 
Universal Races Congress, held at the University of London, July 26-29, 
1911. 

The phenominal growth of Detroit has wonderfully demonstrated 
the wisdom of the foregoing paragraph penned thousands of miles 
away. Negro chauffeurs are much in evidence in Detroit and the ranks 
of the professional and clerical classes as well as the industrial classes 
have grown in the quinquenium, 1910 to 1915. It is claimed that the 
number of chauffeurs has increased from 18 to 80— and that the num- 
ber of Negroes in the other occupations, connected with the manufac- 
ture of automobiles and automobile accessories has also increased 
considerably. The number of lawyers stated as 11 in 1910 has increased 
to 18. 13 of them gainfully employed in the practice of their profession. 
Other professional and clerical occupations being enumerated as fol- 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 295 

lows: 17 teachers, 6 pharmacists (registered), 10 physicians, 6 dentists, 
9 stenographers, divided into 1 court, 4 government, 3 lawyer's and 1 
doctor's assistant, 4 bank clerks, 1 accountant and 6 bookkeepers. Out 
in the state the increases have also been noticeable. 

As there is no more valuable source of information regarding the 
effects of modern civilization than the study of the comparative statis- 
tics of occupations, it is well, at times, to stop and take account of the 
upward tendency outlined in Michigan. 

In Detroit in 1910, census figures show that the 5,741 Negro inhab- 
itants occupied 1,357 homes, of which ]27 were owned. A ratio of 1 
owned home to every 45 of its Negro inhabitants; a ratio slightly better 
than that of Washington, D. C. It is now claimed, however, that the 
increase in the more remunerative occupations has caused a great gain 
in "home ownership" and that the ratio of inhabitants to one owned 
home has been materially reduced and the homes greatly improved 
as shown and illustrated elsewhere in this publication. 



296 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

PARAGRAPHS ABOUT PEOPLE AND THEIR OCCUPATIONS IN 

DAYS GONE BY. 

The research for statistical data, for comparative purposes, 
brought to light a number of interesting facts, relative to Michigan 
citizens, during the early and succeeding years of the past half cen- 
tury, and are presented here, as occupational data worthy of note. 

C. H. Mitchell, graduate of the Law Department at Ann Arbor, 
was elected Justice of the Peace at Battle Creek in April, 1889. 

Dr. S. C. Watson, of Detroit, was born in Charlestown, S. C, in 
1832. He received a common school education, attended Oberlin college 
one year, spent two years at Ann Arbor as a medical student, and 
afterwards graduated from the Cleveland College of Medicine. He 
practiced in Toronto and Chatham, locating in Detroit in 1863. He 
opened a drug store, which business he was engaged in at his death 
in 1892. He was a member of the Underground Railroad and a close 
friend of John Brown, Wendell Phillips, William Lloyd Garrison, and 
their co-workers. Was a member of Board of Estimates in 1876; was 
elected a member of City Council in 1882, and served two terms. In 
1884 was elected delegate-at-large to National Republican Convention 
which nominated Blaine and Logan. He was the first colored man so 
honored in the North. He was a commissioner for Michigan at the 
New Orleans Exposition and was a member of the Jury Commission 
through appointment by Governor Winans at time of his death. 

John H. Freeny, of the Sagnaw Valley and resident of Mt. Pleasant, 
Mich., was born and reared in Camden, N. J Came to Michigan in 
1868 and engaged in barbering at Clare. Later moved to present home 
and learned photography with the celebrated Goodridge Brothers of 
Saginaw, after which he opened a photo gallery and a barber shop in 
East Saginaw. But his yearnings were towards construction, and 
through real estate investments he soon found himself a dealer in 
lumber, and in 1883 owned pine land enough to keep him busy for a 
number of years; also a mill which sawed eight million shingles in 
1882. He had three lumber camps, ten teams, four yoke of oxen and 
100 men employed. Mr. Freeny was founder and sole owner of the 
village of Wise, containing about 400 inhabitants and located on a 
branch of railroad running from East Saginaw to Mt. Pleasant, with 
two daily mails and in a flourishing condition. 

Prof. C. W. Thompson was born a slave to a brutal master in Rich- 
mond, Virginia. Through the Underground Railroad he escaped, land- 
ing in Philadelphia in 1852, and in 1854 came to Detroit where he set- 
tled. Naturally endowed with musical talent, he soon began organizing 
choirs and choruses and a school of music, having as high as 125 
pupils enrolled. He organized the Detroit Philharmonic Society, and 
even today his influence is felt in his adopted city. 

Capt. Obadiah C. Wood was born in New York state in 1815. His 
parents moved to Rochester, where he received such education as that 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS li'jT 

state provided for its colored citizens in that day. In 1843 he went to 
Detroit. Mr. Wood was the first person to organize a colored military 
organization in the state of Michigan. Long before the election of Mr. 
Lincoln, he had a well organized, drilled and equipped company, and 
when the war clouds appeared Capt. Wood and his company were 
among the first to offer their services to the governor of the state, 
which offer was rejected because the North at that time did not think it 
needed the Negi-o's aid in putting down the rebellion. Through Capt. 
Wood, legal action a.sainst the Board of Education, at his own expense, 
and discrimination having been declared illegal by the Supreme Court 
of the state he, practically unaided, except by justice, opened the public 
schools to all colored children in their respective districts in the fall of 
1870. 

He was the first colored man in Michigan to hold a position under 
the Federal government, a position he held for twelve years with satis- 
faction to the Government and credit to himself, and which he resigned 
on account of ill health. He was also the first colored man elected to 
a municipal office in the state, being elected a member of the Board 
of Estimates for two years and commissioned by Governor Bagley as 
a Jury Commissioner. 

Mr. Charles Peterson, of Saginaw, was born in New Jersey in 1822. 
He settled in several places in New York and Canada before perma- 
nently locating in East Saginaw, where he has acquired considerable 
real estate and a business in draying through hard work and thrift, and 
was easily worth $50,000 in 1883. His only daughter married Mr. Foun- 
tain Bass, the popular caterer of Bay City. 

Walter Y. Clark had the first laundry in Detroit. Lack of capital 
forced him into political life and he held many places of honor and 
trust. 

J. C. Craig, of Grand Rapids, ran a fine barber shop, equipped with 
electric light and apparatus, as early as 1883. 

Mrs. Lucy Thurman, of Jackson, was the first colored woman to 
lecture and organize branches for the State W. C. T. U. She is also 
ex-president of the C. W. N. F. C. 

Sojourner Truth, noted lecturer, abolitionist, and woman's rights 
advocate, co-worker of Fred Douglass and Su.san B. Anthony, made her 
home in Battle Creek for a number of years and died there. 

George W. Lewis came to Lenawee county in 1835, ran leading 
barber shop in Adrian till 1882, when he became excursion manager for 
the Wabash Railroad. 

Mrs. M. E. Lambert, of Detroit, was not only a splendid elocu- 
tionist and rarely gifted in knowledge of literature, but also a writer, 
having been especially commended for a "Child's Book of Stories" from 
her pen. 

Goodridge Bros., of Saijinaw. were for years the loadirg pho- 
tographers of Northern Michigan. Their work was not excelled in the 



29S MICHIGAN MANUAL 

state. One specialty was the taking of noted views all over the 
country. 

Richard Shewcraft was the first colored artist to receive a scholar- 
ship at the Detroit Museum of Art, which possesses one of his pictures 
bought by friends before his death and presented to the Museum. 

John H. Fox was one of the first colored attorneys in Michigan. 
In 1883 he was enjoying a lucrative practice in Ypsilanti. 

Mr. J. J. Richardson, of Bay City, was well known and appreciated 
for his newspaper writings and his historical knowledge of early Michi- 
gan, which had attracted wide attention in the early 80s. He settled in 
Saginaw in 1855, when there was only one other colored family in the 
valley. 

Hon. D. Augustus Straker, after becoming a citizen of Detroit in 
the latter 80s, was the first colored man elected Circuit Court Commis- 
sioner. He enjoyed a lucrative mixed practice and the legal books of 
which he Is author are recognized authorities on their subjects. 

Frank C. Bradford, of Detroit, was special pattern man of the Ful- 
ton Iron Works of Detroit. He was also an inventor. 

William C. Swan, of Detroit, attorney, was the first colored man 
to be nominated on the Democratic ticket for Circuit Court Commis- 
sioner. 

Hon. J. Frank Rickards came to Detroit in 1865. Was one of the 
first colored letter carriers, having been appointed in 1879. He is a 
high mason and an authority on masonic matters 

Dr. Charles Ellis held an honored professional reputation in Sagi- 
naw, Michigan, till cut off by death in his early years. 

Mr. William Gaskins, of Jackson, has attracted attention all over 
the state by his expert penmanship. 

Miss Dora Grayson was director of music in Tecumseh public 
.schools from 1890 to 1894. She was the first colored woman in Michi- 
gan to fill such position. 

Mr. Harry Guy composes and arranges high class music for all the 
best local soloists and orchestras in Detroit. 

Detroit Study Club, founded in 1898, by Mrs. Gay Lewis Pelham, Is 
the principal literary club in the state, belonging for seventeen years 
to the City Federation of Clubs with representation. 

Ypsilanti still has colored schools with colored teachers. The 
pioneer teacher was Rev. Isaac Burdine, known all over the state as a 
strong race man of splendid qualities. 

Preston's Restaurant at Marquette was the leading place of its 
kind in Marquette in 1890 and Mr. George Preston, proprietor, was 
counted one of Marquette's most progressive business men. 

Mme. Maggie Porter Cole, one of the original Fisk Jubilee Singers, 
has made Detroit her home since her marriage some years ago. She 
has oranized several choruses and freely lends her talent to charity. 

H. F. Snodgrass, of Battle Creek, was foreman for more than 20 
years of the blacksmith shops of Nichols &. Shepard, agricultural imple- 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 299 

ment manufacturers in that city, with 25 or more race assistants. Wm. 
Barton was the engineer of the plant for many years. 

Isaac N. Jackson, of Charlotte, was at one time foreman of the 
news room of the Charlotte Republican. This newspaper spoke in the 
highest terms of him when he was a candidate on the Republican ticket 
for Town Recorder. He was defeated by only 11 votes. 

Miss Lulu V. Childers, of Howell, Michigan, singer, and at present 
Director of Music at Howard University, received her common school 
education at Howell and her voice training at Oberlin Conservatory of 
Music. Miss Childers is an excellent example of a self-made woman, 
as her training at Oberlin was made largely possible through her own 
personal efforts. 

Dr. L. H. Johnson was born in Union Town, Fayette county, Pa., 
and settled permanently in Detroit in 1880 after having graduated from 
Oberlin in a literary course and receiving his degree in medicine from 
the Chicago Medical College. He built up a fine, lucrative practice, 
having both colored and white patients — indeed, about 75 per cent of 
his practice were the latter. 

Miss Fannie M. Richards was born in Fredericksburg, Va. The 
family coming to Detroit in her early days, she is practically a Michigan 
product. She was appointed a teacher in the public schools at Detroit 
in 1868 and has taught continuously till 1915, when she was 
retired upon pension. She was the first president of the Phyllis 
Wheatly Home and known for her charitable deeds as well as her love 
for literature and her passion for teaching. 

Hon. Henry Lincoln Johnson, of Georgia, ex-Recorder of Deeds for 
the District of Columbia, received his degree in law from the University 
of Michigan. 

The late lamented Dr. John R. Francis, of Washington, D. C, 
received his degree in medicine from the University of Michigan. 

Joseph H. Stewart, of Washington, D. C. — honored member of the 
bar, received his degree in law from the University of Michigan. 

Dr. Thomas Wallace, of Adrian, has a celebrated sanatorium and 
has made some remarkable cures through his special treatment. His 
Sanatorium with equipment has a valuation of about $20,000. 

John Lewis, born in Livingston Co., N. Y., in 1826, came to Adrian 
with his parents in the fall of 1837. He was a product of the early 
public school of Adrian and his natural intelligence together with the 
use he made of his schooling and experience assisted him greatly in 
acquiring business methods. Economy was his watchword and through 
this trait about 1857 he bought out his employer's eating house and 
s^t about accumulating a competence. His place, "The Verandah," be- 
came and remained a land mark in Adrian till Mr. Lewis' death. He 
was universally respected by all classes of citizens. 

Hon. W. VV. Ferguson was born in Detroit in 1857. Ills father. 
Dr. Joseph Ferguson, was a pioneer of Detroit and city physician for 
several terms. He was the first boy of his race to enter iht^ Detroit 



300 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Public Schools, and be graduated with high honors from the High 
School. He was the first colored member of the Michigan legislature, 
having been elected in 1892. He was the plaintiff who won the cele- 
brated Ferguson-Gies civil right case, citation of which is made 
throughout the entire country. 

Madame E. Azalia Hackley, the noted singer and musical lec- 
turer, was educated in Detroit, where she taught for a number of years 
in the public schools. Upon her marriage to Mr. Edward Hackley, 
Denver, became her home from which place she went forth after hard 
study to conquer in musical fields and win a world wide reputation in 
her profession of music. 

Among the eariy teachers who left for Southern fields of labor 
were Joseph H. Pelham and George Rice, of Detroit in the 70s. Mr. Rice 
died some years ago in Missouri, where Mr. Pelham remained and 
taught for more than 40 years. He has two daughters, Misses Mabel 
and Gladys, now teaching in the Detroit Public Schools, and a son in 
the Detroit Post Office. 

George Young, for many years steward for the "Yondotega" club 
of Detroit, by special recommendation is now steward of the Country 
Club, one of Washington's most aristocratic country clubs. 

Rev. John A. Williams, rector of St. Mark's Episcopal Church, 
Omaha, Nebraska, is a Michigan product, educated in the Public Schools 
of Detroit and becoming a protege of Bishop Worthington, entered the 
Episcopal priesthood after graduating from the Divinity School at 
Fairabault, Minn., and is one of the most prominent of the Episcopal 
clergy. 

Ann Arbor has one colored postman and police officer, appointed 
by Republican and Democratic officials respectively. 

Saginaw is credited with one physician. 

Grand Rapids has one public school teacher. 

Bay City has one public school teacher — has had three. 

in 1883 Mr. C. B. Burton was the leading confectioner and caterer 
of East Saginaw. 

Charles Kelly, of Frederick, Crawford county, general store keeper, 
township treasurer, was postmaster under Harrison and McKinley. 

Lieut. Frank W. Cheek was a gallant lieutenant in the Volunteer 
service in the Spanish-American war. 

There has been two race representatives as teachers in the Detroit 
Conservatory of Music. 

Ypsilanti has one colored physician. 

in June, 1883, the Wayne County Jury Commission approved the 
following named among other jurors for the year: 

Wayne County Court: Jas. H. Cole. 

Superior Court: Montgomery Bell, Wilmot Johnson, Theodore Fin- 
ney, Joseph W. Shafer, Thaddeus D. Warsaw .Lomax B. Cook, and Dr. 
Samuel C. Watson. 

Recorder's Court: George Sorrel, Henry C. Clark, Obadiah C. Wood 
and George B. Crisup. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 301 

AT ONE TIME: 

Detroit had John A. Loomis, expert stenographer, one of the first 
to teach stenography in Detroit. 

W. H. Vincent was one of Flint's progressive business men, with a 
fine grocery store. 

At Lansing, Mr. Andrew Dungey and Mr. John W. Allen were young 
contractors and builders. 

Alpheus A. Poole was deputy sheriff for Wayne under Sheriff 
James D. Burns, democrat. 

At Lansing, Mr. William Tate, dealer in merchandise. 

Ann Arbor, Mr. White, a contractor. 

Grand Rapids, Mr. George Miller, pressman. 

Lapeer had the well known attorney, S. Laing Williams, of Wash- 
ington, D. C, the first graduate from Columbia University returning to 
vote at election time. Mr. Williams is now a citizen of Chicago, 111. 

In Port Huron, Mr. J. E. Bird, counselor and advisor of leading 
politicians of his district. 
AMONG THE WELL KNOWN: 

J. C. Ford, of Grand Rapids, a staunch race man and pioneer in all 
movements for race uplift. 

Albert W. Hill, of Detroit, the first Internal Revenue Gauger in 

Michigan, and a politician of "high degree.'' 

Mme. Frances E. Preston, Detroit, most famous elocutionist and 
temperance worker. 

C. C. Carter, of Port Huron, an influential member of the conven- 
tion of 1884 and a political force in his locality. 

Mr. and Mrs. William H. Howard, of Detroit, funeral directors, un- 
dertakers and embalmers. 

Dr. Sylvester S. Smith, first dentist in Detroit. 

Prof. William H. Dammond resigned a professorship at Wilber- 
force in 1911 to take a position with the Michigan Central Railroad as 
assistant bridge engineer. While holding this position. Prof. Dam- 
mond invented an electric cab signal, an improvement over and des- 
tined to supplant the block signal. 

Mr. Ray Middieton, graduate of the University of Michigan, civil 
engineer, with American Bridge and Iron Works. 

Edward P. Harper, son of Hezikiah Harper, born in Indianpaolis, 
became a citizen of Detroit at the age of 6 weeks, his parents having 
moved to Detroit when he was that age. He was the first Ladies' Hair 
Dresser in Detroit, having for years the only and later the leading place 
of business in that line in the city. He taught several of his white 
successors their trade. 

Rev. Hezikiah Harper, founder of Ebenezer A. M. E. Church. De- 
troit, Michigan. 



302 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

MEN WORTHY OF THEIR HIRE. 

Under the head of "Worth Makes the Man," the Detroit Plaindealer 
of May 18, 1888, ran the following occupational notes, every paragraph 
having reference to an individual who had been in the stated service 
more than five years. 

Mr. Lafayette Banks, for many years in the employ of John J. Bag- 
ley Tobacco Company, was one of those named in the Governor's will 
and is still a faithful employe. 

Elmer Lewis has been in the employ of the Peninsular Car Com- 
pany for six years and prior to their removal to Detroit was employed 
by them in Adrian. 

Mr. Jerome Dalton has been for sixteen years a trusted clerk in the 
firm of Root, Strong and Company, having charge of the domestic de- 
partment. 

Mr, William J. Pierce has been an employe in the Detroit Postoffice 
for more than ten years and is as well known as any man in the de- 
partment. 

Mr. Jesse Stow^ers, Sr., has been with Sonater Palmer for 21 years, 
16 years as foreman on his 700 acre farm, and five years at his resi- 
dence. 

Mr. John Williams is the veteran hotel man of Detroit, having been 
head waiter at the Russell House for upwards of 25 years. 

Mr. William Sanford has been connected with the largest seed 
establishment in the west (D. M. Ferry & Co.) for more than 15 
years. 

Mr. John L. Martin, one of Detroits oldest and most honored cit- 
izens, has served his country and his race for twenty years in the 
U. S. Paymaster's Department, beginning under Gen'l. Pope, when it 
was "the Department of the Lakes." 

Mr. William Ellis has completed his tenth year with C. C. Bowen. 

Edward Campbell has passed his sixth year in Mabley & Com- 
pany's stores. 

Mr. William Anderson has been bookkeeper with Newcomb, Endi- 
cott & Co. for over thirteen years and his brother, John Anderson, 
has been shipping clerk in the Detroit Stove Co. for about eleven years. 

Rufus Mitchell still retains his position with James Nail & Co, 
which he has held for six years. 

Mr. Toussaint Lambert has been in the Detroit Postoffice for over 
fourteen years, Mr. Frank Jackson five years, Mr. Frank Rickards 
eight years and Mr. Henry Thompson ten years. 

Mr. Stephen Long has been with Mr. Stephen Grummond for thir- 
teen years. 

Mr. George Smith has occupied a position in J. L. Fisher's hard- 
ware store for nine years. 

Mr. Joseph Dickinson has been fifteen years with the Clough & 
Warren Organ Company. 



FREEDMAN'S PROGRESS 303 

Mr. Towles has been janitor of the Abstract building for a term 
of years. 

Mr. Washington Smith, Croghan Street, has been with Hudson & 
Symington upwards of thirty years. 

Mr. Robt. White has carried messages for Uncle Sam about fifteen 
years. 

Mr. John Miner has been with the U. S. Engineer Corps about fif- 
teen years. 

Mr. Richard Bush has been Deputy United States Marshal and 
janitor of the Custom House for nearly a score of years. 

Mr. John Bush has been with J. H. Black & Co. a number of years. 

Mr. Rufus Johnson has been a valuable man to C. M. Davison for 
years. 

Mr. Thomas Beeler has been employed as a candymaker for Gray, 
Toynton & Fox about twenty years. 

Mr. John Beeler has been a janitor of public buildings for a num- 
ber of years 

Mr. Edgar Houston has been printer in Randall's Photograph Gal- 
lery for some time and is exceedingly well thought of. 

Mr. Rufus Cruzet has been at the Michigan Central Depot for six 
years. 

Wm. Smith has been employed at the Western Newspaper Union 
six years, one year longer than The Plaindealer has run, and has fed 
the press on which it is printed from its first Issue. 

Jas. Goode stood behind his steed 20 year ago when drays, now so 
rarely seen, were all the rage. He is still in the trucking business. 

Mr. A. Gaines dates his hauling experience back to the opening of 
the war. 

At the Russell House "Jim" Watson is a sweet sixteener and Aaron 
Adiey has done about half as well. 

The Finney family, always musically inclined, have delighted the 
derotees of the "light fantastic" who patronize the Put-in-Bay boats 
for many seasons. 

"Will" Smith was a familiar figure at the ladies' door of the Russell 
House some years ago and is still doing duty there. 

"Will" Webb and "Gene" Hall have been employed in the Tribune 
mailing department over six years each. 

George Meredith, Jr., is an indispensable at the Leggett private 
school; when he would resign the management offered greater induce- 
ments to stay. 

Hueber Houston is one of the faithfuls at Mabley & Company's 
Btore, having been there over six years. 

Allen Dorsey has been at the Russell House 22 years, John Hunter 
18 years, W. C. Williams 17 years, Charles Hayes 5 years, Boyd Jack- 
son 12 years and John W. Williams 25 years. 



304 



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FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 315 



MORTALITY 



INTRODICTIOX. 

In addition to a correct enumeration of the population, classified 
according to age, sex, etc., it is essential that a complete and accurate 
registration of the births and marriages, as well as the deaths of a 
people, be established and classified on the same basis as the statistics 
of the population, to obtain correct and complete vital statistics. 

"Where the number of births, the number of deaths and the number 
of the population are all known, it is an easy matter to calculate the 
rates per thousand," wrote a specialist in Harper's Weekly for July 
10, 1915. Commenting a.? to birth i-egistiation in the United States, 
this writer said: "The birth registration is shocking. The New Eng- 
land states and Michigan were the only acceptable states in 1910." 
MICHIGAIV TAKES HIGH RANK. 
Although Michigan ranks high as a birth registration common- 
wealth, the impracticability of gathering either births or marriages. 
In many other states, with enough completeness to make the resultant 
figures of any special value, precludes the use of such statistics and 
confines any study of vital statistics, at the present time, to the presen- 
tation, classification and comparison of the mortality statistics of a 
given area known as the "registration area," in which deaths are regis- 
tered under effective laws. 

THE REGISTRATION AREA. 
The registration area is not a fixed group of states or cities, but 
varies according to the growth and changes in the area included. It 
is comprised of certain states in which the registration laws are of a 
suitable character and are sufficiently well enforced to insure at least 
approximately complete returns. It includes also certain cities In non- 
registration states in which deaths are registered under effective local 
ordinances. 

The registration area when first established at the Tenth Census 
(1880) included only two states — Massachusetts and New Jersey — the 
District of Columbia and certain cities in other states. The population 
Included was only about one-sixth (17 per cent) of the total population 
of the United States, and the land area of the country represented was 
much less (six-tenths of one per cent). 

Exclusive of the District of Columbia and the cities in Massachu- 
setts and New Jersey, the following municipalities were included in 
the area: 

Baltimore, Md. New Orleans, La. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. New York City. 

Charleston, S. C. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Chicago, 111. Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Cincinnati, O. Providence, R. I. 

Cleveland, O. Richmond, Va. 

Indianapolis, Ind. San Francisco, Cal. 

Louisville, Ky. St. Louis, Mo., and 

Milwaukee, Wis. Wilmington, Del. 

Nashville, Tenn. 

These cities had a Negro population of 333,801, which, together with 
the District of Columbia (59,596) and the Negro population of Massa- 
chusetts and New Jersey, made a total population of 450.950 Negro 
Inhabitants or less than 7 per cent of the Negro population of the 
United States. 



316 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

With the improvement of reg-istration laws and the greater atten- 
tion given to vital statistics, the number of registration states increased 
until the census year of 1900, the last year in vv^hich an effort was 
made to obtain reports of deaths by enumerators. The area then 
Included Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, 
New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island and Vermont, which, with the 
District of Columbia (city of Washington) and certain cities in non- 
registration states, comprising 37.9 per cent of the total population and 
5.9 per cent of the land area. 

Beginning with the calendar year 1900, annual mortality reports 
have been published and the registration area has been increased from 
time to time until in 1913 the area was comprised of 24 states and 42 
cities outside of those states. The area, however, included only four 
Southern states — Maryland, North Carolina (incorporated cities of 1,000 
or more In 1900), Kentucky and Virginia. 

The total number of deaths reported to the Bureau of the Census 
from the registration area for each year from 1909 to 1913, inclusive, 
with the average for the five-year period, is shown in the following 
table, together with the distribution as t;i race per 1,000 deaths: 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



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318 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 



It is at once apparent that as far as the area is concerned, the 
Negro death rate Is a weak link in the chain and is far from compar- 
able with the white rate, since out of every 1,000 deaths there are 
only 66 returned for Negro decedents. 

NEGRO DEATHS LARGELY IN CITIES. 

An examination of the returns from the registration area from its 
establishment, in 1880 until now show that the mortality statistics as 
they relate to the Negro populaion are largely from the principal 
municipalities of the country. In 1880 out of a population of 450,950, 
less than 15,000 lived in the rural districts of Massachusetts and New 
Jersey, while In excess of 435,000 lived in urban communities — the 
Census Bureau classifying as urban population that residing in cities 
and other places of 2,500 inhabitants or more. 

In 1910, 85.3 per cent of the Negro population of the registration area 
lived In urban communities — 1,651,565 out of a total population of 
1,935,976, which communities furnished more than three-fourths of the 
deaths among Negroes in the registration area. 

No comprehensive or accurate mortality statistics, for the United 
States, as a whole, will be possible until adequate registration laws are 
enacted and effectively enforced in every commonwealth and certainly 
no trustworthy deductions can be made nor can the actual mortality 
rate, for the Negro, be established until a larger per cent or more 
CQUl'table proportion of that population living in the rural communities 
is included In the compilations. 



IMI ORIGINAL BEGI5TRATION STATES, CALENDAR YEAB lOOO 
I STATES ADDED AND RETAINED, 1801 TO 1914 




MICHIGAN LEADS HER SISTER STATES. 



To Michigan's great credit it can be noted that the state was the first 
commonwealth west of the AUeghanies to realize the importance of a 
high grade death registration system; adopting and putting into force 
the necessary laws and being admitted to the registration area for the 
census year ending May 31, 1900, closely followed by Indiana for the 
calendar year 1900, as shown by the accompanying map: 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 319 

It is therefore possible to present the number of deaths for each 
year from 1900 to 1913, inclusive, and show in addition, the detail for 
much of the data gathered by the Bureau of the Census, that relate 
specifically to Michigan's Negro population, for the years 1900. 1910. 1911. 
1912 and 1913. This statistical presentation is made possible by a 
special tabulation arranged for this Manual and constitutes the first 
complete tabulation of the mortality statistics of the Negro population 
of any state in the Union. 

Some difficulty was encountered in getting the exact figures from 
the fact that while the individual cards indicated the facts no segrega- 
tion was made or count kept of Negro decedents, and where race was 
shown it included the decedents of the other non-white population. This 
Inclusion, to some minds may not have effected the general results very 
materially, yet the actual conditions were not those of Negroes and un- 
less certain eliminations or exclusions were made, exact comparable 
figures could not be shown. 

The interest and value of vital statistics depend upon their being 
so presented as to permit of making comparisons. The fact that there 
were 415 Negro decedents in Michigan in 1913, with 166 of them in De- 
troit, is of little interest unless we know the Negro population of the 
state and city ; can compute the death rates, and compare them with 
the death rates of other areas of similar characteristics. 

POPULATION AXD DEATHS IN AREA. 

That being the case before presenting the Michigan summaries It 
may be well to present certain statistics of deaths among Negroes In 
the entire registration area, bearing in mind, as outlined before, that 
such statistics as far as the Negro is concerned, are very incomplete 
and represent very largely an urban Negro population. 

In Table 2 the population, number of deaths, and death rate per 
1,000 for Negroes and for whites in the registration areas are shown for 
1910 and for 1900. 



Table No. 2. 

Deaths. 

Rate 
Population.* Number. per 1.000 

population. 
Negro: 

Registration area, 1910 1,943.969 49,499 25.5 

Registration area. 1900 1.189,023 34.995 29.4 

White. 

Registration area, 1910 51,680.821 753.308 14.6 

Registration area. 1900 29,505,687 503,569 17.1 

*As estimated for July 1, 1910, and as returned for June 1, 1900. 



The mortality data for the registration area as a whole indicate a 
decline in the death rate for Negroes as well as for whites. In the case 
of the white population the rate declined from 17.1 to 14.6, a decline 
of 2.5, while for the Negro population the rate in 1900 was 29.4 and in 
1910, 25.5 per 1,000, a decline of 3.9. The table shows the Negro and 
the white population of the area as enumerated June 1st, 1900, and as 
estimated on July 1, 1910. The death rate shown is the general death 
rate, which means the number of deaths occurring in a year to each 
1,000 persons living In the middle of that year. A "specific" death rate 
Ifl the death rate based on a specified or limited group of population, aa 
the age or sex groups of a population. 



320 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 



CAUSES OF DEATH — PREVALEXCE. 

Table 3 presents the distribution of the Negro and the white deaths 
for 1910, by causes of death, for the registration area and will indicate. 
In measure, the relative prevalence of certain of the principal diseases, 
among the Negro and the white population. 

A comparison of the figures in this table will show some facts that 
should be of vital interest to all concerned in the physical well being 
of the race. As compared ■with the whites, deaths among Negroes are 
relatively more numerous for malaria, whooping cough, tuberculosis of 
diseases, Bright's disease, puerperal fever, and ill defined and unknown 



TABLE 3. 



Cause of Death. 



All causes 

Typhoid fever 

Malaria 

Smallpox 

Measles 

Scarlet fever 

Whooping cough 

Diphtheria and croup 

Influenza 

Erysipelas 

Tuberculosis of the lungs 

Tuberculous meningitis 

Other forms of tuberculosis 

Rheumatism 

Cancer 

Diabetes 

Meningitis 

Cerebral hemorrhage and softening. . . . 

Organic diseases of the heart 

Bronchitis 

Pneumonia (all forms) 

Other respirator}' diseases 

Diarrhea and enteritis (under 2 jn-s.) . . 

Appendicitis . 

Hernia, intestinal obstruction 

Cirrhosis of the liver. 

Nephritis — Bright's disease 

Puerperal fever 

Other puerperal affections 

Congenital debility and malformations 

Violent deaths (excluding suicide) 

Suicide ....'....;..... 

All other causes. ■. .-. 

Ill-defined and unknown causes 





Deaths 


.: 1910 




Registration Area 




Per Cent 


Number 

1 


Distribution 

1 


Negro 


White 


Negro 


White 


49,499 


753,308 


100.0 


100.0 


798 


11,791 


1.6 


1.6 


413 


741 


0.8 


0.1 


12 


190 


(1) 


(1) 


181 


6,394 


0.4 


0.8 


71 


6,182 


0.1 


0.8 


588 


5,524 


1.2 


0.7 


231 


11,275 


0.5 


1.5 


511 


7,251 


1.0 


1.0 


83 


2,356 


0.2 


0.3 


8,111 


66,498 


16.4 


8.8 


230 


4,394 


0.5 


0.6 


657 


5,741 


1.3 


0.8 


208 


3,782 


0.4 


0.5 


1,100 


39,875 


2.2 


5.3 


142 


7,888 


0.3 


1.0 


369 


7,208 


0.7 


1.0 


1,705 


39,008 


3.4 


5.2 


4,120 


71,902 


8.3 


9.5 


793 


11,806 


1.6 


1.6 


5,796 


73,490 


11.7 


9.8 


619 


8,043 


1.3 


11 


2,792 


51,379 


5.6 


6.8 


225 


5,884 


0.5 


0.8 


316 


6,346 


0.6 


0.8 


265 


7,187 


0.5 


1.0 


3,533 


49,693 


7.1 


6.6 


274 


3,609 


0.6 


0.5 


258 


4,293 


0.5 


0.6 


2,140 


38,136 


4.3 


5.1 


2,609 


45,720 


5.3 


6.1 


162 


8,378 


0.3 


1.1 


8,565 


130,572 


17.3 


17.3 


1,622 


10,773 


3.3 


1.4 



(1). Rate not shown where per cent is less than one-tenth 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 321 

the lungs, other forms of tuberculosis, pneumonia, other respiratory 
causes; while for all the other diseases — except typhoid fever, intluenza, 
bronchitis and "all other causes," in which the per cent distribution is 
the same for both races — the deaths of the white population are rela- 
tively the more numerous. 

Notwithstanding this apparent favorable showing, the excesses in 
the cases of tuberculosis of the lungs and pneumonia are so great as to 
cause the general death rates of the Negro population to Invariably 
exceed the rates for the white population in the same area. More than 
16 per cent (8,111) of all the deaths (49,49;)) among Negroes In the area 
in 1010 was caused by tuberculosis of the lungs, and more than 11 per 
cent (5,79G), by pneumonia, as against 8.8 per cent (6C,498) and 9.8 per 
cent (73,4y0), respectively, for the white population with a total of 
753,308 deaths. 

THE MORE DESTRUCTIVE DISEASES. 

Measles, scarlet fever, diphtheria and croup, tuberculosis, menin- 
gitis and congenital debility and malformations, all counted as the dis- 
eases of childhood, show an excess for whites In the distribution column; 
whooping cough being the only disease, except broncho pneumonia, here- 
after mentioned, that shows an excess for Negroes in the distribution 
column. The following table shows the death rates per 100,000 popula- 
tion for both Negroes and whites for the specllled diseases: 

DEATH RATES PER 100,000 POPULATION IIV THE REGISTRATION 

ARE.i, 1010. 

Negroes. White. 

Measles 9.3 12.4 

Scarlet fever 3.6 12.0 

Diphtheria and croup 11.9 21.8 

Tuberculosis meningitis 11.8 8.5 

Congenital debility 110.1 73.8 

Whooping cough 30.2 10.7 

The diseases, however, that operate to carry off so many of the 

Negro Inhabitants and keep the race's death rates high are the diseases 
most prevalent among adults 20 to 40 years of age. Among these diseasea 
la Included pneumonia, a disease which affects all classes and at all 
ages. The urban rate for this disease is usually 75 per cent In excess 
of the rural and as the iNegro population Included In the area Is more 
largely urban than the white population, the ravage from this disease 
is most distinctly one of the causes that tend to keep the Negro rate 
above the normal. 

The following table presents the rates for the most destructive dis- 
eases which affect the Negro inhabitants: 

RATE PER 100,000 POPULATION IN THE REGISTRA TIO.N AREA, lOlO. 

Negro. White. 

Malaria 21.2 1.4 

Tuberculosis of the lungs 417.2 128.6 

Organic heart disease 211.9 139.1 

Pneumonia 298.1 142.2 

A PREVEXTARliE DISEASE. 

It will be seen that the death rate, of the Negro population, from 
tuberculosis of all forms, almost equals the combined death rate from 
typhoid fever, malaria, smallpox, measles, scarlet fever, whooping 
cough, diphtheria. Influenza, rheumatism, cancer, diabetes, meningitis. 



322 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

cerebral hemorrhage and softening, dlaorrhea, appendicitis, hernia and 
cirrhosis of the liver. 

Tuberculosis Is accounted a preventable disease. Professor Irvlngr 
Fisher of Yale University, In his "Report on National Vitality; Its 
■Wastes and Conservation," (1) rating its preventablUty at 75 per cent. 

ANOTHER EXPLODED THEORY. 

The prevailing opinion that the death rate of Negroes Is higher In 
the North than In the South will be found to be erroneous, not being 
warranted by the facts. 

Table 4 presents the number of deaths and the death rates per 1,000 
population for both the Negro and the white population, in certain se- 
lected cities, for the years 1900 and 1910. The table also shows the de- 
creases In the death rates for 1910 as compared with those for 1900. The 
area covered by the table consists of 57 cities, 33 in the North, with a 
total population of 15,619.077, approximately 500,000 of whom were 
Negroes, and 24 in the South, with a total population of 2,679,587, ap- 
proximately 720,000 of whom were of the Negro race. In 1910. The data 
presented in this table show the theory to be without the slightest foun- 
dation in fact. 

The totals shown are for the following cities: 

In the North (33): Atlantic City, N. J.; Boston, Mass.; Cambridge, 
Mass.; Camden, N. J.; Chicago, 111.; Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus and 
Dayton, Ohio; Denver, Colo.; Detroit, Mich.; Evansville, Ind.; Harrla- 
burg, Pa.; Inuianapolis, Ind.; Jersey City, N. J.; Kansas City, Mo.; Los 
Angeles, Cal.; Minneapolis, Minn.; Newark, N. J.; New Bedford, Mass.; 
New Haven, Conn.; New York, N. Y. ; Oakland, Cal.; Omaha, Neb.; Phil- 
adelphia and Pittsburgh, Pa.; Providence, R. I.; St. Joseph, Mo.; St. Louis, 
Mo.; St. Paul, Minn.; Springfleld, 111.; Terre Haute, Ind., and Trenton, 
N. J. 

In the South (24): Alexandria, Va.; Annapolis, Md.; Atlanta, Ga.; 
Baltimore, Md.; Charleston, S. C. ; Covington, Ky.; Jacksonville, Fla.; Key 
West, Fla.; Louisville, Ky.; Lynchburg, Va. ; Memphis, Tenn.; Mobile, 
Ala.; Nashville, Tenn.; Norfolk, Va.; New Orleans, La.; Paducah, Ky.; 
Petersburg, Va.; Raleigh, N. C; Richmond, Va. ; San Antonio, Tex.; Sa- 
vannah, Ga. ; Washington, D. C; Wilmington, Del., and Wilmington, N. C. 

These cities as a whole show a decline In the death rate for Negroes 
of 3.4 per 1,000 and a decline for the white population of 2.5. In the 
North the decline for the former was 2.0 and for the latter 2.5. In the 
South the white population showed a decline of 2.9 as against a decline 
of 4.0 per 1,000 deaths for the Negro population. 

In some instances the Negro death rates in the North are below 
those of the white population for certain Southern cities and thus the 
"climatic theory" that was held up to keep the Negro In the South when, 
years ago, he could have gained a foothold on the homestead lands of 
the North and West, is another exploded theory. 

FIXED FACTS AS TO NEGRO MORTALITY. 

While this summary of the Michigan mortality data does not aim 
to be a sociological study, the arrangement and presentation of the 
statistics relating to the Negro population reveals these fixed facts: 

Higher death rate than among the white population of the State. 

Lower death rate than among the Negro population of the South. 

Marked excess of the male death rate. 

Prevailing fatality of tuberculosis and pneumonia. 

Excessive Infant and child mortality. 

Need for a strict observance of me laws of health and hygiene — 
food, sanitation, ventilation and care of children. 

(1) Bulletin of the Committee of One Hundred on National Health. 
Washington Government Printing OfUce, 1909. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



823 



INCREASE ( + ) OR 
I'ECREASE (-)PER 

1,000 population: 
1900-1910. 




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324 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

In brief, there will be shown here, the number of deaths, by sex, age 
periods, months of occurrence, and cause of deaths; with certain per 
cents distribution, percentages and death rates for the Npgro popula- 
tion of the State, Detroit, other principal municipalities, and rural com- 
munities In which approximately 25 per cent of them live. 

The death rates for the State and its principal subdivisions hare 
raried and are varying. In Detroit, "where life is worth living," the 
Negro death rate hovers about 25 per 1,000 population. 



POPULATION IIV 1010. 

The returns for the Thirteenth Census gave ..xichigan a Negro popula- 
tion of 17,115, distributed, in part, as follows: 

Detroit 6,741 Jackson 364 

Grand Rapids 666 Lansing 354 

Battle Creek 575 Kalamazoo 686 

Bay City 160 Saginaw 313 

Flint 397 Balance) of state 7,871 

Of the population outside of the foregoing cities, 1,444 was ac- 
credited to Cass county — the county in which the Negro has shown 
marked aptitude for agricultural pursuits. 

The mortality statistics of the Negro population of Michigan as 
shown here cover the State, Detroit, and other principal cities and cer- 
tain counties with a strictly rural population. Deaths by number, cause, 
sex, age, months, etc., are shown In detail for all such areas, but in the 
matter of death rates and percentages, the presentation is limited prin- 
cipally to aggregate totals for the State and Detroit, and such compari- 
sons made as best Illustrate the points under discussion. 



NEGRO DEATHS 1901 to 1909. 

Deaths in the state for which no detail data are available cover th« 
years 1901 to 1909, inclusive, the totals for which are shown as follows 
by sex, with the annual averages for the 9 -year period: 



TOTAL NEGRO DEATHS IN STATE, SHOWI^U SEX— 1001 TO 1909. 

Year 
Annual Average Sex Deaths Year 

1901 to 1909 329 1905 



1901 239 1906 

M. 133 

F. 106 

1902 260 1907 

M. 142 

F. 118 

1903 377 1908 

M. 212 

F. 166 

1904 326 1909 





No. of 


Sex 


Deaths 




329 


M. 


185 


F. 


144 




239 


M. 


133 


F. 


106 




260 


M. 


142 


F. 


118 




377 


M. 


212 


F. 


166 




326 


M. 


199 


F. 


127 





No of 


;ex 


Deaths 




360 


M. 


206 


F. 


154 




363 


M. 


192 


F. 


171 




346 


M. 


193 


F. 


152 




347 


M. 


19g 


F. 


152 




347 


M. 


196 


F 


151 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



325 



ESTIMATED POPULATION. 

The estimated Negro population of the etate and Detroit as of July 
1, 1910, and succeeding years, is as follows: 

Estimated as of July 1. 

1910 Itill 1912 1913 

Michigan 17.165 17,405 17.C4r) 17.885 

Detroit 5,785 5,995 6.205 G.417 

Balance of State 11.380 11.410 11,440 11,468 

These estimates are the official estimates uf the Bureau of the 
Census and serve as the basis for the mortality computations. 
EXCESS OF MALE OVER FEMALE IJECEDEXTS. 

Table 5 shows that in a marked degree the male deaths are far In 
excess of the female deaths in all parts of the state, 1910 to 1913, in- 
clusive. 



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326 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

In 1900 the male and female deaths in the state were about equal, 
150 male and 140 female, or 107 male deaths to every 100 female deaths; 
corresponding to the population ratio of 108 males to every 100 females. 
The ratio of male deaths to female deaths has increased each year until. 
In 1913, the state showed 248 male deaths and 167 deaths of females; a 
ratio of more than 148 male to 100 female deaths; while the population 
ratio in 1910 was only 111.1 males to every 100 females of the Neg-ro 
population. 

In certain rural districts, shown in the table as "other counties." in 
1911 the male deaths numbered 49 and the female 16. In Detroit in 1913, 
the record shows 104 male and 62 female deaths, a ratio of 168 male to 
every 100 female deaths. The balance of the state, with 144 male and 
105 female deaths, having a ratio of 137 males to every 100 females of 
the Neg-ro inhabitants of the state outside of Detroit. 

The great excess of male deaths may In some degree be ac- 
counted for by the economic conditions in the state, that attracted thou- 
sands of prospecting male artisans, many of whom were Negroes and 
who came to the automobile centers unaccompanied by either femaleH 
or children. 

Table 6 shows the population, number of deaths and death rates for 
the Negro and the white population of the state for 1900, and 1916 to 
1913, inclusive. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 









I 



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15 



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327 



328 



MICHIGAN MANUAL 



The following table (number 7) shows the number of deaths and 
the death rates for the Negro and the white population of the state, 
Detroit and the balance of the state, with the excess per 1,000 popula- 
tion of the Neg-ro over the white death rates for the same areas and the 
averages for the five-year period. 



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FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 329 

COMPARATIVE FIGURES FOR STATE. 

In 1900 the deaths In the state numbered 290 with a death rate of 

ILyin^S^r.^T'V' '^'^ '■''' "^^"- '""^ -^^' f- '^^ -hite popula- 
tion. In 1910 the deaths numbered 42C and the death rate was 24 8 more 
than 10 per 1,000 hlj^her than the rate for the whites. For 1911 the 
deaths numbered 399 and the death rate was 22.9. In 19U the number 
of deaths dropped to 379 and the death rate to 21.5, yet 8 1 per 1 0^0 in 

rate was 23.5 as against the general rate of 13.9 for the whole state 
These rates, however, which avoragred 23.1 per 1,000 for the Nepro 

population Of the state were 2.4 per 1.000 below the Negro rate for fhe 

regristration area In 1910. 

In 1910 there were C6 deaths from tuberculosis of the lungs and 44 

fw*'™.orr"T'^ '" ""^ ^"'■"'''' *" *°t^^ ^f 114 d^^^hs or 25.8 per cent of 
the 426 deaths In the state. The death rates from these diseases tn tha 
year being 345.5 and 256.3. respectively, per 100.000 population the 
normal rate for the state for these two diseases being 84 4 and 94 7 

While considerably in excess of the rates for the state, these' rates 

whl.i?'^^'" *^^° !o.T ^''°^'' '^^ ^^'' ^'"^'■° '^'- '^^ registration area 
which were, ,n 1910, 417.4, and 298.1 for tuberculosis of the lungs and 
pneumonia, respectively. ^ 

In 1913 tuberculosis of the lungs showed a rate of 301.9 and pneu- 
monia 173.3 for the state— a marked decrease in both instances 

As compared with the whites, the more prevalent diseases." showed 
as follows for 1911-1913: fin'wea 

DEATH RATE PER 100,000 POPULATION IN MICHIGAN. 

CAUSE. "'' '''' '''' 

Malaria: 

Negro 11 5 

^^"« .' 0."9 'o'.s 'o'-e 

Tuberculosis of lungs: 

i^'f^'"^ 350.5 221.0 301.9 

Wh't« 78.2 78.3 75.1 

Pneumonia: 

2,1^/° 189.6 204.0 173.3 

^*^*te 89.4 92.7 97.8 

Organic heart disease: 

^^^''O 338.9 249.4 268 4 

'^''"^ 145.9 150.S 151.7 

Congenital debility: 

Neerro 120.6 ise.O 72 7 

"^^"^^ 92.4 92.5 101.8 



330 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

MORTALITY AMONG CHILDREIV. 

The deaths of children under 5 years of age and especially infaBts 
under 1 year, constitute a larger percentage of the deaths of any people. 
As indicated heretofore the ordinary death rate is the proportion which 
the deaths in a community bear to a thousand of the population in such 
community. A more accurate death rate of infants is obtained by a 
comparison of the total number of infant deaths, not to a thousand of 
the general population, but to a thousand births in the same year. The 
birth rate not being available, recourse is had to the crude method, the 
ratio of deaths of infants and clilldren to the total number of deaths 
recorded. Table 8 shows the number of deaths at all ages, the number 
of deaths of Infants under 1 year and children under 5 years, with the 
number of deaths of infants and children per 100 deaths at all ages. The 
table while showing an increase In the ratios for infants indicates a de- 
crease in the ratio for all children under 5 years of age: 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



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332 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Table 9 shows the number of deaths in Detroit, by months of oc- 
currence, In 1910, for certain principal diseases, and the lowest per cent 
distribution for September and October at 3.4 per cent for each month, 
August and December being next with 4.8 each, and May and June each 
with 8.2. March claimed the highest toll with 14.4 with 5 out of 16 
deaths for tuberculosis of the lungs, the average age of these 16 de- 
cedents being 28 years. 



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334 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

There was an average age of 32 years for the 22 deaths from tuber- 
culosis of the lungs In Detroit in 1913. 

As compared with the white population in Detroit, the more preva- 
lent causes of death and the rates per 100,000 population In 1911, 1912 
and 1913, were as follows: 

DEATHS— DETROIT, PER 100,000 POPULATION. 

Cause: 1911 1912 1913 

Malaria: 

Negro • • • • • • • • 

White 0-6 0.4 0.4 

Tuberculosis of the lungs: 

Negro 333.6 225.6 342.8 

■WThite 98-8 99.3 98.5 

Pneumonia: 

Negro 266.9 386.8 296.1 

White '. 140.8 181.5 208.8 

Organic heart disease: 

Negro 316.9 241.7 249.3 

White 113.4 118.4 133.7 

Congenital debility: 

Negro 166.8 161.2 109.1 

Whlce 140.4 141.4 159.2 

Table 10 presents the distribution of deaths by certain principal 
causes of death for 1910, and for the three-year period, 1911-1913, for 
the State, Detroit, and the balance of the state. It will be noted that as 
compared with the per cents distribution — for the state for the year 
1910, those for the three-year period show marked decreases for typhoid, 
tuberculosis of the lungs, cancer and pneumonia of all forms. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



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336 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Table 11 presents the distribution of deaths by age periods for 19§», 
1910, and the three-year period, 1911 to 1913, inclusive, for the State, 
Detroit, and the balance of the state. A study of this table develops the 
fact that as compared with those of 1900 the per cents distribution f«r 
the State, Detroit, and the balance of state for the three-year period fer 
children under 5 years show a considerable decrease. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 






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338 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

JVKGRO MORTALITY IIV DETROIT. 

Detroit, Michigan, and Cleveland, Ohio, have long stood out as the 
two metropolitan cities in the country without a Negro "Ghetto." In 
these two cities it has always been possible to purchase a house wherever 
the means of the individual would permit. This has been true in large 
measure as to rented houses. Notwithstanding these conditions, hundreds 
of the "new-comers," attracted by the industrial boom, have crowded Into 
the congested territory in the lower part of the third and fifth wards of 
the "City of the Straits," and a pin hole diagram of the Negro deaths in 
Detroit for 1913, prepared for the writer by the Board of Health of that 
city, reveals the location of a large number of the 166 deaths for that 
year within the congested district. 

In 1900, the deaths in Detroit numbered 146; 81 male and 65 females. 
Of these deaths, 25 were reported from hospitals; 20 males and 5 females. 
Of the female deaths, two were infants, while the 20 male decedents 
were adults, with an average age at death of 40 years. The death cer- 
tificates of one-third of the 20 males were marked "unknown" as to the 
birthplace of decedent and his parents. 

In 1913, 30 of the 166 Negro deaths in Detroit occurred in hospitals 
or police stations. Twenty-one of them being males with an average age 
at death of 43 years. Only five of the death certificates of these males 
indicated the birthplaces of the decedent and his parents. A clear indica- 
tion, both in 1910 and 1913, that these male decedents had not been 
residents of the city many months. 

Census figures show that as enumerated April 15, 1910, Detroit had 
a Negro population of 5,741; 2,985 male and 2,756 female inhabitants. 
Of this population 2,744 — 1,432 males and 1,312 females — inhabited the 
third ward and 1,177 — 629 males and 548 females — the fifth ward ad- 
joining on the east. In 1890 Detroit showed a total Negro population of 
3 431- 1,692 males and 1,739 females. In 1900 the male population had 
increased to 2,014 and the females to 2,097. Thus in 1910 the excess had 
shifted to the male side. 

It is therefore quite evident that three elements tend to keep the 
Negro death rate above the normal in Detroit. First, the crowding into 
the congested districts; second, the increase of the male over the female 
population; and third, the utter lack of condition of many of these male 
"adventurers" to withstand the rigor of the climate until they can 
become acclimated. 

In writing along this line. Dr. James W. Ames, of Detroit, an In- 
spector of the Board of Health of Detroit, under date of July 23, 1915, 

wrote: 

"My examination of the death record substantiates your conclusions. 
• • • Your opinion as to the crowding in of the male population is 
correct and accounts for the disproportion of males to females, and also 
affect the death rate. We have found an extra high death rate from 
tuberculosis but I have personal knowledge that many of these people 
are outsiders who come here and die.. This, as you know, is quite a 
centor for voung men on account of extraordinary opportunity for 
work in summer. Then too the town has the reputation of being rather 
liberal This attracts the floaters and gamblers. For instance, we had 
twenty-six homicides in 1913. Six of these were colored men — not Mich- 
igan Negroes, however. Two strange men died in the Police Head- 
Quarters of acute alcoholism — all of which added to our increase." 
Another correspondent, writing from Detroit July 27, states: 
"I have been informed by the Judges of our Criminal Courts that 
two-thirds and more of all the crimes committed in Detroit are com- 
mitted by this same set of shiftless men who have migrated to our city 
and who have not been here more than two or three months. The same 
thing is true as to the d^ath rate. This is the consensus of opinion 
among both white and colored men who have had a chance to and have 
made wide observations of persons of this character." 

In transmitting the diagram heretofore mentioned. Dr. Ames wrote: 
"We have compiled for you the sociological conditions of the Negro 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 339 




Of all other nationalities, or a ratio of .85. You will therefore sep fhat 
we have the best of the situation by a tenth plur^*'* The llbor- 
5L'l^ 2 ,.*?^" ^^^ drawn many men whose occupations are 'doubtnil ' 

They have 1 ttle moral resistance, and late hours, drink, and other vices 
continue to lower the same. A speedy death Is the result." 

In order that the layman may clearly understand the reference to 
the housing conditions in Detroit, as technically expressed by Dr. Ames, 
the following explanation is made: 

The housng conditions indicated decimally mean that there are one 
and one-fourth rooms to each colored person and one and one-sixth 
rooms to each white person, in the district outlined. The tenements in 
this district are often occuped jontly by both races and all natonualites 
and the colored tenants are credted by the Health Board with living in 
cleaner rooms and maintaining more favorable sanitary conditions than 
the whites. 

It is well therefore to take these conditions into account when 
comparing Detroit's death rates for the past 15 years with the death 
rates in cities of normal growth. Michigan's growing metropolis, in 
1900, had a Negro death rate off 25.1 per 1,000 population. In 1910 it 
showed at 25.2, which was 0.1 per 1,000, above both the rate for 1900 and 
the average rate for the 33 northern cities in 1910. This slight increase 
can be accounted for, in part at least, by the increase in the male pop- 
ulation of the city over the female population. In 1911, a year in which 
the state rate showed at 22.9 the Detroit rate was 22.8. In 1912 it went 
up slightly to 22.9, and in 1913, with a total of 166 deaths, 104 male and 
62 female, the rate reached 25.9 per 1,000. In 1900 the males of Detroit 
were 48 and the females 52 per cent of the Negro population, while In 
1910 the percentages were reversed. 

Thus the death rate in Detroit in 1900 was for males 28. 8 and for 
females 22.4 per 1,000. In 1910 the male rate was 26.8 per 1,000 and the 
female 23.4. It is to be noted that while the female deaths maintain 
about the same ratio and tne female death rates show at nearly the same 
figure from year to year, the male ratios and death rates vary and In- 
crease as the years change. 

Table 7 shows that the excess per 1,000 population of Negro deaths 
ovpr white deaths in Detroit was over 8 per 1,000 for each of the five 
years, the average being 8.4 and the greatest excess occurring In 1910, 
being 9.4. Detroit, with 26 per cent of the Negro population of the state 
in 1900 and 34 per cent in 1910, had, in 1900, 36 per cent and, in 1910, its 
exact proportion, 34 per cent of the deaths of the state. In 1911, 1912, 
and 1913, Detroit had, respectively, 34, 37, and 40 per cent of the entire 
number of Negro deaths in the state. 

A sustained rate of mortality above 17 in 1,000 population, in general, 
always implies unfavorable sanitary conditions. There being no set law 
of mortality, a careful study of the official figures presented in the accom- 
panying tables, compiled with the "best understanding of local environ- 
ment" may point the way to an improvement both in respect to the pre- 
venion of disease and the prolongation of life in Detroit, "where life is 
worth living." 



340 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

GENERAIi TABLETS. 

Table I shows for the year 1900 and 1910 to 1913, Inclusive, deaths 
by age periods for the State, Detroit and other municipalities having in 
1910 a population of 25,000 or more, and the balance of the state. 

Table II shows for 1911, 1912 and 1913, deaths by age periods for 
certain counties, exclusive of the municipalities situated therein and 
having In 1910 a population of 10,000 or more. 

Table III shows for the years 1911 to 1913, inclusive, deaths by 
cause of death for certain principal diseases for the State, Detroit and 
other municipalities having In 1910 a population of 25,000 or more, and 
the balance of the state. The table also presents like data for the year 
1910 for the State, Detroit and the balance of the state — the data for 
the municipalities designated In this table not being available for that 
year. 

Table IV shows for the years 1911, 1912 and 1913, deaths by caufie 
of death for certain selected counties — exclusive of the municipalities 
situated therein and having in 1910 a population of 10,000 or more. 

Table V shows for the years 1911 to 1913, inclusive, deaths by 
months of occurrence for certain principal diseases for the State, De- 
troit, "other cities" (cities — except Detroit — of 25,000 or more popula- 
tion In 1910), and the balance of the state. 

NOT "SEGREGATION" BUT "SAFETY FIRST" PLANS NEEDED. 

In large measure the difference between the mortality of the Negro 
and Caucasian In this country Is the exact difference in the methods of 
caring for babies, the housing conditions that surround them and tha 
lack of conformity to or compliance with the fixed law of hygiene and 
not the physical traits or tendencies. It has been well said that "the 
laborer can be kept skillful and efficient only as his environment is 
wholesome and strengthening and not weakening and demoralizing." 

It is therefore gratifying to note that a number of large munici- 
palities are awakening to the true condition that confronts them. That 
instead of "segregation laws" what those communities most need are 
sanitation laws, conceived in reason, founded on sociological principles, 
built upon the "safety first" plan and dedicated to the physical trell 
being of the entire community. 

A half century of freedom has given to the world several thousand 
Negro physicians, who are well equipped and ever ready to battle anew 
with death for a long-lived and more efficient people. To one branch, 
the northern wing, of that skilled army, the statistical matter presented 
here Is respectfully dedicated, to the end that a careful study of the 
data may result in such remedies and methods as will serve to lengthen 
the average span of human life. In 1880 this span was thirty years. It 
la now claimed to be nearer 42 years. 

Negro physicians should lead in urging every community to become 
actively Interested in sanitary methods. It is one thing to be success- 
ful in treating sickness and curing disease, but far more profitable to 
the community at large to prevent sickness and baffle disease. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 



341 



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MICHIGAN MANUAL 



TABLE V. 
1911. 



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TABLE V. 
1912. 



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MICHIGAN MANUAL 



TABLE V. 
1913. 



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MICHIGAN MANUAL 




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FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 361 

PROGRAM 

MICHIGAN DAY PROGRAM AT LINCOLN JUBILEE 

AUGUST 26th, 1915. 

Morning, 10:30 O'Clock. 

Band Music — 10:oO to 11:30 1st Regiment K. of V. Band, Chicago 

Michigan, My Michigan Band and Audience 

Invocation Rev. Jos. Evans, Detroit 

Opening Remarlvs President Oscar \V. Baker, Bay City 

Solo Mrs. Maude Harod, Grand Rapids 

Bell's Poem — "The Dawn of Freedom" 

Miss Es'Cobedo Sarreals, Grand Rapids 

Solo Mr. Howard Jefferies, Detroit 

Address — '"Michigan's Traditional Justice". Hon. Edgar A. Plank, Union 
Reading— from Paul Lawrence Dunbar. . .Madam F. E. Preston, Detroit 

Duet Mrs. Maude Harod, Grand Rapids and 

Mr. Thomas Johnson, Detroit 

Address — "Aim and Consequences of the Civil War" 

Mr. Eugene J. Marshall, Kalamazoo 

Reading Mrs. Nellie Stone Lane, Cassopolis 

Solo Miss Alice Mills, Detroit 

Band Selection. 

Close. 

Afternoon— 3:30 to 5:30 O'Clock. 

Band Concert by 1st Regiment K. of V. Band, Chicago. 

Evening — 7:30 O'Clock. 

Michigan, My Michigan Band and Audience 

Invocation Rev. Jos. M. Evans, Detroit 

Music 1st Regiment K. of P. Band, Chicago 

Introduction of Evening Chairman.. Presdent Oscar W. Baker, Bay City 

Address of Chairman Mr. R. C. Barnes, Detroit 

Solo Mr. Thomas Johnson, Detroit 

Address — "Present Status of Michigan Afro- Americans" 

Mr. Francis H. Warren, Detroit 

Solo Miss Alice Mills, Detroit 

Reading Miss Nellie Stone Lane, Cassopolis 

Solo Mr. Howard Jefferies, Detroit 

Duet Mrs. Maude Harod, Grand Rapids and 

Mr. Thomas Johnson, Detroit 

Address — "Education of Afro- Americans" 

Governor Woodbridge N. Ferris. Big Rapids 
America Band and Audifuce 



3G2 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

THE EXPOSITION. 
By Secretary Francis H. Warren. 

Sunday, August 22ncl, 1915, will long be remembered by the thou- 
sands of people who were fortunate enough to gain admission to the 
Coliseum Building, at Chicago, 111., to witness the opening exercises of 
the Lincoln Jubilee. Although these exercises were advertised to begin 
at 3:30 o'clock in the afternoon, every available seat was occupied 
before 2:30 o'clock and the program began at 3:00. 

More than 12,000 people were inside the great building and nearly 
as many more completely filled Wabash Avenue in front of the mam- 
moth structure where National political conventions are held. 

About one hundred of those listing exhibits with the Michigan 
Commission made good and forwarded their exhibits either direct or 
through members of the Commission. Michigan's exhbit was probably 
the largest and most varied of any other state exhibit. On the whole 
a splendid showing has been made and the great Coliseum Building 
was not large enough to hold all of the splendid exhibits of Negro 
handiwork and production. 

There were Negro inventions ranging from shoe polish to wireless 
telegraphy instruments and from cherry pickers to thousand-dollar 
clocks. That the Exposition marks a new era in the nation's onward 
march to a full realization of the Declaration of Independence was the 
unanimous opinion of intelligent observers. 

MICHIGAN DAY. 

On the 26th day of August, 1915, during the progress of the Expo- 
sition of Freedmen's Progress MICHIGAN DAY was celebrated and 
programs of music, literature and speaking were provided for the 
entire day by the Program Committee of the Michigan Commisson. 

There were participants in the programs whose names do not 
appear in the preceding pages. These were Mrs. Maude Jackson Har- 
rod, of Grand Rapids, and Mr. Thomas Johnson, of Detroit, who won 
much praise for their team work in singing, also as soloists; Mr. 
Howard Jeffrey, of Detroit, soloist, was given an ovation, as were 
Miss Alice Mills, soloist, and Mme. Nellie Stone Lane, elocutionist; 
Attorney Delbert Roberts, a former Michigan boy, stirred the morning 
session with a masterful address. Everybody, of course, wanted to 
hear what Governor Woodbridge N. Ferris would say in his address 
Michigan Day evening, as this was the first occasion when the popu- 
lar Governor was to talk to an audience composed chiefly of colored 
people. 

Governor Ferris arrived at the Exposition early in the day and first 
inspected the Michigan Exhibit. Commencing with Inventor McCoy's 
exhibit, he was shown through the various departments by Secretary 
Warren. He was the last on the evening program and prefaced his 
address, which he had reduced to writing, with expressions of high 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 363 

satisfaction with the Michigan Exhibit and paid high tribute to Michi- 
gan's colored population and to the Commission for the profound suc- 
cess attained by the showing made. 

The Governor began his address by reading the following: 

EXTRACT FROM "THE NEGRO." 

By W. E. Burghardt DuBois, Ph.D., Fellow of The American Associ- 
ation Tcr the Advancement of Science, Editor of The Crisis. 

"The Negro was freed as a penniless, landless, naked, ignorant 
laborer. There were a few free Negi-oes who owned property in the 
south, and a larger number who owned property in the north: but 
ninety-nine per cent of the race in the south were penniless field hands 
and servants. 

Today there are two and a half million laborers, the majority of 
whom are efficient wage-earners. Above these are more than a mil- 
lion servants and tenant farmers; skilled and semi-skilled workers 
make another million, and at the top of the economic column are 
600,000 owners and managers of farms and businesses, cash tenants, ofD- 
cials and professional men. This makes a total of 5,192,535 colored 
breadwinners in 1910. 

More specifically these breadwinners include 218,972 farm owners 
and 319,346 cash farm tenants and managers. There were in all 62,755 
miners; 288,141 in the building and hand trades; 28,515 workers in clay, 
glass and stone; 41,739 iron and steel workers; 134,102 employees on 
railways; 62,822 draymen, cab-drivers, and liverymen; 133,245 in whole- 
sale and retail trade; 32,170 in the public service; and 69,471 in pro- 
fessional service, including teachers, 17,495 clergymen, and 4,546 phy- 
sicians, dentists, trained nurses, etc. Finally we must not forget 
2,175,000 Negro homes, with their housewives, and 1,620,000 children 
in school. 

Fifty years ago the overwhelming mass of these people were not 
only penniless but were themselves assessed as real estate. By 1875 
the Negroes pi'obably had gotten hold of something between 2,000,000 
and 4,000,000 acres of land through their bounties as soldiers and the 
low price of land after the war. By 1880 this was increased to about 
6,000,000 acres; in 1890 to about 8,000,000 acres; in 1900 to over 
12,000,000 acres. In 1910 this land had increased td nearly 20,000,000 
acres, a realm as large as Ireland. 

The 120,738 farms owned by Negroes in 1890 increased to 218,972 
in 1910, or eighty-one per cent. The value of these farms increased 
from $179,796,639 in 1900, to $440,992,439 in 1910; Negroes owned in 
1910 about 500,000 homes out of a total of 2,175,000. Their total prop- 
erty in 1900 was estimated at $300,000,000 by the American Economic 
Association. On the same basis of calculation it would be worth today 
not less than $800,000,000. 

Despite the disfranchisement of three-fourths of his voting popu- 
lation, the Negi-o today is a recognized part of the American govern- 
ment. He holds 7,500 ofllces in the executive service of the nation, 
besides furnishing four regiments in the army and a large number of 
sailors. In the state and municipal service he holds nearly 20,000 
other offices, and he furnishes 500,000 of the votes which rule the 
Union. 

In these same years the Negro has relearned the lost art of organ- 
ization. Slavery was the almost absolute denial of initiative and 
responsibilitv. Today Negroes have nearly 40,000 churches, with edi- 
fices worth at least $75,000,000 and controlling nearly 4,000,000 mem- 
bers. Thev raise themselves $7,500,000 a year for these churches. 



364 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

There are two hundred private schools and colleges managed and 
almost entirely supported by Negroes and these and other public and 
private Negro schools have received in 40 years $45,000,000 of Negro 
money in taxes and donations. Five millions a year are raised by 
Negro secret and beneficial societies which hold at least $6,000,000 in 
real estate. Negroes supported wholly or in part over 100 old folks' 
homes and orphanages, 30 hospitals and 500 cemeteries. Their organ- 
ized commercial life is extending rapidly and includes over 22,000 
small retail businesses and 40 banks. 

Above and beyond this material growth has gone the spiritual 
uplift of a great human race. From contempt and amusement they 
have passed to the pity, perplexity and fear on the part of their neigh- 
bors, while within their own souls they have arisen from apathy and 
timid complaint to open protest and more and more manly self-asser- 
tion. Where nine-tenths of them could not read or write in 1860, today 
over two-thirds can; they have 300 papers and periodicals and their 
voice and expression are compelling attention. 

Already in poetry, literature, music and painting the work of 
Americans of Negro descent has gained notable recognition. Instead 
of being led and defended by others, as in the past, American Negroes 
are gaining their own leaders, their own voices, their own ideals. Self- 
realzation is thus coming slowly but surely to another of the world's 
great races, and they are today girding themselves to fight in the van 
of progress, not simply for their own rights as i^ien, but for I're ideals 
of the greater world in which they live; the emancipation of women, 
universal peace, democratic government, tae socialization of wealth, 
and human brotherhood." 

Continuing, Governor Ferris said: 

EDUCATION OF THE AFRO-AMERiCANS. 

This is an age in which the study of human nature assumes vast 
proportions. Two years ago the great nations of the earth ventured to 
dream and talk of permanent peace. Today many of these nations are 
engaged in mortal combat. Already more than 2,000,000 of men, the 
flower of European civilization, have been slaughtered. In money this 
world-war has cost more than $17,000,000,000 and placed a crushing 
burden upon unborn generations. Human sympathy goes out to the 
dead, although their suffering is forever ended. A profounder sympa- 
thy goes out to the women and children, the fathers and mothers who 
survive. The question "will not down," Why this war at the dawm of 
the twenties- century? In the past seventy-five years civilization has 
made greater progress in science and invention than in all the preced- 
ing years since man appeared on the earth. This progress seems to 
have had no deterring influence on the explosion of man's belligerent 
instincts. The leaders of this slaughter of men and destruction of 
property are making their intelligence and so-called culture a more 
effective means in using their brute instincts for conquest and power. 
I use this awful illustration to teach the self-evident lesson that no 
civilization can so much as hope for peace that fails to develop and 
train the neart in connection with the brain and the hand. During 
the past seventy-five years the civilized world has undergone an indus- 
trial revolution. This revolution has exerted a profound influence over 
all the civilized racos of men. Even our educational system has under- 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS "365 

gone radical changes in order that men and women may be taught and 
trained in the art of making a living, not in the gieater art of making 
a life. Money is not only the unit of value in measuring wealth, but 
the unit of value in measuring life. This indu.strial revolution has 
placed its clammy hand upon the home which is the citadel of life, 
liberty and the pursuit of happiness. If a young woman marries, our 
first question is, "Did she do well?" meaning did she marry lands and 
estate, a Napoleon of finance, rather than "Did she marry a man?" 
The cry goes up all over our land, "culture for service," instead of 
"service through culture." Ought we to be surprised at the explosion 
of brute instincts under this tremendous tension? The history of 
mankind shows the world-wide prevalence of race-hatred, which is fre- 
quently disclosed in the effort on the part oi conquerors to enslave the 
conquered. Race hatred is not peculiar to Georgia or any other state 
in the Union. My own State of Michigan for exhibiting this destructive 
force of race hatred is not outdone by states typically southern. 

RACE HATRED IN MICHIGAN. 

Several years ago a young lady arrived at the Ferris Institute on a 
Friday evening. A young lady student escorted her to a boarding 
place. The following Monday morning the landlady of this boarding 
house came to my oflice and demanded an immediate interview. She 
said that she had been insulted. She said that I had sent to her board- 
ing house a colored girl. I confess that the girl was so nearly white 
that I did not for a moment think of her as having African blood in 
her veins. The landlady further said that all of her roomers would 
leave if the colored girl were allowed to remain at her boarding Ijouse. 
I asked if the colored girl roomed alone. Her reply was that she did. 
I said to the landlady that I could not believe that she had reported 
correctly what her girl boarders had said. I asked that she send me 
at noon on Monday a list of the young ladies who would leave her 
boarding house in the event that the colored girl was allowed to stay. 
Monday noon a report came with nearly every name signed to the 
protest. I was obliged to remove the colored girl to a home where 
there were no students boarding, in order that she might attend the 
Ferris Institute. On the following morning I said to the School that 
I supposed I was living in Michigan, but I concluded, after describing 
this experience, that I was living in Louisiana. The Ferris Institute 
is one of the most democratic schools in the Unted States. It has no 
color line; it has no age limit; it has no educational requirements for 
admission. It is open to every man and woman, every boy and girl 
who are hungering for an education. This makes the attitude of the 
girls of this particular boarding house all the more remarkable. For 
some strange reason colored boys can attend the Ferris Institute with- 
out being ostracized. 1 may add that a colored boy never so much as 
attempts to walk from the building to a boarding place with a white 
girl; this the white boys would doubtless resent. I have done every- 
thing in my power to eliminate this race prejudice. Although the 



366 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

school is thirty-one years of age, up to the present hour we have not 
succeeded in maintaining a real democracy. Colored girls are treated 
with a fair degree of respect by the white girls in classes and in regu- 
lar school exercises but in a social function the white girls manage in 
some way to bar out colored girls. lam inclined to think that eastern 
universities, colleges, seminaries and high schools are more demo- 
cratic than similar institutons of the west. 

In "Unity" (a religious paper here in Chicago) under date of Aug- 
ust 19th, a letter by Jenkin Lloyd Jones to Mrs. Ella Flagg Young, 
superintendent of city schools, appears. In his sermon delivered on 
January 10th, 1915, he states that the Chicago papers refused to print 
this letter. In this letter he makes a protest against the recent segre- 
gation of colored lines in the Wendell Phillips High School. In other 
words, Mr. Jenkin Lloyd Jones in the year 1915 in the city of Chicago, 
in the State of Illinois, United States of America, is protesting against 
the same race prejudice that I have described in my own illustration. 
Perhaps I have already said too much about race hatred, or if you 
prefer the milder expression, race prejudice. It seems to me, how- 
ever that we shall not be able to secure for Afro-Americans the edu- 
cational rights, the social rights and the political rights they are enti- 
tled to, without first eliminating in a large measure, race hatred. 

SELFISHNESS CAUSE OF WAR. 

I am glad that I can recall with a fair degree of clearness, the 
Civil War. I cannot help thinking that primarily the Civil War was 
an industrial war. Our people had imitated the nations of long ago in 
exploiting the weaker nations. For more than seventy years prior to 
the Civil War, the enslavement of black men and black women had 
been in practice in the United States. The people of the south believed 
that their industrial success depended upon exploiting the blacks. It 
never occurred to them that there was any other solution of the labor 
problem. This industrial enslavement pushed its tentacles out farther 
and farther as our nation admitted new states. It is my own personal 
belief that the majority of the people of the north bad no more love 
for the colored man than the white people of the south. The white 
people of the north were so situated that they could not exploit to 
advantage, slave labor. The cause, therefore, of the Civil War, was 
essentially bound up in selfishness: in fact selfishness is the general 
name for the cause of all wars. Eliminate selfishness and substitute 
unselfishness and you have the solution of the majority of the world's 
problems. It is true that Garrison, Wendall Phillips, Theodore Parker, 
John Brown and other abolitionists appealed not only to the intelli- 
gence but to the hearts of the American people. The Civil War is 
positively unique in the history of the world. This kind of industrial 
vrar, however, is not peculiar to any one race. This kind of industrial 
war or industrial oppression is carried on even at the dawn of the 
twentieth century, in the United States, the best country in the world. 
I feel confident that the great majority of the citizens of our sister 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 367 

southern states now see that they were wrong in assuming that the 
highest mdustriul results could be secured through s^ e llbor I 
sometimes wonder whom the emancipation proclamation benefited th 
mo -the ...te people of the south, or the colored people of the south 
In this age we are trying to learn the lesson that the corporation or 
group Of workers who in any way rob their employees of thei r ghtfu 
earnings, suffer as much loss as their employees. A large nun bero 
our great industries have in recent years learned the important Indus 
trial lesson that sanitar,^ factories having plenty of sunshinTald pure 
air enaole employees to produce a larger product and at the same Ume 
increase the health and wage of the working men SometL^.T 
der whether the preachers and teachers ha 'elught mTreTnd ZT' 
sanitation, more and better conditions of living thai h^rsome of our 
modern manufacturing plants. 

THE DEMOCRACY OF CHRIST. 

n^.r/v^n''' T I"'' '° ''" '^'' intelligent congregation the story of the 
martyrdom of the colored race in this country. At the close of the war 
the race problem had not been solved; in fact in the last fi ty veirs 
we have not been able to solve this awful problem. The igh of su" 
rage was given to the colored people of this country. I am not go ng 
to discuss the consequences of this inalienable right according to hP 

j:r chH^t";!;:"^^'""^ ^-^^ ^--^^^^ - the^rmocUVo 

Jesu. Christ. I hope we have made some progress in the past fiftv 
years as regards our national treatment of the colored race It is 
humihating for me to say that up to the present hour in aU of ou 
southern states containing large numbers of the colored race, he righ 
Of suffrage zs practically ignored. When the war closed, there were 

rZTV '"' '""' "'""^"-^ ^' ^°'^^^^ P-P>- '- the United Stltes 

Toda> there are in all probability ten or eleven millions of colored 
people m the United States. If i read the signs of the times corr c h 
there seems to be no larger degree of willingness to give the ten «; 
eleven millions their rights than there was to give the three or Jou 
milhons the.r rights. It is true that the labor of the colored man can 
no longer be exploited as it was formerly exploited. I dare not so mucS 

I do'^know". "'" V^''' ^'^"^^ '^ ^^'"^ ^« »>^ ^-"^ht about: 
I do know, however, that the colored people will continue to be an 

important part of the population of the United States. I do know tha" 

there IS not the faintest possibility that the colored people .Ml be 

deported to Africa or to some far-off country. I do know tha ,h^ pro^ 

re s Of the white people is quite as dependent upon the progresrofthe 

re s^ottr'^r " ''' '^'"••^" ^^ *'^ ^^'^^^^ P-P'^ upon the prog 
ress of the white people. 

OLD THEORY EXPLODED. 
Another important factor is recognized by anthropologists everv- 
where. Formerly it was supposed that the different races differed 
largely ,n their natural inheritance of brain power and brain capacitv 



368 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

Today anthropologists are agreed that the supposed extraordinary dif- 
ferences do not exist. The character of a human being's hair, the 
color of his eyes, the contour of his face do not indicate extraordinary 
differences of brain possibilities. I'he truth of the matter is, the color 
of the sKin of different races is largely due to the actinic light ray. 
Fifty years of Negro education has done much toward convincing both 
the north and the south that the Negro possesses a remarkable capa- 
city for education. The story of Negro education during the past fifty 
years reads almost like a fairy tale. This story, considering the pre- 
vious condition of the Negro, has already starteled the world. The 
illiteracy of the colored race has been cut down to forty-five per cent. 
The early educational effort in this field was distinctively religious. 
Denominational institutions, however, are becoming a waning factor in 
the education of the colored race. You are all familiar with the heroic 
and gigantic work of Booker T. Washington. It is true that he has not 
solved this race problem. Booker T. Washington has devoted an im- 
mense amount of time and energy to industrial education. There are 
philanthropists and statesmen who think that the Negro should be 
given occupational training, and education; that he should be simply 
taught to earn a living. This position is not strikingly strange at a 
time when the education of the whites is undergoing a revolution. In 
this money-loving age vocational education is commanding an immense 
amount of attention. In the light of what I said in the first part of my 
address, it ought to be clear to most thinkers that the education of the 
hand is not sutiicient unto salvation. The tendency in modern educa- 
tion is to crowd literature and the classics (so-called) into the back- 
ground. To be perfectly frank about the matter, we measure educa- 
tional values with a monetary unit. It is not my purpose to belittle the 
importance of earning a living. Beyond a doubt this requirement is 
a primary advantage, but there is no good reason why a lad should 
not learn to think; why a lad should not learn to acquire the fine art 
of living. The man who is so enthusiastic over the number of bushels 
of apples he can gather from his orchard that he fails to appreciate 
the beauty and the perfume of the blossoms, is indeed a sorry spec- 
tacle. In other words earning a living that is devoid of enjoyment, 
that is devoid of sentiment, is indeed a failure. If when a girl learns 
domestic science in a high school she is at the same time aroused to 
an apprecation of what she owes her mother and her sisters through 
this acquisition, then she is indeed getting the highest benefit that can 
be offered through the agency of that particular kind of education. 
If the girl in learning to successfully scrub a floor insists on putting 
her knowledge into practice in the home, while her mother plays rag- 
time on the piano, she is indeed a beautiful product of practical educa- 
tion. I commend most heartily the magnificent work of Booker T. 
Washington. He is training men and women to become useful and 
indispensao.vi in the great industrial world. DuBois adds to Booker 
T. Washington's program a higher claim. If I understand him, he 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 369 

would never fail, even in a country school to pive the boys and girls 
an rppreciation oi the poetry, music and painting of the masters. Take 
out of life its poetry its music, its painting, its drama and there is 
little left that is worth while. When I appeal for the elixir of life in 
educaium I am not sirply advocating the rights of the colored child, 
but the inalienable rights of every child, regardless of race, color, or 
previous conditions. The achievements of the colored race during the 
past fifty years along industrial lines is, as I have already indicated, a 
suflicient achievement to make any race famous. In spite of the 
social and governmental handicaps, the Negro race has succeeded in 
professional pursuits. I quote from Kelly Miller: 

"Fifty thousand Negroes who now fill the professional places 
among their race represent a remarkable body of men and indicate 
the potency and promise ot the race." According to tlic federal census 
of 1900, the Negroes engaged in productive and distributive pursuits 
are as follows: 

Agriculture 2,14?.,2.">4 

Domestic and personal service 1,317,859 

Trade and transportation 208,989 

Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits 275,116 

Total ^.945.218 

Negroes engaged in professional service, 190(i. 

Clergymen ir),52S 

Physicians and surgeons 1,734 

l")entists 212 

Lawyers 72S 

Teachers 21,267 

Musicians and teachers of music 3.915 

Architects, designers and drauiihlsiiien 52 

Actors, professional showmen 2,020 

Artists and teachers of art 236 

Klectricians l'<5 

Engineers and surveyors 12o 

.Journalists 2H> 

Literary and scientific persons !'!• 

CJovernment officials 645 

Others in professional service ... 268 

Total t7.i;i'' 

According to this report on1\ «)ne N»'grc worker li\ >- 1 is »'n,:;a.i:i(l 
in professional pursuits, wiierpas one white person in 2o is found in 
this class. I?eyond a shadow of a doubt the q»iick<'ning of the jiff of 
the colored race depends largr-ly upon the protessional class. 'IMiis 
piece of remarkable history demonstrates that the highest (>du<:ilinn 
of the Negro is jufstified in the requinMiients of the ieadiM's of thi' p'"p 
pie. 



370 MICHIGAN MANUAL 

I have not dwelt on the monetary feature of the race problem, 
because I am convinced that even if it could be shown that industrially 
the Negro race is far more prosperous than (he white race, race preju- 
dice or race hatred would continue to exist. This remarkable congre- 
gation celebrating the Half-Century of Negro Freedom would not ex- 
pect any white man to expound education more clearly than has Kelly 
Miller, one of your own number. Listen to some of his declarations: 

I. "Educaton has two differentiable functions: (1) to develop and 
perfect the human qualities of the individual, as a personality, and (2) 
to render him a willing and competent participant, as an instrumen- 
tality in the federation of the world's work." 

II. "If we keep clearly in mind the two-fold development of a man 
as an instrumentality and as a personality, we shall, thereby get a 
clear understanding of the relative place and importance of the so- 
called practical and liberal education. The essential immediate aim 
of industrial education is to develop man as an instrumentality. The 
chief end of the so-called liberal education is to develop man as a per- 
sonality. These tAvo features are not antagonistic nor mutually exclu- 
sive, but are joint factors of a common product. The industrial advo- 
cates would claim that their ultimate aim is the development of a man 
as a personality through instrumentality. The higher education pre- 
sumes instrumentality as a corrollary of personality." 

III. "The true end of education is to develop man, the average 
man, as a self-conscious personality. This can be done not by impart- 
ing information to the mind or facility to the fingers, but felicity to the 
feelings and inspiration to the soul. Develop the man; the rest will fol- 
low. The final expression of education is not in terms of discipline, 
culture, efficiency service, or specific virtues, but in terms of manhood, 
which is the substance and summation of them all. The whole is 
greater than any of its parts." 

IV. "Any scheme of education which is focused upon special edu- 
cational prepai-ation, M'ithout a broader basis of appeal, is as ineffectual 
as to substitute symptomatic for systematic treatment in therapeutics." 

V. "To make bricklayers men is a hundredfold more difficult than 
to make men bricklayers: for if there be men they will make bricks, 
even without straw, if bricks must needs be made. Consciousness of 
per-sonality energizes all of the faculties and powers and gives them 
facility and adaptabilty as nothing else can do. The wise procedure 
is to develop personality, which easily results in efficient instru- 
mentality." 

VI. "Some of our educational theories would educate people only 
fur the factory and charity organizations. All else is regarded as sel- 
fish or unworthy gratification. Banish from the world all literature, 
poetry, music, art, architecture, and the beauties of flowers and th'" 
glories of tue sky; take all sculpture from the mantels and pictures 
from the walls; put under ban the .graces and charms of pleasurable 
intercourse and social satisfaction — and a man becomes a little more 
ihan thi' wild savages of thf^ forest. A comprehensive scheme of edu- 
cation therefori-. must give scope ;ind play for exercise of the many 
sided features of manhood. It n)ust involve- discipline, initiative, oil- 
lure, personal and altruistic service and rational enjoyment." 

VII. "It (an be seen that human values are but the various oui- 
^ivings of manhood. .Man is more than industry, trade, commerce, 
politics, government, science, art, literature or religion, all of which 
;;row out of his inherent needs and necessities. The fundamental aim 
of education, therefore, shottld be manhood rather than mechanism. 



FREEDMEN'S PROGRESS 371 

Tlie ideal is noi, a working uum, but a man working; not a busiuebE 
man, but a man doing business; not a school man, but a man teachinK 
■school; not a statesman, but a man handling the affairs of state; noi 
a medicine man, but a man practicing medicine; not a clergyman, but 
a man devoted to the things of the soul." 

No white man has more clearly defined the needs of education. 

If the colored race will follow this philosophy, they will ultimatel\ 
find their way into a neAv world, where race piejudice and race hatred 
will grow less and less. My people, if I may so use the term, are quite 
as much in need of this philosophy as are the colored race. Personally 
I abhor the discussion of men and women as white, black yellow, brown 
or red. \\ hen character presents itself there ought not to be any occa- 
.sion to talk about races. When the races co-operate in their efforts to 
-secure "equal rights for all, and special privileges for none," there will 
be no prejudice against a congressman or other office-holder whatever 
race he may represent. 1 care not who points the way for the makinj: 
of a life. The worthy follower of the Master always emphasizes his 
life in co-operation. Under existing conditions in the United States, 
the ninety millions of whites cannot prosper in the highest and best 
sense without a corresponding prosperity of the ten or eleven millions 
of Afro-Americans. I realize that my dream cannot come true for pos- 
sibly hundreds of years. I am even longing for the time to come when 
the whole world will be so related that the prosperity of one nation 
means tne prosperity of every other nation; Avhen a real brotherhood 
shall have been established on the rarth. 

We have tried the philosophy of hatred, of war and up to the 
present hour the nations of the earth have never tried the philosophy 
of peace and brotherhood. I admit that human nature needs to 
undergo important changes. If this were not tnie, there would be no 
occasion to discuss education. 

It has sometimes been hinted that when the eleven million.s of 
Afro-Americans have become fifty millions or a hundred millions, then 
the problem of political and social equality will be settled by war. I 
refuse to accept this hint at the hands of any alarmist, because so long 
as we have in our race men who see clearly the mission of Jesu.*; 
Christ, such a satastrophe is imiiossible. Love as taught and lived by 
Jesus Christ offers the final solution of all the problems for all the 
races of the world.